Berger Ls 7e Ch 16

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Chapter 16

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Berger Ls 7e Ch 16

  1. 1. Part V Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Chapter Sixteen Identity Relationships Sexuality Sadness and Anger
  2. 2. Identity <ul><li>A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Identity <ul><ul><li>identity versus diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Identity, cont. <ul><ul><li>identity achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Identity, cont. <ul><li>Not Yet Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identity diffusion is the opposite of identity achievement… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Whatever.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Identity, cont. <ul><li>Not Yet Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erickson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short-circuit their search by not questioning traditional values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Identity, cont. <ul><li>Not Yet Achievement, cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moratorium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>going to college is the most common example </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Identity, cont. <ul><li>Four Arenas of Identity Achievement highlighted by Erikson… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>few teenagers achieve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual or gender identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ sex/sexual” referring to biological male/female characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ gender” referring to cultural and social characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Identity, cont. <ul><li>Four Arenas of Identity Achievement… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ political” or “ethnic” identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>political, identifying with a party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ethnic, identifying with a person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocational identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>few teenagers can find meaningful work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most available jobs are different from in the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the required skills for many vocations take years to attain – makes it premature to select at age 16 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Relationships <ul><li>Adults and teenagers </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bickering – repeated, petty arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Relationships <ul><li>Closeness with the family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>talk openly with one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rely on one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotionally close </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>encourage or limit autonomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parental monitoring – parent knowledge about child’s whereabouts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Relationships <ul><li>Ongoing influence </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Support </li></ul><ul><li>Cliques and Crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Relationships <ul><li>Choosing friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peer pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social pressure to conform to peer activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deviance training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing, active process whereby adolescents select friends based on shared interests and values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone – constructive or destructive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Relationships <ul><li>Friends of Both Sexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigrant Youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one-third in Frankfurt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one-half in Amsterdam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two-thirds in Los Angeles and New York </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sexuality <ul><li>Before Committed Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formation of couples, with private intimacies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sexuality <ul><li>Romances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first appears in high school </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sexuality <ul><li>Homosexual Youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning About Sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Sexuality, cont. <ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>play a pivotal role in teenagers sexual decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex Education in School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. began a massive experiment in 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not all adolescents are having sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rates vary from nation to nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the use of “protection” has increased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the abortion rate is also down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Sadness and Anger <ul><li>Comorbidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a situation in which two or more unreleated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidal ideation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasuicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster suicides </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Sadness and Anger, cont. <ul><li>More destructiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sadness and Anger, cont. <ul><li>Cause of delinquency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-course-persistent offender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence-limited offender </li></ul></ul>

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