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Berger Ls 7e  Ch 8
 

Berger Ls 7e Ch 8

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CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 8

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    Berger Ls 7e  Ch 8 Berger Ls 7e Ch 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Part III The Play Years: Biosocial Development Chapter Eight Body Changes Brain Development Injuries and Abuse
    • The Play Years: Biosocial Development
      • Children grow bigger and stronger… become more skilled at tasks… by age 6, they can skip, write, and much more, as long as they have had enough practice.
    • Body Changes
        • 1-year-olds are cute and chubby, while 6 year olds are “grown up”
        • …the body and brain develop according to powerful epigenetic forces, biologically driven as well as socially guided, experience-expectant and experience-dependent…
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • during the play years:
          • children become slimmer
          • the lower body lengthens
          • baby fat turns to muscle
            • at age 5 the body mass index is lower than at any other age in the entire life span
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • during the play years:
          • gone is the protruding belly
          • round face
          • short limbs
          • large head (that characterize the toddler)
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • children increase in height and weight
          • Each year from age 2–6, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches and gain about 4 ½ pounds
          • 6-year-olds weigh about 46 pounds
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • A typical 6-year-old:
          • is at least 3 ½ feet tall
          • weighs between 40 and 50 pounds
          • looks lean, not chubby
          • has adult-like body proportions
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • ethnic groups living together in the same developed nation, children of:
          • African descent tend to be the tallest, then
          • European descent
          • Asian descent
          • Latino descent
    • Body Changes
      • Growth Patterns
        • “ Over the centuries, low-income families encourage their children to eat, so that they would have a reserve of fat to protect themselves in times of famine.”
        • by 2020 it is predicted that more than 228 million adults worldwide will have diabetes as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood
    • Body Changes
      • Eating Habits
        • Infants and young children today play outside less than their parents or grandparents did
    • Body Changes
      • Eating Habits
        • Nutritional deficiencies
          • children in developed nations consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium
          • most cultures encourage their children to eat sweets
    • Body Changes
      • Eating Habits
        • Just right
          • “just right” or “just so” phenomenon is normal and widespread among children
          • most young children’s food preferences and rituals are far from ideal
    • Body Changes
      • Eating Habits
        • Just right
          • 75% of 1500 parents reported that their children’s just-right phase peaked at about age 3...
            • have things done in a particular order or in a certain way
            • strong preference to wear or not wear cerain clothes
            • prepare for bedtime by engaging in a special activity, routine, or ritual
            • strong preference for certain foods
    • Body Changes
      • Eating Habits
        • Just right
          • by age 6 the “just right” fades
          • parents should be patient until the “just right” obsession fades
    • Brain Development
      • “Brains grow rapidly even before birth.”
      • by age 2 the brains increase in size
        • a great deal of pruning of dendrites has already occurred
        • brain growth after infancy is a crucial difference between humans and other animals
    • Brain Development
      • Speed of Thought
        • after infancy, continued proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons) results in some brain growth
        • the effects of myelination are most noticeable in early childhood
          • Myelination is the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
        • parent must be patient when listening to young children talk or when helping them get dressed
    • Brain Development
      • Connecting the Brain’s Hemispheres
        • corpus callosum
          • a long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain
        • lateralization
          • literally, sidedness; the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity
            • the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
    • Brain Development
      • The Left-Handed Child
        • infants and toddlers usually prefer one hand over the other
        • For centuries, parents who saw a preference for the left-hand forced their children to be right-handed
          • since most people are right-handed the assumption was that right-handedness was best
    • Brain Development
      • The Left-Handed Child
        • developmentalist advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness… not only because of parent-child conflict but because it might interfere with the natural and necessary process of lateralization
    • Brain Development
      • The Whole Brain
        • The left half controls the right side of the body and contains the areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language.
        • The right half controls the left side of the body and contains the area dedicated to generalized emotion and creative impules, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry.
    • Brain Development
      • The Whole Brain
        • The left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture
    • Brain Development
      • The Whole Brain
        • severely brain-damaged people are exclusively left-brained or right-brained
        • every cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain
        • Because older children have more myelinared fibers in the corpus callosum, they have better thinking and less clumsy actions are possible for them
    • Brain Development
      • Planning and Analyzing
        • the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex is an area in the front part of the brain’s outer layer under the forehead.
          • this area underlies higher-order cognition
            • planning and complex forms of goal-directed behavior
          • the prefrontal cortex is the executive part of the brain… ruling all the other areas
    • Brain Development
      • Planning and Analyzing
    • Brain Development
      • Planning and Analyzing
        • Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex
          • Notable benefits of maturation of the prefrontal cortex occur from age 2 – 6
            • sleep becomes more regular
            • emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli
            • temper tantrums subside
            • uncontrollable laughter or tears become less common
    • Brain Development
      • Planning and Analyzing
        • Attention
          • a major function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness
            • perseveration is the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time
    • Brain Development
      • Emotions and the Brain
        • amygdala
          • a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
        • hippocampus
          • a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of location
        • hypothalamus
          • a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
    • Brain Development
      • Emotions and the Brain
    • Brain Development
      • Emotions and the Brain
        • stressful experiences… can foster growth if the child has someone or something to moderate the stress
        • prolonged physiological responses to stress and challenge put children at risk for a variety of problems in childhood including:
          • physical and mental disorders
          • poor emotional regulation
          • cognitive impairments
    • Brain Development
      • Motor Skills
        • maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control
        • myelinaton of the corpus callosum and lateralization of the brain permits better coordination
    • Brain Development
      • Motor Skills
        • Gross Motor Skills
          • involves large body movement
        • Fine Motor Skills
          • involve small body movement (are harder to master)
            • hands and fingers
          • many fine motor skills involve two hands… both sides of the brain
    • Brain Development
      • Artistic Expression
        • during the play years children are imaginative, creative, and not yet very self-critical
        • all forms of artistic expression blossom during early childhood
        • in every artistic domain, maturation of brain and body is gradual and comes with practice
    • Brain Development
    • Brain Development
      • Artistic Expression
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • more children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause
      • in the U.S. out of every 100,000:
        • 1 to 4-year-olds, 10.9 died accidentally
        • 2.5 died of cancer (the leading fatal disease at this age)
        • 2.4 were murdered
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • young children are more vulnerable to injuries and abuse than older children
        • they are impulsive, yet depend on others
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
        • worldwide injuries cause millions of premature deaths among young adults as well as children
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
        • injury control/harm reduction
          • practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities;
            • these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
        • three levels of prevention
          • primary prevention
            • actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstances, such as injury, disease, or abuse
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
        • three levels of prevention
          • secondary prevention
            • actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
        • three levels of prevention
          • tertiary prevention
            • actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability
    • Injuries and Abuse
      • Avoidable injury
    • Child Maltreatment
      • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined
        • child maltreatment
          • intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age
        • child abuse
          • deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
        • child neglect
          • failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
    • Child Maltreatment
      • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined
        • reported maltreatment
          • harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities
        • substantiated maltreatment
          • harm or endangerment that been reported, investigated, and verified
    • Child Maltreatment
      • Warning Signs of Maltreatment
        • The first signs of maltreatment are:
            • delayed development
            • slow grow
            • immature communication
            • lack of curiosity
            • unusual social interaction
    • Child Maltreatment
      • Warning Signs of Maltreatment
          • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
            • is a delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hyper-vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality
    • Child Maltreatment
      • Consequences of Maltreatment
        • is effected by cultural context
          • customs
        • maltreatment compromises basic health
          • abused and neglected children are often injured, sick, hospitalized
        • maltreated children and adolescents are often bullies or victims or both
        • these perspectives can last for a life span