Mapping for ChangeLondon: 17 April 2013Simon Birkett, Founder and Director, Clean Air in Londonwww.twitter.com/CleanAirLon...
Smog episode in LondonLooking from Barbican to Parliament on 15 March 2012© 2012 Simon Birkett and Clean Air in Cities Lim...
Introduction to air pollution• Health impacts dwarf those known during Great Smog in 1952• Over twice legal limits and Wor...
Worst smog episode since 2006 on eve of OlympicsLondon Air Quality Network www.londonair.org.ukLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean...
London schools within 150m and 400m of busy roadsRoads carrying over 100,000 vehicles per dayLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean A...
EU legal standards compared to WHO guidelinesPollutant Legal standard WHO guidelineShort term Annual mean Short term Annua...
Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inmicrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3)0204060801001202011 2012 2013 2014 2015EU lim...
Concentration and trends – Mayor’s Air Quality StrategyNO2 annual mean concentrations for 2008London: 17 April 2013 Clean ...
Widespread breaches of nitrogen dioxide lawsClientEarth in the Supreme Court on 7 MarchLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in ...
Sources of air pollution in LondonMayor’s Air Quality Strategy 2010• Emissions (not concentrations). Based on 2008 estimat...
SolutionsClean Air in London’s ‘manifesto’ proposes 45 measuresProtect yourself (i.e. adapt) and reduce pollution for your...
Boris’ Pollution SuppressorReducing pollution by monitors used to report legal breaches© 2012 Simon Birkett and Clean Air ...
Key issues: ‘Year of Air’ in 2013UK has highest % age of zones exceeding LV+MOTLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 13
Key issues: ‘Year of Air’ in 2013We need continuity and the tightening of health and legal protectionsDefra, Red Tape Chal...
Public health outcomes framework for 2013-2016Health and Wellbeing Boards• Metrics for Health and Wellbeing Boards from 20...
Attributable deaths by local authority in 2010Anthropogenic (i.e. man-made) air pollutionLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air i...
The CarClimatechangeAirpollutionChronic stressAnxiety anddepressionRaisedinflammatorymarkersDiabetesCardiovasculardiseaseL...
‘The London Matrix’: Clean air urgently andsustainably in all large citiesAir quality Climate changeLondon (or any city) 2...
10 steps for ‘Clean Air in Cities’We need to protect public health and encourage sustainable development1. Investigate2. P...
Priorities for the ‘Year of Air’We want continuity and the further tightening of health and legalprotections. Specifically...
Mapping for ChangeLondon: 17 April 2013Simon Birkett, Founder and Director, Clean Air in Londonwww.twitter.com/CleanAirLon...
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Effective Local Action on Air Quality in London - Simon Birkett Clean Air in London

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Effective Local Action on Air Quality in London - Simon Birkett Clean Air in London

