Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Relative Clauses
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Relative Clauses

14,748

Published on

A brief description of Relative clauses for ESL students

A brief description of Relative clauses for ESL students

5 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
14,748
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
92
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,201
Comments
5
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. RELATIVE (ADJECTIVE) CLAUSES
  • 2. Relative Clauses are formed by joining 2 sentences. They provide information about a noun / name: - “Peter is the student”+ “He comes from Glasgow”: “Peter is the student WHO comes from Glasgow”. - “The books are on the table” + “They are mine”: “The books WHICH are on the table are mine”. - “I’ve just met Tom” + “Tom seems to be a nice guy”: “I’ve just met Tom, WHO seems to be a nice guy” - “I’d love to visit London”+ “It is a beautiful city”: - “I’d love to visit London, WHICH is a beatiful city”
  • 3. Remember: When we join 2 sentences with a Relative Pronoun, Adjective or Adverb, we have to suppress the noun/ pronoun/ possessive that the Relative replaces (In the previous sentences: He/ They/Tom /it) Relative Clauses go RIGHT AFTER the Noun they modify.
  • 4. Types Of Relative Clauses:
  • 5. 1. Defining Relative Clauses They “define” = give us essential information about a general noun or expression. Defining Relative Clauses do NOT go between commas: - I talked to the man who gave you the news. - I read the letter which came this morning. (Which man ? The one who gave you the news.) (Which letter? the one that arrived this morning.)
  • 6. 2. Non-Defining Relative Clauses They give us more (extra) information about a person, animal, thing, … already identified ( by the name, a possessive, …). They go between commas. - Your brother, who gave me the news, saw the accident himself . - I read Martin’s letter, which was full of gossip.
  • 7. Defining or Non- Defining? Compare: -The neighbours who live next door are very friendly. -My neighbours, who live next door, are … - I enjoyed the film (which/that) you recommended. - I enjoyed The Angels’ Share, which you recommended.
  • 8. Relative Pronouns: Use WHO to refer to people and WHICH to refer to animals, things, institutions, … “THAT” can replace WHO, WHICH in Defining Relative Clauses : Did you know the girl WHO/THAT came to the party yesterday? The book WHICH/THAT I’m reading is very interesting.
  • 9. Other Relatives: WHEN (THAT can also be used - in Defining Relative Clauses) shows Time: - I will never forget the day + I met my best friend that day: I’ll never forget the day (WHEN/THAT) I met my best friend.
  • 10. WHERE refers to Places: -This is the hotel + We are staying at this hotel next weekend: This is the hotel WHERE we are staying next weekend. - The city is interesting + my sister is living in the city: The city WHERE my sister is living is interesting.
  • 11. WHOSE shows Possession and it replaces a Possessive adjective or an ’s possessive: - The man was crying + His house was on fire: The man WHOSE house was on fire was crying. - Have you met the people? + Their son is moving to Washington: Have you met the people WHOSE son is moving to Washington?
  • 12. WHOM is used instead of WHO in Formal Speech when it is the Object of the Relative Clause or after a preposition: - I couldn’t talk to a friend + I called him last night: I couldn’t talk to the friend WHOM I called last night. - I don’t know the student + The teacher was talking to the student: I don’t know the student to WHOM the teacher was talking.
  • 13. These Relative Pronouns can be (and are usually) omitted ONLY in Defining Relative Clauses: OMISSION OF WHO, WHICH, WHEN AND THAT:
  • 14. POSSIBLE: In Defining Relative Clauses when the Relative is: a) the Object in the Relative Clause: - I loved the film (WHICH/ THAT) we saw last night. - The woman (WHO/THAT/ WHOM) you mentioned is a writer.
  • 15. b) After a preposition: - I’ve found the website about WHICH I had read. => I found the website I had read about*. - Who was the boy at whom you were pointing? => Who was the boy you were pointing at*? *(The preposition is put next to the verb, its “natural “ place)
  • 16. c) When the Relative shows Time in the Relative Clause: - I met him the day (that/ when) he was leaving. -He’ll never forget the day (that/ when) they met.
  • 17. NOT POSSIBLE: a) If WHO, WHICH and THAT are the Subject of the Relative Clause: - I’ve talked to the man WHO sold me his car. (Who replaces The man and is the Subject of the Clause “sold me his car”) - The dog WHICH barks every night is my neighbour’s. (Which is the Subject of the clause “barks every night”)
  • 18. b) In Non-Defining Relative Clauses we can’t use THAT and we can’t omit the Relatives Who(m) / Which /When: -He liked Hitchcock, which he’s seen recently. (not “that”, no Omission) -Shakespeare, whom you just mentioned, is the most famous British playwright. (not “that”, no Omission) -I’ve found my keys, which I had been looking for. (not “that”, no Omission)
  • 19. Summing up: Remember: Defining Relative Clauses: - Don’t take commas. - “That” can replace Who, Which and When. - You can omit Who(m), Which, When and That when they are not the Subject of the Relative Clause. Non-Defining Relative Clauses: - Go between commas. - You can’t use “That”. - You can’t omit the Relatives.
  • 20. Relative Clauses Practice: http://englishteachermargarita.blogspot.com.es/search/ label/Relative%20Clauses

×