Basel1 & 2


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Basel1 & 2

  1. 1. The Significance of Basel 1 and Basel 2 for the Future of The Banking Industry with Special Emphasis on Credit Information
  2. 2. This presentation examines the significance of Basel 1 and Basle 2 for the future of the banking industry. Both accords promote safety and soundness in the financial system with Basel 2 utilize approaches to capital adequacy that are appropriately sensitive to the degree of risk involved in a banks’ positions and activities.. Abstract
  3. 3. The soundness of the banking system is one of the most important issues for the regulatory authorities. Q 1 How should banking “soundness” be defined and measured? Q 2 What should be the minimum level of soundness set by regulators? Introduction
  4. 4. The soundness of a bank can be defined as the likelihood of a bank becoming insolvent. The lower this likelihood the higher is the soundness of a bank. Bank capital essentially provides a cushion against failure. If bank losses exceed bank capital the bank will become capital insolvent. Thus, the higher the bank capital the higher is the solvency of a bank
  5. 5. LEVERAGE RATIO = CARITAL TOTAL ASSETS The larger this ratio, the larger is the cushion against failure The problem with the previous ratio is that it doesn’t distinguish between the assets according to its risks. The asset risk of a bank can increase and the capital can stay the same if the bank satisfies the minimum leverage ratio Up until the 1990s bank regulator based their capital adequacy policy principally on this simple leverage ratio
  6. 6. In 1988 the Basel committee introduced the Basel 1 accord to deal with the weaknesses in the leverage ratio as a measure for solvency. The definition of capital is set in two tiers: Tier 1 : being shareholders’ equity and retained earnings Tier 2 : being additional internal and external resources available to the bank A portfolio approach was taken to the measure of risk, with assets classified into four buckets (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%) according to the debtor category
  7. 7. According to the Basel accord the risk-based capital ratio can be measured as: Risk-Based Capital Ratio = CARITAL Risk-Adjusted Assets Over time the accord has become internationally accepted with more than 100 countries applying the Basel framework to their banking system
  8. 8. <ul><li>After ten years, many weaknesses appear in the Basel 1 accord : </li></ul><ul><li>Because of a flat 8% charge for claims on the private sector, banks have an incentive to move high quality assets off the balance sheet through securitization. Thus, reducing the average quality of bank loan portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>The accord do not take into consideration the operational risk of banks, which become increasingly important with the increase in the complexity of bank activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The accord does not sufficiently recognize credit risk mitigation techniques, such as collateral and guarantees </li></ul>
  9. 9. • Promote safety and soundness in the financial system • Enhance competitive equality • Constitute a more comprehensive approach to addressing risks • Develop approaches to capital adequacy that are appropriately sensitive to the degree of risk involved in a banks’ positions and activities • Focus on internationally active banks, and at the same time keep the underlying principles suitable for application to banks of varying levels of complexity and sophistication. Basel II objectives
  10. 10. Risk-Based CARITAL Capital Ratio Credit Risk+ Market Risk+ Operational Risk Main Characteristics of the New Accord Basel II consists of three pillars: 1. Minimum capital requirement. 2. Supervisory review process. 3. Market discipline
  11. 11. 1 Minimum capital requirement The first pillar deals with maintenance of regulatory capital calculated for three major components of risk that a bank faces: credit risk , operational risk and market risk .
  12. 12. standardized approach: exposures to various types of counter parties, e.g. sovereigns, banks and corporates , will be assigned risk weights based on assessments by external credit assessment institutions. To make the approach more risk sensitive an additional risk bucket (50%) for corporate exposures will be included. Further, certain categories of assets have been identified for the higher risk bucket (150%).
  13. 13. The foundation approach subject to adherence to rigorous minimum supervisory requirements Estimates of additional risk factors to calculate the risk weights would be derived through the application of standardized supervisory rules . The advance approach banks that meet even more rigorous minimum requirements will be able to use a broader set of internal risk measures for individual exposures.
  14. 14. 2 Supervisory Review Process The second pillar deals with the regulatory response to the first pillar, giving regulators much improved 'tools' over those available to them under Basel I. It also provides a framework for dealing with all the other risks a bank may face, such as systemic risk , pension risk , concentration risk , strategic risk , reputation risk , liquidity risk and legal risk , which the accord combines under the title of residual risk. It gives banks a power to review their risk management system.