  1. 1. Mapping for ChangeLondon: 17 April 2013Simon Birkett, Founder and Director, Clean Air in Londonwww.twitter.com/CleanAirLondonwww.facebook.com/CleanAirLondonwww.cleanairinlondon.orgEffective local action on air pollution in LondonGovernment is lobbying in the ‘Year of Air’ to weakenEuropean air pollution laws requiring 50% reductions now
  2. 2. Smog episode in LondonLooking from Barbican to Parliament on 15 March 2012© 2012 Simon Birkett and Clean Air in Cities LimitedLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 2
  3. 3. Introduction to air pollution• Health impacts dwarf those known during Great Smog in 1952• Over twice legal limits and World Health Organisation guidelinesnear our busiest streets. Laws in place since 1999 for 2010/2011• Particles: PM2.5 and PM10. Combustion gases: nitrogen dioxide (NO2)• Health impacts from long and short-term exposure and differenttypes of air pollution. Only smoking causes more early deaths• Living or going to school within 150 metres of roads carrying over10,000 vehicles per day could be responsible for 15-30% of all newcases of asthma in children and COPD in adults aged 65 and older• Diesel causes 91% PM2.5 and 95% NO2 of vehicle exhaust in London• London and UK have highest levels of NO2 in EuropeLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 3
  4. 4. Worst smog episode since 2006 on eve of OlympicsLondon Air Quality Network www.londonair.org.ukLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London4
  5. 5. London schools within 150m and 400m of busy roadsRoads carrying over 100,000 vehicles per dayLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 5
  6. 6. EU legal standards compared to WHO guidelinesPollutant Legal standard WHO guidelineShort term Annual mean Short term Annual meanFineparticulatematter (PM2.5)1. 25 µg/m3 annual mean tobecome limit value in 20152. 20 µg/m3 exposureconcentration obligation basedon 3-year average by 20153. Exposure reduction target inpercentage by 202025 µg/m324-hour mean10 µg/m3Particulatematter (PM10)35 days over50 µg/m3since201140 µg/m3since 201150 µg/m324-hour mean20 µg/m3Nitrogen dioxide(NO2)18 hours over200 µg/m3 since201040 µg/m3since 2010200 µg/m3 40 µg/m3London: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 6
  7. 7. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inmicrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3)0204060801001202011 2012 2013 2014 2015EU limit value for NO2 from1 January 2010Required NO2 reductionEU limit value plus margin oftolerance for NO2 from 1January 2010London: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 7
  8. 8. Concentration and trends – Mayor’s Air Quality StrategyNO2 annual mean concentrations for 2008London: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 8
  9. 9. Widespread breaches of nitrogen dioxide lawsClientEarth in the Supreme Court on 7 MarchLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in Londonhttp://cleanairinlondon.org/sources/four-of-nine-uk-zones-have-already-breached-nitrogen-dioxide-time-extension/9
  10. 10. Sources of air pollution in LondonMayor’s Air Quality Strategy 2010• Emissions (not concentrations). Based on 2008 estimates• PM10 (Central London)– Road transport 79%. Cars 23%; taxis 20%; LGVs 10%. Buses <10%– Tyre and brake wear 35%• PM2.5 (Greater London)– Road transport 80%; industrial and commercial gas combustion– LGV, cars and taxis 20% each. Buses 5%– Tyre and brake wear 25%• Oxides of nitrogen– Road transport 46%; domestic gas 22%– Commercial gas, industry, airport and rail 7-8%– Cars 35%; HGVs 30%; buses 21%• DfT 2009: Diesel versus petrol cars (g/mile): 21.7x PM10; 2.1x NOxLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 10
  11. 11. SolutionsClean Air in London’s ‘manifesto’ proposes 45 measuresProtect yourself (i.e. adapt) and reduce pollution for yourself and others (i.e.mitigate)• Political leadership• Massive campaign to build public understanding e.g. smog warnings• Clean up transport• Build low emission cities including buildings• Technology and behavioural change• Protect the most vulnerableExpected increases in unlawful air pollution must be mitigated fully and limitsnot exceeded once attained. Also use environmental information lawsLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 11
  12. 12. Boris’ Pollution SuppressorReducing pollution by monitors used to report legal breaches© 2012 Simon Birkett and Clean Air in Cities LimitedLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 12
  13. 13. Key issues: ‘Year of Air’ in 2013UK has highest % age of zones exceeding LV+MOTLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 13
  14. 14. Key issues: ‘Year of Air’ in 2013We need continuity and the tightening of health and legal protectionsDefra, Red Tape Challenge, Environment Theme proposals (19 March 2012):Working in partnership with other Member States, we will also use the EuropeanCommission review of air quality legislation, expected in 2013, to seek:• Amendments to the Air Quality Directive which reduce the infraction riskfaced by most Member States, especially in relation to nitrogen dioxideprovisions.• Simplifications to the legal framework (e.g. through reducing requirements forMember States) to reduce costs and administrative burdens to localauthorities and businesses whilst maintaining or improving health andecosystem protection.• Requirements that are strictly proportional to evidence on costs and benefits‘Clean Air in London’ emphasisLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 14
  15. 15. Public health outcomes framework for 2013-2016Health and Wellbeing Boards• Metrics for Health and Wellbeing Boards from 2013 include Domain3: Health protection; 3.1 Air pollution:“The mortality effect of anthropogenic particulate air pollution(measured as fine particulate matter, PM2.5) per 100,000population”• Mortality Burden: To be expressed as attributable deaths;attributable fractions; and associated years of life lost to the wholepopulationLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in Londonhttp://www.phoutcomes.info/public-health-outcomes-framework/domain/415
  16. 16. Attributable deaths by local authority in 2010Anthropogenic (i.e. man-made) air pollutionLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 16
  17. 17. The CarClimatechangeAirpollutionChronic stressAnxiety anddepressionRaisedinflammatorymarkersDiabetesCardiovasculardiseaseLungdiseaseCancerObesityReducedphysicalactivityTrafficSocialisolationCO2NOx,ozone,particulatesReducedaccess togreen spaceFrom a presentation by Dr William Bird of Natural EnglandLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 17Air pollution among other public health risks
  18. 18. ‘The London Matrix’: Clean air urgently andsustainably in all large citiesAir quality Climate changeLondon (or any city) 2013Rest of worldLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London18
  19. 19. 10 steps for ‘Clean Air in Cities’We need to protect public health and encourage sustainable development1. Investigate2. Protect yourself (i.e. adaptation)3. Reduce pollution for yourself and others (i.e. mitigation)4. Research5. Lobby6. Campaign7. Oppose unlawful developments and situations e.g. Silvertown Tunnel8. Spread the word9. Support Mapping for Change, Clean Air in London and others10. Feedback your ideashttp://cleanairinlondon.org/solutions/10-steps-for-clean-air-in-london/London: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 19
  20. 20. Priorities for the ‘Year of Air’We want continuity and the further tightening of health and legalprotections. Specifically:• Campaign to build public understanding of air pollution• Enforcement of existing legal standards• New legislation to reduce emissions at their source• Continuity and the further tightening of health and legalprotectionsInformal meeting of the Council of Environment Ministers on 22 and23 April in Dublin will discuss air quality issues. Twitter @eu2013ieLondon: 17 April 2013 Clean Air in London 20
  21. 21. Mapping for ChangeLondon: 17 April 2013Simon Birkett, Founder and Director, Clean Air in Londonwww.twitter.com/CleanAirLondonwww.facebook.com/CleanAirLondonwww.cleanairinlondon.orgEffective local action on air pollution in LondonGovernment is lobbying in the ‘Year of Air’ to weakenEuropean air pollution laws requiring 50% reductions now

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