BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMARPRESENT TENSE BE,DEMONSTRATIVES,POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES,PRESENT CONTINOUS, CAN,PREPOSITIONSFIRSTBIMESTER
PRESENT TENSE BE The verb BE has three forms: AM, IS, ARE,which we have to use according to the pronounor subject.TO BEOccupations Nouns Adjectives Places
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCESSubject Verb Form ExampleI AM I am a teacher.You ARE You are a student.He IS He is in the lab.She IS She is my sister.It IS It is a city.We ARE We are friends.They ARE They are doctors.
NEGATIVE SENTENCESYou can make negative sentences similar to thesentences before. The only different is to add NOTafter am, is, are, as you can see in the followingchart.She is not sad They are not in the school
NEGATIVE SENTENCESI am not I`m notHeShe is notItHe`s not = He isn’tShe’s not = She isn’tIt’s not = It isn’tWeYou are notTheyWe’re not = We aren’tYou’re not = You aren’tThey’re not = They aren’t
YES / NO QUESTIONS In English we have to kind of questions:Yes/No questions and Wh-questions. The Yes / No Questions are called thatbecause the answers always start with Yesor No Remember to answer Yes/No questions youhave to pay attention to the subject.
YES / NO QUESTIONSAffirmative Statement:Yes / No question:Short Answers:Full /CompleteAnswers:John and Peter students.John and Peter students?Yes, they are / No, they aren’tYes, they are students. / No theyare not students.Affirmative Statement:Yes / No question:Short Answers:Full /CompleteAnswers:Mary tall and thin.Mary tall and thin?Yes, she is / No, she isn’tYes, she is tall and thin. / No, sheis not tall and thinareAreisIs
WH - QUESTIONS The wh-questions look for informationaccoding to the question word. In this kind of questions you never answerYes or No, because they are asking for someinformation. The answer is a statement withthe information according to the questionword.
WH - QUESTIONSWh-word Informationabout…ExampleWhat ThingsNameOccupationsActivitiesWhat is this? It is a book.What is your name? Roberth.What do you do? I am a driver.What is he doing? He’s workingWho People Who is the director of the school?Carlos Samaniego.Where Places Where is he? In the house.How StateForm / mannerHow are you? I am sad.How is Loja? It is small.
REVIEWStatementNegativeStatementsYes/No Question Short AnswersI am a teacher. I am not a teacher. Am I a teacher?Yes, you are / No, youare notYou are astudent.You are not astudent.Are you a student? Yes, I am / No, I am notHe is in the lab. He is not in the lab. Is he in the lab? Yes, he is / No, he is notShe is my sister. She is not my sister. Is she my sister?Yes, she is / No, she isnotIt is a city. It is not a city. Is it a city? Yes, it is / No, it is notWe are friends. We are not friends. Are we friends?Yes, we are / No, we arenotThey aredoctors.They are notdoctors.Are they doctors?Yes, they are / No theyare not
DEMONSTRATIVESWe use THIS / THESE when the objects are near to the speaker.This is a blackboard These are papersTHIS +Singular Nouns THESE + Plural Nouns
DEMONSTRATIVESWe use THAT / THOSE when the objects are far from the speakers.That is a lake.Those are mountainsTHAT + Singular NounsTHOSE + Plural Nouns
DEMONSTRATIVESQuestions What is that?That is an airplane. Is that a bird?No, it is an airplane. What are those?Those are books Are those books?Yes, they are books.
PLURAL NOUNSNoun ending Forming the plural Exampless, x, ch or sh Add -es boss - bossestax - taxesbush - bushesconsonant + y Change y to ithenAdd –esfly - fliestry - triescurry – curriesmost others Add -s cat - catsface - facesday – days
IRREGULAR PLURALNoun type Forming the plural ExamplesEnds with -fe Change f to vthenAdd –sknife - kniveslife - liveswife - wivesEnds with –f Change f to vthenAdd –eshalf - halveswolf - wolvesloaf - loavesEnds with - o Add –es potato - potatoestomato - tomatoesvolcano -volcanoes
IRREGULAR PLURALNoun type Forming the plural ExamplesALL KINDS Change the vowelorChange the wordorAdd a differentendingman - menfoot - feetchild - childrenperson - peopletooth - teethmouse - miceUnchanging Singular and pluralare the samesheepdeerfish (sometimes)
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVESI MyYou YourHe HisShe Her +It ItsWe OurThey Their NOUN
POSSESSIVE ADJTECTIVESThis is our houseHer pants are blueHis shirt is newThis is her cat
POSSESSIVE FORM ‘SKevin’s wife is Rose.His wife is Rose.Charlie’s book is black.The Child’s mother is happy
PREPOSITION OF PLACEIN (dentro de) In the house in a shopIn a room in a townIn a car in a gardenON (sobre unasuperficie)On a shelf on a wallOn a plate on the tableOn a balcony on a doorAT (lugar específico) At the bus station at homeAt the door at the topAt work at the end of
PRESENT CONTINOUS The present continoustense is used todescribe activities thathappen now, thatmeans activities thatare develop in themoment of speakingSubject BE -INGFORMI Am SingingHeSheItIs SingingWeYouTheyAre Singing
PRESENT CONTINOUSAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONSI am dancing I am not dancing Am I dancing?You are eating You are not eating Are you eating?He is sleeping He is not sleeping Is he sleeping?She is reading She is not reading Is she reading?It is running It is not running Is it running?We are walking We are not walking Are we walking?They are studying They are not studying Are they studying?
RULESVerb ending in...How to make the -INGform Examples1 vowel + 1consonantDouble the consonant,then add –INGswim - swimminghit - hittingget – getting1 vowel + 1consonant + E-Remove E, then add –INGcomecominglose - losinglive – living[anything else] Add –ING say - sayinggo - goingwalk - walking
CAN / CAN’T Can is used to show abilityThey can dance He can’t play the piano He can play footballHe can swim He can skate
NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONSAFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVEYES/NOQUESTIONSSHORT ANSWERSI can cook I can not cook Can I cook? Yes, you can / No,you can´tYou can dance You can not dance Can you dance? Yes I can / No I can’tHe can play He can not play Can he play? Yes, he can / No, he can`tShe can swim She can not swim Can she swim? Yes, she can / No, she can’tIt can run It can not run Can it run? Yes, it can / No, it can’tWe can sing We can not sing Can we sing? Yes, we can / No, we can’tThey can walk They can not walk Can they walk ?Yes, they can / No, theycan’t