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  • 1. AUSTRALIA
  • 2. Geography
    • Australia is the sixth largest country in the world.
    • Geographic size : 7,617,930 sq km
    • Population : 20 million (2005)
    • Capital : Canberra
    • Administrative Divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*
    • Major cities : Brisbane, Sydney, Perth, Melbourne, and Adelaide.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Major Industries
    • Australia's major industries are mining and farming, especially sheep farming .
    • The grape vineyards help to support a growing wine industry.
    • In addition, Australia's climate and dramatic scenery have made tourism a major industry.
  • 5.
    • History
    • Ancient (Pre 1788)
    • Aboriginals were the real founders of Australia because they came to this land thousands of years before white people discovered it. Aboriginals have been here for at least 40,000 years . When white people came to Australia, they invaded a land that already belonged to the Aboriginals.
    • No one knows exactly where the Aboriginals lived before they came to Australia. It is known that Aboriginals came from somewhere in South-East Asia and that they left their homes and traveled to Australia in canoes or on rafts.
  • 6. Discovery
    • The first records of Europeans sailing into 'Australian' waters occur around 1606, and include their observations of the land known as Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land).
    • Between 1606 and 1770, an estimated 54 European ships from a range of nations made contact.
    • In 1770, Englishman Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast for the British Crown, naming eastern Australia 'New South Wales'.
  • 7. Colonisation (1788-1900) The First Fleet and a British colony
    • In the 1770’s there were about 9 million people in England and 1 million of them were very poor. This led to an increase in crimes. About one in every twenty persons was a criminal. The prison system was becoming overcrowded.
    • In August 1786, the British government decided to start a convict settlement in New South Wales.
    • Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet, comprising 11 ships (six of them “convict ships”) and around 1,500 people, arrived at Botany Bay between 18 and 20 January 1788 .
  • 8.
    • Initially, relations between the explorers and the Aboriginal inhabitants (around 300,000) were hospitable and based on trading for food, water, axes, cloth and artefacts, a relationship encouraged by Governor Phillip.
    • These relations became hostile as Aborigines realised that the land and resources upon which they depended and the order of their life were seriously disrupted by the on-going presence of the colonisers. Between 1790 and 1810, clans people of the Eora group in the Sydney area undertook a campaign of resistance against the English colonisers in a series of attacks.
  • 9.
    • The question of land ownership by Indigenous people was not dealt with until the mid-1830s.
    • In 1835, John Batman signed two 'treaties' with Kulin people to rent 600,000 acres of land.
    • But the NSW Governor, Sir Richard Bourke issued a proclamation. It established the notion that the land belonged to no-one prior to the British crown taking possession.
  • 10.
    • A Gold Rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and it brought many immigrants from Great Britain, Ireland, continental Europe, North America and China.
    • In 1861, the NSW government opened up the free selection of Crown land. The Crown Lands Acts permitted any person to select up to 320 acres on the condition of paying a deposit and living on the land for three years.
    • The Acts also limited the use of Crown lands by Aboriginal people as until this time, pastoral lands were still able to be legitimately used by them.
  • 11. Establishment of other British colonies
    • Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia, New Zealand,…
    • There were some rebellions for independence but they were defeated.
    • On 1 January 1901,a federation of the colonies was achieved and the Commonwealth of Australia was born. In 1911, His Majesty King George V proclaimed Australia as a Dominion of the British Empire.
  • 12. 20th Century Australia
    • Australia sent its armed forces to fight alongside Britain during the 1st and 2nd World Wars.
    • Following World War II, the Australian government instigated a massive program of European immigration.
    • Two million immigrants arrived between 1948 and 1975.
    • Australia is a multicultural society with its Indigenous people and immigrants from some 200 countries .
  • 13. Australia Today
    • Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign
    • Executive branch :
    • Chief of state : Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Quentin Bryce H ead of government : Prime Minister Julia Gillard
    • Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives