Berger Ls 7e Ch 21


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Chapter 21

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Berger Ls 7e Ch 21

  1. 1. Part VII Adulthood: Cognitive Development Chapter Twenty-one What is Intelligence? Selective Gains and Losses
  2. 2. Adulthood: Cognitive Development <ul><li>Do people get smarter or dumber as they get older? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Intelligence? <ul><ul><li>general intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>according to this concept people have varying levels of this general ability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sectional Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a research designed that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sectional Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the first half of the twentieth century, psychologists used this method of research; convinced that intelligence rose in childhood, peaked in adolescence, and then declined gradually </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Longitudinal Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a research design that follows the same individuals over time, repeatedly assessing their development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bailey retested another group of adults who had been tested as children and who were then 36-years-old and concluded that the “intellectual potential for continued learning is unimpaired through the first 36 years of life” and probably beyond </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>The Flynn Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a trend toward increasing average IQ found in all developed nations during the twentieth century </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sequential Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach) (also called cohort-sequential or time-sequential research) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Cross-Sequential Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle Longitudinal Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the first cross-sequential study of adult intelligence—this study began in 1956; the most recent testing was conducted in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this study confirmed and extended what others had found—people improve in most mental abilities during adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Components of Intelligence: Many and Varied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developmentalists look at patterns of cognitive gains and losses over the adult years </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Two Clusters: Fluid and Crystallized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough—abilities such as short-term memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking are all usually considered part of fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning--vocabulary and general information are examples—some developmental psychologists think crystallized intelligence increases with age, while fluid intelligence declines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Three forms of intelligence: Sternberg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of intelligence that involves such mental processes as abstract planning, strategy selection, focused attention, and information processing, as well as verbal and logical skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creative intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of intelligence that involves the capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practical intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the intellectual skills used in everyday problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Eight (brain-based) Intelligences: Gardner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>logical-mathematical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>musical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spatial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bodily-kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>naturalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social-understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-understanding </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Diversity and Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic intelligence , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>valued in high school and college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students are expected to remember and analyze ideas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creative intelligence , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prized if life circumstances change and new challenges arise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>which makes it much more valued in some cultures and eras than others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practical intelligence , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>useful after college days are over </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when the demands of daily life are omnipresent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>An Example of Practical Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from rural Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a smart child is one who knows which herbal medicines cure which diseases, not one who excels in school </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Research on Age and Intelligence <ul><li>Which Intelligence is Valued? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural and historical context often emphasize one form of intelligence over others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural assumptions affect concept of intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence tests and school curriculums reflect assumptions about the construct being measured </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>aging neurons, cultural pressures, past education, current life events all affect intelligence—none of these is under direct individual control </li></ul>
  18. 18. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Optimization and Compensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selective optimization with compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the theory, developed by Paul and Margaret Baltes, that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selective expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful to them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an expert is notably more skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expert Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>novices follow formal procedures and rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experts rely more on their past experiences and on immediate contexts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their actions are therefore more intuitive and less stereotypic </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Automatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of expert performance are automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex actions and thoughts become routine, making it appear the task is performed instinctively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experts process incoming information more quickly and analyze it more efficiently than nonexperts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their efforts appear nonconscious </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>strategic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategies may be the most crucial differences between a skilled person and an unskilled one </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because they are intuitive, automatic, and strategic, experts are also more flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they enjoy the challenges when things don’t go as planned </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Expertise and Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the relationship between expertise and age is not straightforward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time is essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not everyone becomes an expert as he or she grows older </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Older Workers: Experts or Has-Beens? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research on cognitive plasticity confirms that experienced adults often use selective optimization with compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apparent in the everyday workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>best employees may be the older ones—if motivated </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Selective Gains and Losses <ul><li>Human Relations Expertise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most important skill for people of every age to learn is how to get along with other people, understanding their emotional needs, and helping them function well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the most common test of expert human relations occurs with parenting—a parent is patient, good humored and consistent—traits that become more common with age </li></ul></ul>