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Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
Berger Ls 7e  Ch 6
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Berger Ls 7e Ch 6

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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  • 1. Part II The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Chapter Six Sensorimotor Intelligence Information Processing Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 2. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
    • Infant cognition
      • cognition = “thinking”
        • “thinking” in a very broad sense includes…
          • language
          • learning
          • memory
          • intelligence
  • 3. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
    • Infants organize by the end of the first year…
      • sensations and perceptions
      • sequence and direction
      • the familiar and the strange
      • objects and people
      • events and experiences
      • permanence and transiency
      • cause and effect
  • 4. Sensorimotor Intelligence
    • Remember…
      • Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2)
        • infants learn through senses and motor actions
  • 5.  
  • 6. Piaget and Research Methods
    • Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget predicted.
      • Habituation, the process of getting used to (i.e., bored with) a stimulus after repeated exposure. An infant can show this by looking away.
      • If a new object appears and the infant reacts (change in heart rate, sucking), it is assumed they recognize the object as something different.
    • Summing up…
      • In six stages of sensorimotor, Piaget discovered, described, and then celebrated active infant learning.
  • 7. Information Processing Theory
    • “ a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output”
  • 8. Information Processing Theory
    • With the aid of technology this theory has found some impressive intellectual capacities in the infant
    • Intellectual capacities, concepts, and categories seem to develop in the infant brain by 6 months
    • Perspective helps tie together various aspects of infant cognition: affordance and memory.
  • 9. Information Processing Theory
    • affordance
      • “… an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment”
        • afford = offer
        • perception is the mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs
  • 10. Information Processing Theory
    • affordance
      • One puzzle of development is that two people can have discrepant perceptions of the same situation, not only interpreting it differently but actually observing it differently
        • depending on:
          • past experiences
          • current developmental level
          • sensory awareness of opportunities
          • immediate needs and motivation
  • 11. Information Processing Theory
    • Research on Early Affordance
      • Information processing improves over the first year as infants become quicker to remember
      • Experiences affect which affordances are perceived…
  • 12. Information Processing Theory
    • Sudden Drops
      • … the visual cliff, an apparatus to measure depth perception
      • infants become interested in “crossing” the cliff about 8 months (having had experience falling)
      • the cliff “affords” danger for older infants
  • 13. Information Processing Theory
    • Movement and People
      • infants have:
        • dynamic perception
          • primed to focus on movement and change
        • a people preference
          • a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences
  • 14. Information Processing Theory
    • Memory
      • Developmentalists now agree that even very young infants can remember under the following circumstances:
        • experimental conditions are similar to “real life”
        • motivation is high
        • special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval
  • 15. Information Processing Theory
    • Reminders and Repetition
      • reminder sessions
        • a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment
  • 16. Information Processing Theory
    • A Little Older, a Little More Memory
      • after about 6 months infants can retain information for longer periods of time… with less training or reminding
      • by the middle of the 2 nd year toddlers can remember and reenact more complex sequences
  • 17. Information Processing Theory
    • Aspects of Memory
      • Memory is not one “thing”
        • brain-imaging techniques reveal many distinct brain regions devoted to particular aspects of memory
          • implicit memory is memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind
          • explicit memory is memory that can be recalled on demand
  • 18. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
    • “ The acquisition of language,… its idiomatic phases, grammar rules, and exceptions, is the most impressive intellectual achievement of the young child.”
  • 19. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
    • The Universal Sequence
      • Around the world children follow the same sequence of early language development
  • 20.  
  • 21. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
    • Listening and Responding
        • infants begin learning language before birth…
        • infants prefer speech over other sounds
      • child-directed speech
        • the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants
  • 22.
    • Babbling
      • repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da-da).
        • all babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently).
        • babbling is a way to communicate.
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 23.
    • First Words
      • usually around 1 year the average baby speaks, or signs a few words
        • they are often familiar nouns
      • by 13 months spoken language increases very gradually
      • 6 to 15 month-olds learn meaning rapidly and comprehend about 10 times as many words as they speak
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 24.
    • The Naming Explosion
      • a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns begins at about 18 months
      • vocabulary reaches about 50 expressed words at a rate of 50 to 100 per month, 21 month-olds saying twice as many as 18 month-olds
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 25.
    • Cultural Differences
      • the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives show cultural influences.
      • one explanation is the language itself (i.e. English, Chinese differ)
      • another explanation is social context (toys and objects)
      • every language has some concepts encoded in adult speech
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 26.
    • Sentences
      • “ The first words soon take on nuances of tone, loudness, and cadence that are precursors of the first grammar, because a single word can convey many messages by the way it is spoken.”
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 27.
    • Sentences
      • “ Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.”
      • each is a holophrase , a single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought.
      • intonations varying in tone and pitch is extensive in babbling and again in holophrases at about 18 months
      • grammar --all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning. Word order, prefixes, intonation, verb forms,… are all aspects of grammar.
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 28.
    • Theories of Language Learning
        • 2 year olds worldwide use language well
        • bilingual children keep two languages separate and speak whatever language a listen understands
      • each theory of language acquisition has implications for parents and educators…all want children to speak fluently…without instruction
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 29.
    • Theories of Language Learning
      • There are 3 theories of how infants learn language:
        • they are taught (view of B. F. Skinner)
        • they teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky)
        • social impulses foster learning
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 30.
    • Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught
      • 50 years ago the dominant learning theory in North America was behaviorism
      • B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced… a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant
      • Parents are expert teachers, other caregivers help
      • Frequent repetitions instructive when linked to daily life
      • Well-taught infants become well-spoken children
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 31.
    • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves
      • a contrary theory is that language learning is innate--adults need not teach it
      • Norm Chomsky (1968,1980) felt that language is too complex to be mastered merely through step-by-step conditioning
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 32.
    • Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves
      • universal grammar- -all young children master basic language at about the same age
      • Language acquisition device (LAD)
        • a term used for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 33.
    • Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language
      • a third theory called social-pragmatic perceives the crucial starting point to be neither vocabulary reinforcement (behaviorism) nor innate connection (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language; communication
      • Infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings and depend on one another for survival and joy
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 34. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  • 35.
    • A Hybrid Theory
      • the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers
      • their model an emergentist coalition … combing valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy
    Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?

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