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  • 1. National non-European Initiatives: 歐洲以外各國的行動 Open Access in India – the Status Quo / Mangala Hirwade, Shivaji Science College, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India) 開放近用在印度的現況 / 曼格拉‧愛偉, 西瓦吉理學院, 那格浦爾, 馬哈拉施特拉(印度) India’s national Open Access policy••••••• 印度的國家開放近用政策 The Right to Information Act, which came into effect in 2005, has had an impact on publicly financed research: since this act was passed, all citizens have had the right to know the results and social benefits of this type of research. 資訊權利法案於 2005 年生效,公帑資助的研究都受影響:在此法案下,所有公民都有權知道此 等研究的結果和社會效應。 The Indian government expects authors to make their works accessible preferably free of charge if they are the result of publicly funded research. The special session on the subject of Open Access, which took place at the 93rd Science Congress in Rajendranagar (Hyderabad) on 6 January 2006, expressed a recommendation for an ‘Optimal National Open Access Policy’. The recently formed National Knowledge Commission of India (NKC) and the National Association of Software and Service Companies of India (NASSCOM) together with other organisations support the ‘open courseware’ movement(122) in India for the purpose of improved distribution of knowledge resources. The NKC also formulates Open Access policies and guidelines for the sphere of higher education, research and development with the goal of improving access to research results and achieving their worldwide dissemination. 印度政府期望公帑資助計畫成果的作者, 將其作品供社會大眾免費近用。2006 年元月 6 日, 在拉 晉多那(海德拉巴)舉行的第 93 屆科學會議裡, 有個特別區塊討論開放近用議題,其建議是'優化 國家開放近用政策'。最近成立的國家知識委員會(NKC)和全國軟體和服務公司公會(NASSCOM) 與其他機構共同支持'開放課程'運動(註 122),以改善知識資源的散布情況。國家知識委員會也 制訂高等教育、研究與發展的開放近用政策和指導方針,以改善近用研究成果和達到散布全球 的目標。 註 122: ‘開放課程‘ 係指免費近用學習教材 Open Access archiving••••• 開放近用典藏所 The Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Chennai, one of the first institutions in Open Access archiving in India, set up a mirror(123) for the Open Access archive arXiv in 1997. Even though there are more than 29 open repositories available in India, so far only 16 are listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories (DOAR) (as of 6 April 2007). 清奈的數學研究所設立鏡射站, 將 1997 年成立的阿西檔案內容, 鏡射儲存, 成為印度的第一個開 放近用典藏所。雖然, 現在已有 29 個開放典藏所, 但祗有 16 個列在開放近用典藏所目錄(DOAR) 內(2007 年 4 月 6 日)。
  • 2. 註 123: ‘鏡射‘ 係指在電腦網路裡, 完全一樣的精準複製資料。 Open Access journals•••••• 開放近用學刊 The Open J-Gate portal (, which was set up by Informatics India Ltd. in 2006, provides electronic access to global journal literature and contains 3 801 Open Access journals (as of 3 May 2007). Currently there are 108 Indian research journals providing Open Access to full texts. They are mostly published by six journal publishers: Medknow Publications, Indian Medlars Centre of National Informatics, Indian Academy of Sciences,, Kamla-Raj Enterprises and Indian National Science Academy. None of these Open Access journals demands an author’s fee. They finance their operation by subscriptions, advertisements or grants. 印度資訊學公司於 2006 年建置開放學刊入口網, 近用全球的學刊文獻, 已收錄 4,601 種開放近用 學刊, 其中有 2,491 種採用同儕評閱模式審查(2008 年 12 月); 有 108 種印度的學刊開放近用全文, 幾乎由六家學刊出版社包辦: Medknow Publications、Indian Medlars Centre of National Informatics、Indian Academy of Sciences、、Kamla-Raj Enterprises 及 Indian National Science Academy; 這些學刊都不向作者收費, 收入來自訂閱、廣告與獎助。 Initiatives for open source software• •••••••••••••• 開放源碼的行動 The Open Source Software Resource Centre (OSSRC) was founded by IBM India, the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and the Indian Institute of Technology with the goal of significantly promoting the development of open source software in India. 開放原碼資源中心(OSSRC)由印度 IBM 公司、先進計算發展中心(C-DAC)及印度科技研究院共 同成立, 以推動開放源碼軟體在印度的發展為目標。 The MAHITI.ORG ( organisation provides services in the area of information and communications technology that are based on free/open source software, including a purely offline version of MAHITI.ORG 提供自由/開放源碼軟體的資訊與通訊技術服務, 包括離線版的維基百科。 Open Courseware•••••••• 開放課程 The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and the National Council of Educational Research (NCERT) are leaders in the area of ‘open courseware’ (OCW). IGNOU produces materials for private study, offers educational television on different channels, and initiated the founding of the National Digital Repository for OCW. NCERT is in the process of making schoolbooks freely available — mainly in English, Hindi and Urdu — to students and teachers via its website ( 國立英迪拉甘地夫人開放大學(IGNOU)及國立教育研究會(NCERT)是開放課程的領導者(OCW), 國立英迪拉甘地夫人開放大學製作個人學習的教材, 在各頻道提供教育電視節目, 發起建立開放 課程的國立數位典藏所。國立教育研究會處理學校教科書, 主要是英文、印地語及烏爾都語, 經 由其網站(免費使用。 Metadata search services•••
