Berger Ls 7e Ch 6


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Berger Ls 7e Ch 6

  1. 1. Part II The First Two Years: Cognitive Development Chapter Six Sensorimotor Intelligence Information Processing Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  2. 2. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Infant cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cognition = “thinking” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“thinking” in a very broad sense includes… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Infants organize by the end of the first year… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensations and perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence and direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the familiar and the strange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>objects and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>events and experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permanence and transiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cause and effect </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sensorimotor Intelligence <ul><li>Remember… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infants learn through senses and motor actions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Piaget and Research Methods <ul><li>Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget predicted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habituation, the process of getting used to (i.e., bored with) a stimulus after repeated exposure. An infant can show this by looking away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a new object appears and the infant reacts (change in heart rate, sucking), it is assumed they recognize the object as something different. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summing up… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In six stages of sensorimotor, Piaget discovered, described, and then celebrated active infant learning. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>“ a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output” </li></ul>
  7. 8. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>With the aid of technology this theory has found some impressive intellectual capacities in the infant </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual capacities, concepts, and categories seem to develop in the infant brain by 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective helps tie together various aspects of infant cognition: affordance and memory. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>affordance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>afford = offer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perception is the mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>affordance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One puzzle of development is that two people can have discrepant perceptions of the same situation, not only interpreting it differently but actually observing it differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depending on: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>past experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>current developmental level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sensory awareness of opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immediate needs and motivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Research on Early Affordance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing improves over the first year as infants become quicker to remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences affect which affordances are perceived… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Sudden Drops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… the visual cliff, an apparatus to measure depth perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infants become interested in “crossing” the cliff about 8 months (having had experience falling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cliff “affords” danger for older infants </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Movement and People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infants have: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primed to focus on movement and change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a people preference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmentalists now agree that even very young infants can remember under the following circumstances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experimental conditions are similar to “real life” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motivation is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Reminders and Repetition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reminder sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>A Little Older, a Little More Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after about 6 months infants can retain information for longer periods of time… with less training or reminding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by the middle of the 2 nd year toddlers can remember and reenact more complex sequences </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Information Processing Theory <ul><li>Aspects of Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory is not one “thing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brain-imaging techniques reveal many distinct brain regions devoted to particular aspects of memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implicit memory is memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explicit memory is memory that can be recalled on demand </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? <ul><li>“ The acquisition of language,… its idiomatic phases, grammar rules, and exceptions, is the most impressive intellectual achievement of the young child.” </li></ul>
  18. 19. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? <ul><li>The Universal Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around the world children follow the same sequence of early language development </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years? <ul><li>Listening and Responding </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infants begin learning language before birth… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infants prefer speech over other sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child-directed speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Babbling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da-da). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>babbling is a way to communicate. </li></ul></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  21. 23. <ul><li>First Words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually around 1 year the average baby speaks, or signs a few words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are often familiar nouns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 13 months spoken language increases very gradually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 to 15 month-olds learn meaning rapidly and comprehend about 10 times as many words as they speak </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  22. 24. <ul><li>The Naming Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns begins at about 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary reaches about 50 expressed words at a rate of 50 to 100 per month, 21 month-olds saying twice as many as 18 month-olds </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  23. 25. <ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives show cultural influences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one explanation is the language itself (i.e. English, Chinese differ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>another explanation is social context (toys and objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>every language has some concepts encoded in adult speech </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  24. 26. <ul><li>Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The first words soon take on nuances of tone, loudness, and cadence that are precursors of the first grammar, because a single word can convey many messages by the way it is spoken.” </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  25. 27. <ul><li>Sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each is a holophrase , a single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intonations varying in tone and pitch is extensive in babbling and again in holophrases at about 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar --all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning. Word order, prefixes, intonation, verb forms,… are all aspects of grammar. </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  26. 28. <ul><li>Theories of Language Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 year olds worldwide use language well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bilingual children keep two languages separate and speak whatever language a listen understands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each theory of language acquisition has implications for parents and educators…all want children to speak fluently…without instruction </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  27. 29. <ul><li>Theories of Language Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 3 theories of how infants learn language: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are taught (view of B. F. Skinner) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social impulses foster learning </li></ul></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  28. 30. <ul><li>Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 years ago the dominant learning theory in North America was behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced… a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents are expert teachers, other caregivers help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent repetitions instructive when linked to daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-taught infants become well-spoken children </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  29. 31. <ul><li>Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a contrary theory is that language learning is innate--adults need not teach it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm Chomsky (1968,1980) felt that language is too complex to be mastered merely through step-by-step conditioning </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  30. 32. <ul><li>Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>universal grammar- -all young children master basic language at about the same age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition device (LAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a term used for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation </li></ul></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  31. 33. <ul><li>Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a third theory called social-pragmatic perceives the crucial starting point to be neither vocabulary reinforcement (behaviorism) nor innate connection (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language; communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings and depend on one another for survival and joy </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  32. 34. Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
  33. 35. <ul><li>A Hybrid Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their model an emergentist coalition … combing valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy </li></ul></ul>Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?