  15. 15. 3 Market Discipline The third pillar greatly increases the disclosures that the bank must make. This is designed to allow the market to have a better picture of the overall risk position of the bank and to allow the counterparties of the bank to price and deal appropriately.
  16. 16. <ul><li>3. Measuring Credit Risk and Credit Information requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>The Standardized approach for credit risk </li></ul><ul><li>in the standardized approach The bank allocates a risk- </li></ul><ul><li>Weight to each of its assets and off-balance-sheet </li></ul><ul><li>positions and produces a sum of risk-weighted asset value </li></ul><ul><li>A risk weight of 100% means that an exposure is included </li></ul><ul><li>in the calculation of risk weighted assets at its full </li></ul><ul><li>Value, which translates into a capital charge equal to </li></ul><ul><li>8% of that value Similarly, a risk weigh of 20% results in </li></ul><ul><li>a capital charges of 1.6% </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Under Basel. Individual risk weights depend on the board </li></ul><ul><li>Category of borrower </li></ul><ul><li>under Basel 2. the risk weights are to be refined by reference to a rating provided by an external credit </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment institution that meet strict standards. </li></ul><ul><li>For example for corporate lending, the existing Accord </li></ul><ul><li>Provides only one risk weigh category of 100% but the </li></ul><ul><li>New Accord will provide four categories (20%,50%,100%150%) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Operational requirements for the standardized approach: </li></ul><ul><li>In standardized approach, supervisor and banks are </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for evaluating the methodologies used by </li></ul><ul><li>External credit assessment institutions and the quality of </li></ul><ul><li>The ratings produced. </li></ul><ul><li>They will use some criteria in Recognizing ECAIs as; </li></ul><ul><li>objectivety,independence,transparencey resources and </li></ul><ul><li>credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The assessments must be applied consistently for both risk </li></ul><ul><li>Weighting and risk management purposes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Internal ratings-based approach: </li></ul><ul><li>The IRB approach provides a similar treatment for </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate, bank and separate framework for retail. </li></ul><ul><li>The treatment is based on three main elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Risk components </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-weight function </li></ul><ul><li>Set of minimum requirements that a bank must meet to be </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible for IRB treatment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Risk Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Most banks base their rating methodologies on the risk of </li></ul><ul><li>Borrower default and typically assign a borrower to a </li></ul><ul><li>Rating grade. A bank would then estimate the probability </li></ul><ul><li>Of default(PD)associated with borrowers in each of these </li></ul><ul><li>Internal grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks measure also how much they will lose if default </li></ul><ul><li>Occur, this will depend on how much per unit it is </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to recover from the borrower if recoveries are </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient to cover this will give rise to loose given </li></ul><ul><li>The default(LGD) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Risk-Weight Function: </li></ul><ul><li>IRB risk weights are expressed as a single continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Function of : </li></ul><ul><li>THE PD,LGD,M </li></ul><ul><li>This function provides a mechanism by which the risk </li></ul><ul><li>Components converted into regulatory risk weights. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The function of the risk weight can be defined as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation (R) 0.10 1- EXP(-50 PD) / 1 EXP( 50)+ </li></ul><ul><li>0.20 [1 (1 EXP( 50 PD))/(1 EXP( 50))] </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity factor (M) = 1+ .047× ((1- PD)/PD.44 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital requirement (K) = LGD×M× N[(1− R)−.5 ×G(PD) + (R/(1− R)).5 ×G(.999)] </li></ul><ul><li>EXP= stands for the natural exponential function </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>N= stands for the standard normal distribution function </li></ul><ul><li>G=stands for the inverse standard normal cumulative distribution function </li></ul><ul><li>It allows for greater risk differention and accommodates the different rating grade structures . </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>The soundness of the banking system is one of the most </li></ul><ul><li>important issues for the regulatory authorities and for </li></ul><ul><li>the financial system stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Banks should start the preparation process for the </li></ul><ul><li>implementation of the new accord by reviewing the </li></ul><ul><li>requirements it satisfy, the requirements need to </li></ul><ul><li>attain based on the chosen approaches. </li></ul>