• Constantine’s Toleration to State religion• French revolution• Industrial revolution• Karl Marx• Catholic Social Teachings
focus Making the Gospel responsive toDignity of the the challengeshuman person of the timeand hisinalienablerights
SEE There are three stages which should normally be followed in the reduction of social principles into practice. . . expressed in the three terms:JUDGE see, judge, act. Mater et Magistra, 263ACT
SEE Seeing, hearing, andexperiencing the lived reality of individuals and communities
What are the causes of the situation?SEE What are the consequences? What are the people’s reactions, motives and mentalities?
Social Analysis This involves the evaluation of the facts we have gatheredJUDGE in the light of the Scriptures and the teachings of the Church Theological Reflection
Is what is happening consistent with Christian and human values?JUDGE Is it contributing to Gods plan to build His Kingdom of love, peace and justice? Are they, human, truly Christian?
Planning and carrying outACT actions aimed at transforming the social structures that contribute to suffering and injustice
What active response am I to make?ACT Is my action educative for me, and for others? Did I change the situation and the way people think?
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION SUMMARY Human persons are willed by God; they areTAKE THE CHALLENGE imprinted with Gods image. Their dignity does not come from the work they do, but from the persons they are. REFLECTION Centessimus Annus, 11
HAVING vs. Being • Measured by what I have • Attitude is to accumulate or possess • Everything is based on utility • Believes in the gospel of secularism
Having vs. BEING• Characterized by who I am• Attitude is to develop one‟s potentials• Everything is based on self-actualization• Professes the gospel of the Kingdom
The natural worth of a person as a creature formed in the image and likeness of GodThe dignity of the human personis inviolable and inalienable…
The basic truth about the person• Created by God out of love• Created in the image and likeness of God• Gifted with freedom• Redeemed by Christ
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION SUMMARY A well-ordered human society requires that men recognize and observe their mutual rights and duties. It also demands that eachTAKE THE CHALLENGE contribute generously to the establishment of a civic order in which rights and duties are more sincerely and effectively acknowledged REFLECTION and fulfilled. Pacem in Terris, 29
Moral claims by a person to some good of thephysical or spiritual order which is necessary for proper humandevelopment and dignity
These are moral claims that we can make on others based on our human dignity.
• Protect the person’s true value as a subject, not an object• Guarantee that the person will not be impeded in seeking his or her goal
Where can I find these?1. Pacem in Terris n. 8-272. Universal Declaration of Human Rights3. Bill of Rights (Article III of the Philippine Constitution)
What is the distinction? I need these to live I want these to live comfortablyA child has the right to study in De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde.
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION SUMMARY Work remains a good thing, not only because it isTAKE THE CHALLENGE useful and enjoyable, but also because it expresses and increases the workers dignity. Through work we not only transform the world, REFLECTION we are transformed ourselves, becoming "more a human being." Laborem Exercens, #9
The basic truth is . . . The person has DIGNITY! created by God in his own image to live life to the full
This results in. . . RATIONALITY CREATIVITY Purposeful actions Abilities and capacities
Again. . . The person as IMAGE OF GOD RATIONALITY CREATIVITY capacity for self- make something determination for something
Product goes back to the workersPerson is ableto express hisuniquenessand freedom Person uses his Other people share their creativity abilities and capacities
Product goes back to the workersPerson is able tosatisfy his needsand others’ fulfilled!needs tooPerson isfulfilled! Person uses his Other people share their creativity abilities and capacities
a vision of becoming a certain kind of individual“work for” (one’s expression of his or her self-actualization)other people for theattainment of thecommon good “work with”(mutual satisfactionof their needs)
“work for” SELF-FULFILLMENTPARTICIPATION in the “work with” COMMON GOOD
Person is alienated! BUSINESS OWNER
Labor has priority over capital.. Subjective Objective
Objective dimension How does the product of work express the person’s uniqueness? The instruments of work The fruit of one’s work
Subjective dimension The person as the basis or subject of work “does he experience a certain level of fulfillment in working?” What happens to the person working?
Subjective ObjectiveDa Vinci is affirmed Externalization orbecause his objectification of thecreativity has been person’s nature (hisrecognized capacities and abilities)He is an artist(functional) Other people admire this painting Their need for aesthetics has been satisfied
“BEING” Subjective“HAVING” ObjectiveYou cannot “be” unless you first “have.”
What is your basis?The value of work is not measured on the kind of work, but on the person who does the work
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY In teaching us charity, the Gospel instructs us inTAKE THE CHALLENGE the preferential respect due to the poor and the special situation they have in society: the more fortunate should renounce some of their rights so REFLECTION as to place their goods more generously at the service of others. Octogesima Adveniens, 23
POVERTYAbsolute poverty Relative poverty primary basic needs involves how national such as food, income is distributed clothing, home, among the levels of health, are not met society
3 % are the wealthy and usually have the power17 % are the middle class who can meet morethan their needs (relatively rich) 40 % have just enough and so they can meet their basic needs though they are always in danger of suffering from absolute poverty if a disaster strikes them 40 % suffer from absolute poverty and cannot maintain a proper life and have little chance to be freed from this condition
Who are the poor?Economically,they are those who haveinsufficient resources to live adecent life
Who are the poor?Politically,they are those who are victimsof social structures
Who are the poor?Culturally, they are those who aremarginalized because of theirstatus, race, sex, age, orreligion
Jesus tells us . . .“The spirit of the Lord has been given to me. He has sent me to bring the good news to the poor, to proclaim liberty to captives and to the blind new sight, to set the downtrodden free, to proclaim the Lord’s year of favor.”
Jesus commands us . . .• Feed the Christian Each hungry• Give drinkmake thirsty must to the a• choicethe naked the Clothe to lift up• Shelter the homeless poor and• Visit the sick disadvantaged in• Visit the imprisoned• Bury the real and very dead concrete ways!
Preferential Option for the Poor to create conditions for marginalized voices to be heard, to defend the defenseless, and to assess lifestyles, policies and social institutions in terms of their impact on the poor.
Preferential Option for the Poor Why is it never optional?The poor have a harder time experiencinghumanization, so Christians must imitate their Master who humanizes.
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION Solidarity helps us to see the „other‟ – whether SUMMARY a person, people of nation-not just some kind of instrument, with a work capacity and physical strength to be exploited at low costTAKE THE CHALLENGE and then discarded when no longer useful, but as our „neighbor‟ a „helper‟, to be made a sharer, on par with ourselves, in the banquet of REFLECTION life to which all are equally invited by God” Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 39
a firm and perseveringdetermination to commit oneself to the common good
I have dignity, and so too doothersI need to help them behumanized
Person is a social being whocan only grow in relation withothers uniting oneself with other people
solidarity with the oppressedIncarnation of compassion
Promoting justice and peace.
Providing opportunities for the marginalized.
Fighting for theoppressed.
Loving others as Christwould.
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY It is imperative that no one ... would indulge in a merely individualistic morality. The best way to fulfill ones obligations of justice and love is toTAKE THE CHALLENGE contribute to the common good according to ones means and the needs of others, and also to promote and help public and private REFLECTION organizations devoted to bettering the conditions of life. Gaudium et Spes, 30
embraces the sum total of all those conditions of social life which enableindividuals, families, and organizations to achieve complete and effective fulfillment Mater et Magistra, #74
I have so too dodignity others
neglects other neglects the people individual balancesINDIVIDUALISM COLLECTIVISM
Shared dignity“I have dignity, and so too doothers.”
A means that can lead to one‟sperfectionAn opportunity to be self-actualized
Everybody must have an opportunity to actualize himself or herself
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION SUMMARY Individual initiative alone and the mere free play of competition could never assure successfulTAKE THE CHALLENGE development. One must avoid the risk of increasing still more the wealth of the rich and the dominion of the strong, whilst leaving the poor in REFLECTION their misery and adding to the servitude of the oppressed. On the Development of Peoples, 33
Development Moving towards something People have been given thetask of developing themselves fully
Tribal Agricultural IndustrialPeople utilize their environment to satisfy their needs
Tribal Agricultural Industrial But only a few get to have, many have not.
