Berger Ls 7e Ch 19


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Chapter 19

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Berger Ls 7e Ch 19

  1. 1. Part VI Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Nineteen Identity Achieved Intimacy Emotional Development
  2. 2. Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Development <ul><li>“In psychosocial development, even more than in physical or cognitive development, the hallmark of contemporary adult life is diversity.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Identity Achieved <ul><li>the search for identity begins at puberty, and continues through adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>each stage’s crises provides the foundation for each new era… as is evident in the emerging adult </li></ul>
  4. 4. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the U.S. and Canada 1/2 of the 18 – 25- year-olds are either children of immigrant or native-born Americas of African, Asian, Indian, or Latino descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most individuals identify with very specific ethnic groups, e.g. Vietnamese, Pakistani, or Korean Americans, not simply Asian </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emerging adults meet many more people of other backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Americans also understand the importance of their own ethnicity, e.g., Ukrainian Catholic or Russian Jewish </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>everyone struggles to forge an identify, but immigrants combining their parent’s past and their future new social context often have conflicts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>choices affect language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing, and values </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is complex: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is reciprocal, both a personal choice and a response to others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it depends on context and therefore changes with time and circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is multifaceted… emerging adults choose some attributes and rejects others </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the changing contexts of life require ethnic identity to be reestablished at each phase… with one identity in adolescence, another in emerging adulthood </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Vocational Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a part of growing up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>college is considered an important step towards a career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a correlation between college education and income has been evident… few unskilled jobs have been created in the 21st century </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Identity Achieved <ul><li>Vocational Identity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intimacy <ul><ul><li>intimacy versus isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the sixth of Erikson’s eight stages of development… adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment… without such commitment they risk profound aloneness and isolation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Intimacy <ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friends defend against stress and provide joy throughout life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>friends are chosen for understanding, tolerance, loyalty, affection, humor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>friends are earned; they choose us, unlike family </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Intimacy <ul><li>Choosing Friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gateway to attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the various qualities, such as appearance and proximity, that are prerequisites for the formation of close friendships and imitate relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical attractiveness (even in platonic same-sex relationships) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apparent availability (willingness to talk, to do things together) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequent exposure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absence of exclusion criteria (no unacceptable characteristics) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Intimacy <ul><li>Choosing Friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absence of exclusion criteria (no unacceptable characteristics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exclusion criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a person’s reasons for omitting certain people from consideration as close friends or partners… exclusion criteria vary from one individual to another, but they are strong filters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Intimacy <ul><li>Gender and Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>men and women have the same friendship needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>humans seek intimacy, lifelong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>men tend to share activities and interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women have friendships that are more intimate and emotional </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Intimacy <ul><li>Gender and Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more men than women are homophobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male-female differences may be cultural and seem to be less stereotyped among contemporary emerging adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-sex friendships have potential problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outsiders may believe the relationship is sexual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heterosexual couples tend to have fewer cross-sex friendships to avoid partner jealousy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keeping a sexual relationship “just friendly” is sometimes difficult </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Intimacy <ul><li>Romance and Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>couples are marrying later and divorcing more often than earlier cohorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marriage is being postponed, not abandoned </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Intimacy <ul><li>Romance and Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the relationship between love and marriage depends on the culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1/3 of all nations, people fall in love and then decide to marry, with the young man asking the young woman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Americans and Europeans expect to fall in love several times but not to marry until they are financially and emotionally independent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Intimacy <ul><li>The Dimensions of Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>love is not a simple emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not something universally recognized as the glue that holds a relationship together </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Intimacy <ul><li>The Dimensions of Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternberg described three distinct aspects of love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commitment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternberg believes that the relative presence or absence of these three components give rise to… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Intimacy <ul><li>The Dimensions of Love </li></ul>
  23. 23. Intimacy <ul><li>Living Together, Not Married </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cohabitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an arrangement in which a man and a women live together in committed sexual relationship but are not formally married </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more than ½ of all emerging adults cohabit during emerging adulthood </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Intimacy <ul><li>Living Together, Not Married </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cohabitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many people think that living together is a good prelude for marriage; researchers suggest they are mistaken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contrary to widespread belief, living together before marriage does not preclude problems that might arise after a wedding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Intimacy <ul><li>What Makes Relationships Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>marriage is not what it once was… a legal and religious arrangement that couple sought for sexual expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most adults aged 20 to 30 are not yet married </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compared to any year in the past, fewer adults are married (58%) and more are divorced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the divorce rate is ½ the marriage rate (3.4 compared to 7.8 per, 1000)—not primarily because more people are divorcing but because fewer people are marrying </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Intimacy <ul><li>What Makes Relationships Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>homogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marriage between individuals who tend to be similar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interest, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heterogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marriage between individuals who tend to be dissimilar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interest, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Intimacy <ul><li>What Makes Relationships Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social homogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the similarity of a couple’s leisure interests and role preferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social exchange theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the view that social behavior is a process of exchange aimed at maximizing the benefits one receives and minimizing the costs one pays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Intimacy <ul><li>What Makes Relationships Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Violence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>common couple violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a form of abuse in which one or both partners of a couple engage in outbursts of verbal and physical attacks… also called situational couple violence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intimate terrorism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spouse abuse in which, most often, the husband uses violent methods of accelerating intensity to isolate, degrade, and punish the wife </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Intimacy <ul><li>Family Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“It is hard to overestimate the importance of the family at any time of the life span.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>families are “our most important individual support system,” a “problem-solving system” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Intimacy <ul><li>Family Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made up of individuals, families are more than the people who belong to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children grow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adults find support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>everyone is part of an ethos (culture, philosophy, nation) that gives meaning to, and provides models for personal aspiration and decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Emotional Development <ul><li>during emerging adulthood people are at their peak: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual impulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive growth </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Emotional Development <ul><li>Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows emerging adults to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make friends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>find lovers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take whatever job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>journey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take risks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Emotional Development <ul><li>Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive emotions increase when emerging adults have close relationships with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>friends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lovers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>undergo successful transitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leaving home </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graduating from college </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>securing a good job </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Emotional Development <ul><li>Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some of the depression and anxieties of adolescence lift when young people leave their high schools and distance themselves from dysfunctional families </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Emotional Development <ul><li>Psychopathology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not all young adults benefit from independence… some adults have too many choices and too little guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diathesis-stress model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the view that mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) with stressful environmental factors and life events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Emotional Development <ul><li>Substance Abuse Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emerging adulthood is the most common time for substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 8 is addicted before age 27 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substance abuse can be a common interest for friends and romantic partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most sufferers manage to put an end to abuse without professional counseling </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Emotional Development <ul><li>Mood Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>before age 30, 8% of U.S. residents suffer from a mood disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>major depression is the most common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major depression may be biochemical… imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones (can also be triggered by an arrest, or romantic break-up) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Emotional Development <ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ of U.S. residents below the age of 25, including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>panic attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age and genetic vulnerability shape the symptoms of anxiety disorders </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Emotional Development <ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partly genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>malnutrition when the brain is developing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symptoms typically begin in adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diagnosis is most common from ages 18-24 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Emotional Development <ul><li>Continuity and Discontinuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most emerging adults have strengths as well as liabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many overcome anxieties, substance abuse, etc… through “self-righting,” social support and ongoing maturation </li></ul></ul>