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A brief explanation for eFL students of the Transformation from Active to Passive and the different structures.

A brief explanation for eFL students of the Transformation from Active to Passive and the different structures.

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Transcript

  • 1. THE PASSIVE
  • 2.
    • We use the Passive Voice when the Agent is unknown or unimportant :
    • People speak English =
    • English is spoken all over the world.
    • They sell cars in that shop =
    • Cars are sold in that shop.
    • They built a house =
    • A house was built.
    • (Spanish = Se …)
  • 3.
    • Or to make the Object of the Active Sentence more important :
    • Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
    • A window has been broken.
  • 4. Transforming from Active to Passive Voice:
    • ACTIVE:
    • Mary bought a book
    • PASSIVE:
    • A book was bought by Mary
  • 5.
    • CHANGES:
    • Active Object becomes Passive Subject: A book
    • Verb “Be” in the same tense as Active Verb + Active Verb in the Past Participle: is bought
    • Subject: Agent with “BY”: by Mary (It can be omitted when it isn’t relevant).
  • 6. Complete the Chart:
    • He writes novels:
    • He is writing novels:
    • He wrote novels:
    • He was writing novels:
    • He has written novels:
    • He had written novels:
    • He can/ will/ may/ …write novels:
    • He can/may / will/ have written novels:
    • Novels are written by him* (not “he”).
    • Novels are …
    • Novels were …
    • Novels were …
    • Novels have …
    • Novels had …
    • Novels can/ will/ may …
    • Novels can/ may/ will …
  • 7. Check the chart:
    • He writes novels:
    • He is writing novels:
    • He wrote novels:
    • He was writing novels:
    • He has written novels:
    • He had written novels:
    • He can/ will/ may/ …write novels:
    • He can/may / will/ have written novels:
    • Novels are written by him.
    • Novels are BEING WRITTEN
    • Novels were WRITTEN
    • Novels were BEING WRITTEN
    • Novels have BEEN WRITTEN
    • Novels had BEEN WRITTEN
    • Novels can/ will/ may BE WRITTEN
    • Novels can/ may/ will HAVE BEEN WRITTEN
    • .
  • 8. More Passive Stuff:
    • In informal English “GET” is used
    • instead of “BE”:
    • The keys got lost.
    • They are getting married.
    • NEED or WANT + Verb-ING = Passive:
    • Your car needs washing (= to be washed)
    • My room wants cleaning (= to be cleaned)
  • 9. Sentences with two Objects:
    • When the active sentence has two Objects (verbs such as lend, give, tell, send, …) :
    • Mick will tell us everything.
    • Jack has lent me a pen.
    • The INDIRECT OBJECT often becomes the SUBJECT in the Passive:
    • We will be told everything by Mick.
    • I have been lent a pen by Jack.
  • 10.
    • Verbs like:
    • Believe, Think, Consider, Estimate, Know, Expect, …
    • when followed by a subordinate clause:
    • They think that Jenny is from Canada.
    • Teachers consider that Will doesn’t study hard.
    • Change to:
  • 11.
    • 1) It + Passive Verb + Subordinate Clause
    • It is thought that Jenny is from Canada.
    • It is considered that Will doesn’t study hard.
    • OR
    • 2) Subordinate Subject + Passive Verb + Subordinate Active Verb in Infinitive:
    • Jenny is thought to be from Canada.
    • Will is considered not to study hard.
  • 12. HAVE/ GET SOMETHING DONE:
    • When you arrange to / pay for / have someone else do a thing for you (Get is more informal):
    • I had my hair cut (by the hairdresser)
    • The Prince is having his portrait painted (by a painter)
    • We often have our shopping delivered.
    • I’ve just had my car repaired (by a mechanic).
  • 13.