  • 3. 後設資料搜尋服務 India has six significant metadata search services: Open J-Gate, Search Digital Libraries (SDL), CASSIR, Seed, Knowledge Harvester@ INSA and the Cross Journal Search Service of Scientific Journal Publishing in India (SJPI). 印度有六家後設資料搜尋服務單位: Open J-Gate、Search Digital Libraries (SDL)、CASSIR、Seed、Knowledge Harvester@ INSA 與 the Cross Journal Search Service of Scientific Journal Publishing in India (SJPI)。 Open Access — the perspective of scientists and scholars• ••••••••••• 開放近用 — 科學者與學者的願景 Academics in India see the advantages of Open Access on the one hand in its simplified, free access to knowledge, which would particularly benefit developing countries, and, on the other hand, in its potential to reach a very large readership. 印度的學者從簡捷免費近用知識的角度, 對開放中國家特別有幫助, 而且, 可以擴大讀者群, 將開 放近用視為加分。 Many Indian academics, however, still do not consider Open Access an attractive proposition. Their criticism is that research institutions, funding bodies and government authorities are paying too little attention to the issue.They say that neither research institutions nor government bodies recognise Open Access publications or create incentives to publish research results via Open Access. According to researchers, a complete and accessible repository of Open Access publications is missing, as are the necessary experience with Open Access publishing and the required infrastructure, e.g. in the form of hardware and electronic data links with high transmission rates. Finally, there is criticism that there is no national umbrella organisation which both upholds a clear policy in the area of Open Access and has the necessary competencies to promote it. 然而, 還有很多印度學者未將開放近用視為吸引人的提議, 他們批評研究機構、贊助單位與政府 單位對此議題未付出足夠的關心, 他們說, 研究機構與政府單位都沒有認同開放近用出版品, 也沒 有創造開放近用出版研究成果的誘因。根據研究者的說法, 欠缺一個完整可近用的開放近用著作 典藏所, 也沒有足夠的開放近用出版經驗及必要的基礎建設, 如: 高速傳輸電子資料的硬體; 最後, 還有人批評, 沒有全國性的機構支撐清楚的開放近用政策, 以及必要的能力去推動它。 Many scientists and scholars believe that publishers of renowned journals would not accept the archiving of research works in Open Access repositories. In actual fact, however, even renowned journals allow authors to archive preprints and postprints. In addition, scientists and scholars fear that the assessment of the impact of their research results would be difficult if they were not published in standard journals. Not least, they argue, jobs and distinctions are often awarded on the basis of the impact factor of a journal in which relevant research works are published. 科學家與學者相信, 知名學刊的出版社沒有興趣讓研究成果置於開放近用典藏所, 其實不然, 即使 是知名的學刊也允許著作人典藏預印本和後印本。此外, 科學家與學者擔心對研究成果影響力的 評估較為困難, 如果, 沒有在傳統的學刊出版; 而且還爭論, 工作與名聲通常根據出版研究成果學 刊的影響指數而定。 Despite these concerns, the National Institute of Technology in Rourkela decided in May 2006 that Open Access archiving of all of the institute’s research works, including doctoral dissertations and master’s theses, was mandatory. 儘管有這些顧慮, 鲁吉拉的國立科技研究所仍決定, 從 2006 年 5 月開始, 強制開放近用典藏所有 該研究所的研究成果, 包括博士與碩士論文。
  • 4. Conclusion••••••••••••• 結論 So far, there are only a few open archives and Open Access initiatives in India, and there is still a long way to consolidation. Indian academia, however, under the active participation of government authorities and publishers, has taken a first step in this direction. Indian researchers see the value of Open Access journals and archives particularly in the increased visibility of information, the higher citation rate of articles, and the potential for knowledge to become usable more quickly by society. 到目前為止, 印度祗有少數的開放典藏所與開放近用行動, 還有很長的路要走。在政府機關和出 版社的積極參與下, 印度的學界已經朝此方向邁出第一步; 印度的研究者看到開放近用學刊和典 藏所的價值, 特別在增加資訊曝光率、論文的被高引用率以及知識更快被社會使用等層面 。 p. 128 - 130 Open Access: Opportunities and Challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission, German Commission for UNESCO. -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 p., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459,