Industrial Revolution But why has the problem of the gap between the rich and the poor worsened?
ECONOMIC?Development Only a few people “HAVE” But do they actually reach “BEING”? Example: CONSUMERISM
Development + ValuesGives a certain order or purpose An abundance of opportunities for everyone
“For every person’s success, others too must progress.” Development + Values
AUTHENTIC HUMAN Development Geared towards the cultivation and enhancement of the full human potentials
AUTHENTICHUMAN Development Must include political, social and cultural development and should promote the good of all persons
AUTHENTICHUMAN DevelopmentDevelopmentwith a human face
Authentic Human Development asks…• What does the economy do for people?• What does it do to the people?• How do people participate in it?
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY The right to private property is subordinated toTAKE THE CHALLENGE the right to common use, to the fact that goods are meant for everyone. REFLECTION Laborem Exercens, 14
entails obligations on how goods are to be used by their legitimate owners. Individual persons may not use theirresources without considering the effects that this use will have, rather they must act in a way that benefits no only themselves and their family but also the common good.
Creation is a gift from God X entrusted to people. As such, people should respect this gift“Being” and utilize it in the most efficient and effective way possible. X“Having” X
The goods of the earth are for “Being” the use of everyone in order to satisfy their inalienable rights“Being” consonant with the dignity of each person “Being”“Having” “Being”
Self-actualizationUNIVERSAL DESTINATION OF GOODS COMMON GOODRight to private property Right to private property
Humanity should seek to maximize the benefit of the earth‟s goods and resources so that the maximum number of people can benefit from the output. Right to private property Right to private property
If people are denied the goods of the earth. . . . . .. . . How can they live in the dignity accorded to them by their Maker?. . . Will this not go to another who has enough?. . . Where does they get the soil to till?. . . How can they eat, and feed and clothe and shelter their family?. . . How can they share the goods of the earth?. . . How can they contribute in shaping the life of their community?. . . How can they shape their own destiny?. . . How can they feel the goodness of life?. . . How can they know the goodness of man?. . . How can they dream of eternity?. . . How can YOU tell them of God when they does not see God in you…
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY "A community of a higher order should not interfere with the life of a community of a lowerTAKE THE CHALLENGE order, taking over its functions." In case of need it should, rather, support the smaller community and help to coordinate its activity with activities REFLECTION in the rest of society for the sake of the common good. Centessimus Annus, 48
This principle seeks to establishand maintain a balance betweenindividual initiativeand governmentalassistance and direction.
The state should intervene only whenlesser bodies cannot fulfil a given task required by the common good
Negative form Help is withheld calls on "a community of a higher order to notinterfere with the life of a community of a lower order, taking over its functions" CA, 48
Negative form Help is withheld those on top should avoid imposing actions tothose below to promote autonomy and initiative to make the latter more creative andresponsible stakeholders for the common good
Positive form Help is given only justified if it is essential to “support thesmaller community and help to coordinate itsactivity with activities in the rest of society for the sake of the common good” CA, 48
Positive form Help is givenonly in cases where those below cannot carryout the abovementioned should those on top intervene for the sake of the common good
the ones at the top must notinterfere in what can be done at the lowest level
enhancement of person’s capacity for self-determination choice of the kind of life he or she wants to liverecognition of the person’sautonomy
OBJECTIVES SCRIPTURAL TEXT EXPOSITION SUMMARY Material goods and the way we are developing the use of them should be seenTAKE THE CHALLENGE as Gods gifts to us. They are meant to bring out in each one of us the image of God. We must never lose sight of how we have been REFLECTION created: from the earth and from the breath of God. On Social Concern, 29
The whole of creation is for humanity, whohas a duty to care for it
People have the responsibility todevelop and perfect itby intelligent effort for their use
ClimateChange extent ofdescribes the fullthe greenhouse effectresults in extremeweather events likedroughts, flood, cyclones and frosts
Climate Change andpeople Industrialized countries releasing greenhouse gases
