Positions in the Clinical Laboratory


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Positions in the Clinical Laboratory

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Positions in the Clinical Laboratory

  1. 1. What is the Clinical/Anatomical Laboratory Profession? Sponsored byInsert Facility Name hereInsert city and state here
  2. 2. IMPACT 70-80% of medical decisions are based on laboratory results. Laboratory tests are extremely valuable. Modern medicine could not function without lab tests. Demand for laboratory professionals will exceed supply in the near future.
  3. 3. Positions in the Laboratory Clinical Pathology: tests  Anatomic Pathology: tests patient samples blood, urine, and tissue samples and human cells on body fluids. slides. Professionals:  Professionals: • Medical Technologists • Cytotechnologists  Also known as Clinical  Works closely with Laboratory Scientist (CLS). Pathologist  Four year Bachelor of Science  Separate education and Degree training from Medical • Technicians Technologist  Also known as Clinical • Histotechnologists Laboratory Technician (CLT)  Prepares thin sections to be  Two year Associate Degree examined by Pathologist • Pathologists’ Assistants  Interacts with a Pathologist like a Physicians’ Assistant.  Separate Bachelor’s degree or Master’s degree programs.
  4. 4. Salaries Medical Technologist Median Average Wage: $59,571 per year or $28.64 per hour Medical Lab Technicians Median Average Wage: $42,973 per year or $20.66 per hour Cytotechnologist Median Average Wage: $64,771 per year or $31.14 per hour Histotechnologist Median Average Wage:$51,542 per year or $24.78 per hour Phlebotomist Median Average Wage: $30,202 per year or $14.52 per hour
  5. 5. Laboratory Structure Clinical Departments: • Hematology, Chemistry, Blood Bank, Microbiology, Immunology Anatomical Departments: • Cytology, Histology Supervisor Manager Administrator
  6. 6. Work Environments Hospitals Laboratories Physician Office Laboratories Independent or Reference Laboratories Public Health Laboratories Pharmaceutical Companies Fertility Clinics Veterinary Laboratory Educational Program Director Research/ Clinical Trials Product Development Sales and Marketing/Consulting Genetics Information Technology Multi-departmental Manager/Hospital Administration Medical Informatics Forensic Laboratories
  7. 7. Areas of Study Clinical Lab • Microbiology • Immunohematology • Clinical Chemistry • Hematology • Coagulation • Immunology • Urinalysis Esoteric/Referral Testing Anatomic Pathology • Histology • Cytology • Autopsy Molecular Diagnostics
  8. 8. Elements of Blood Plasma - the liquid portion Platelets - the clot forming components White Blood Cells - the infection fighters Red Blood Cells - the oxygen transporters
  9. 9. Phlebotomy Collection and processing of blood samples. Patient interaction. Great place to begin a health care career.
  10. 10. Collection Supplies Blood Collection • Purple top • Yellow top • Blue top • Green top • Pink top Urine Specimen
  11. 11. Urinalysis Chemical Analysis • Dipstick Sediment • Crystals • Casts • Cells
  12. 12. Urine MicroscopicYeast Exam Epithelial Cells Calcium Oxalate Crystals
  13. 13. Urinalysis Renal epithelialCellular cast
  14. 14. Immunohematology Blood types Transfusions Transfusion reactions Abnormal antibodies
  15. 15. Blood TypesA positive AB negative
  16. 16. Blood TypesO positive O negative
  17. 17. Blood TypesB negative B positive
  18. 18. Blood TypesA negative AB positive
  19. 19. Hematology Complete blood count (CBC) Cellular morphology Anemias Leukemias Hemoglobinopathies
  20. 20. Neutrophils - Basophils - Eosinophils - Engulf bacteria Hypersensitivity, Parasitic infections, and cellular debris Release histamine Allergic response 37-77% 0-1.6% 1-7% White Blood CellsLymphocytes - Monocytes -Produce antibodies, Engulf cellularregulate the immune debris, antigenresponse processing10-44% 2-10%
  21. 21. Hematology Images
  22. 22. Hematology ImagesChronic Myelocytic Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (CML) Leukemia (AML)
  23. 23. Clinical Microbiology Bacteria Viruses Fungus Parasites
  24. 24. Parasitology
  25. 25. Clinical Chemistry Literally thousands of chemicals and enzymes in the human body Panels of tests Hepatitis Diabetics Electrolyte balance Lipid levels
  26. 26. Chemistry WaterVitamins Proteins Enzymes DNA RNACholesterol Amino Acids Minerals Fats Sugars Hormones pH
  27. 27. Anatomical PathologyBone Cells Blood Cells Muscle Fat Cells Cells
  28. 28. Quiz Number 132 year-old male arrives in the emergency room with right lower back pain for 2 days.Lab results:The patient’s urine tests positive for blood and the following elements are seen.What is the patient’s problem? A. Appendicitis. B. Parasitic infection. C. Renal calculi (kidney stone). D. Leukemia.
  29. 29. Number 210 year-old female is seen by her family physician for persistent sore throats and swollen lymph nodes.Lab results:WBC count-185,000/mm3.90% lymphoblasts.The patient’s problem is…A. Renal calculi.B. Leukemia.C. Parasitic infection.D. Iron deficiency anemia.
  30. 30. Number 323 year-old male is seen in the urgent care clinic. Patient complains of a white discharge and pain with urination.Lab results:Gram stain shows many WBCs and 3 plus gram negative diplococci.A. Sexually transmitted disease.B. Bladder infection.C. Kidney infection.D. Hepatitis.
  31. 31. Number 412 year-old male complains of a sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.Lab results:Gram stain demonstrates gram positive cocci in chains.The patient’s problem is….A. Viral infection.B. Over-eating.C. Ear infection.D. Strep infection.
  32. 32. Number 518 year-old female complains of being tired for the past 2 weeks.Lab results:Low HCT, HGB, and RBCs.The patient’s problem is….A. Iron deficiency anemia.B. Leukemia.C. Macrocytic anemia.D. She does not want to go to school.
  33. 33. Conclusion Though we are behind the scenes. We are the Heroes of the Health Care Team Solving Today’s Medical Mysteries.
  34. 34. Questions