Climate Change andpeoplePoor countries mired in debt and poverty lackresources to adapt to climate change1. Lack of technologies to slow down or to adapt toclimate change irrigation during droughts flood control and rescue operations during heavy rains
Climate Change andpeoplePoor countries mired in debt and poverty lackresources to adapt to climate change2. Relocation for residents in flood-prone areas
Climate Change andpeoplePoor countries mired in debt and poverty lackresources to adapt to climate change3. Acquisition and construction of clean and renewable sources of energy solar-powered panels wind-generated turbines hydro-electric plants
Climate Change andpeoplePoor countries mired in debt and poverty lackresources to adapt to climate change4. Lack of funds for research and medicine to counter the diseases associated with climate change
Respect forthe order innature
Realization that: nature cannot be used with impunity natural resources are limited, some notrenewable
UniversalDestination of Stewardship Goods generosity responsibility
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY Action on behalf of justice and participation in the transformation of the world fully appear to usTAKE THE CHALLENGE as a constitutive dimension of the preaching of the Gospel, or, in other words, of the Churchs mission for the redemption of the human race REFLECTION and its liberation from every oppressive situation. Justice in the World, 6
The Jubilee Year Celebrated every 50 years Demands: a) Freedom of slaves b) Return of the land/property c) Cancellation of debts d) Rest of land
Is Jubilee Year fair Was the ownerto the creditors? unfair to his laborers?
Old TestamentTo practice grace and mercy toward those who have no power to secure it for themselves
Old Testament“You have all seen what I did to the Egyptians, andhow I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself”
New Testament As Christ has loved us, so should we love one another
New Testament “What you have done to the least of your brothers, you have done to me.”
giving what is due to othersmoral virtue that consists in the constantand firm will to give their due to God and neighbor. CCC, 1807
giving what is due to others“ius” = “right” Right to a MEANINGFUL life
justice between two or moreparties based on anagreement between1. individuals (laborer’s wage)2. an individual and a group (teacher to class)3. two groups (trade agreement)
Calls for fundamentalfairness in allagreements andexchanges betweenindividuals or privatesocial groups EJA, 69
justice of sharing that sees to the fair and equal distribution ofthe goods of creation so that human needs are met (welfare programs, student loans, putting up a business)
Requires that the allocation of income, wealth, andpower in society be evaluated in light of its effectson persons whose basic material needs are unmet. EJA, 70
justice which regulates a citizen’sobligations to the larger societyand government (common good) (voting, paying taxes)
it stresses the duty of allwho are capable to helpcreate the goods, servicesand other nonmaterial orspiritual values necessaryfor the welfare of the wholecommunity. JW, 71
ve Co uti nt rib ri st bu Di tiv e Commutativejustice which applies the gospel to the structures, systems,and laws of a society so that people’s rights are guaranteed
ve Co uti nt rib ri st bu Di tiv e CommutativeImplies that persons have an obligation to be activeand productive participants in the life of society andthat society has a duty to enable them to participatein this way. EJA,71
OBJECTIVES EXPOSITION SCRIPTURAL TEXT SUMMARY “With greater or lesser violence, with greater orTAKE THE CHALLENGE lesser harm, every sin has repercussions on the entire ecclesial body and the whole human family.” REFLECTION Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 16
Social Sin Defined:Situations or structures of society which cause or support evil, or
Social Sin Defined:Situations or structures of society which cause us to fail to correct evils and injustices when it is possible to do so.
Social Sin Defined: Sum total of negative factors which prevent the attainment of the common good
Structures whichsystematically oppress human dignity and violate human rights, stifle human freedom and imposes gross inequality between the rich and poor
Situations whichpromote and facilitate greed and human selfishness
Attitude of persons who do not take responsibility for evil being done or who silently allowoppression and injustice
“The poverty and destitution ofthe great mass of our people areonly too evident, contrastingsharply with the wealth andluxury of the relatively fewfamilies - the elite top of oursocial pyramid. “ PCP II, 24
Social Sin: some examples• Colonialism • Pornography• Racism • Migrants• Sexism • Oil Cartels• Trapo System • Illegal Drugs• Child Labor • Arms Race