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  1. 1. Chapter 5: International Context 115 國際觀瞻 National Initiatives in Europe / By Katja Mruck & Rubina Vock, Centre for Digital Systems, Freie Universität Berlin(81) 歐洲國家的行動 / 卡嘉 ‧姆魯克與魯比納 ‧沃克, 數位系統中心, 柏林自由大學 註 81: 感謝 Gudrun Gersmann、Stefan Gradmann 及 Norbert Lossau 的建議及補充 Introduction••••••••••••• 緒論 The demand for free access to scientific and scholarly information, which was originally voiced in the North American natural sciences, has now reached ‘old Europe’: many initiatives that are important for the international Open Access movement are of European origin(82). 對免費近用科學和學術資訊的需求,起源於北美的自然科學領域,現在已經傳到'舊歐洲':國際 間開放近用運動的許多重要舉措,還是源自於歐洲(註 82)。 註 82: On European initiatives see: Ramjoué, Celina in this volume; on the history of Open Access cf. Mruck, Katja/Gradmann, Stefan and Mey, Günter, ‘Open Access: Wissenschaft als Öffentliches Gut’, in: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(2) 2004: Art. 14, http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-04/2-04mrucketal-d.htm. At the same time, a closer look at relevant position papers highlights national differences in the support accorded to Open Access in Europe. 與此同時,仔細研究有關的立場文件,發現歐洲各國在支持開放近用方面, 有明顯的差異。 • In Europe the ‘Budapest Open Access Initiative’(83) was mainly signed by German, English, French, Italian and Spanish institutions, overwhelmingly by universities and university publishers, but more rarely by, for example, eastern European and Scandinavian institutions. 歐洲的'布達佩斯開放近用協議'(註 83),主要的簽署機構來自德國、英國、法國、義大 利、西班牙,幾乎都是大學和大學出版社,甚少來自東歐和北歐的機構。 註 83: http://www.soros.org/openaccess/ • The ‘Berlin Declaration’(84) was signed by many associations of university rectors and research institutions in Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Spain, but, here too, eastern European countries and also Austria and the United Kingdom are hardly represented. In addition, 77 Italian universities signed the Berlin Declaration, but the national funding bodies and the conference of university presidents did not.
  2. 2. '柏林宣言'(註 84)被很多比利時、德國、法國、荷蘭、瑞士和西班牙諸國的機構簽署,但 也有東歐的奧地利和英國簽署它。此外,還有 77 所義大利大學簽署了柏林宣言,但國立 的贊助單位和大學校長會議, 都沒有加入。 註 84: http://oa.mpg.de/openaccess-berlin/berlindeclaration.html • Currently, it is the ‘EU Petition’(85) that has the greatest distribution with almost 25 000 signatories (as of March 2007): besides institutions in the countries listed above, this petition has been signed by (funding) institutions and learned societies, for example, from Estonia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, as well as a few signatures from representatives of Greek, Polish, Romanian and Russian academic institutions. 進行中的'向歐盟請願'(註 85), 已有 15,000 位簽署者(至 2007 年 3 月):除了來自以上國家 的機構外, 還包括來其他國家的機構及學會簽署者,例如,從愛沙尼亞、立陶宛、烏克 蘭、丹麥、挪威和瑞典,以及一些代表學術機構的簽署者: 希臘、波蘭、羅馬尼亞和俄羅 斯。 註 85: http://www.ec-petition.eu/ Open Access in individual European countries•••••••• 歐洲國家的開放近用 The following overview of national Open Access initiatives in Europe is necessarily fragmentary(86). In addition, some countries do not have a well-developed Open Access debate (or if they do, it may only be accessed in that country’s native language). 以下概述歐洲各國的開放近用行動, 它的內容是零碎的(註 86)。此外,部份國家沒有較完備的開 放近用辯論(即使有, 也是祗以它們自己母語論述)。 註 86: 德國的情形不在此描述, 因為已經在本書的其他章節詳述; 瑞典的 DiVA 入口網站(Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet)未在此陳述, 它是 15 個大學的聯合典藏所, 參見 http://www.diva-potral.org/, 以及 Hagerlid, Jan, ‘Open Access in Sweden 2002 - 2005‘, 2006, http://www.kb.se/openaccess/dokumentation/janh_elpub_final.pdf. United Kingdom 英國 Great Britain opened up the debate on Open Access early on, and in a very dedicated manner. In a comprehensive report, the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee(87) investigated access possibilities to academic works, business models of traditional and Open Access publishers, as well as alternative forms of publication. On the basis of this appraisal, it was recommended that British universities set up repositories through which university publications could be archived and made freely accessible on the Internet, a recommendation that the Research Councils UK(88) also subsequently adopted. As the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR)(89) shows, many repositories are now available in Great Britain for the implementation of this recommendation.
  3. 3. 英國很早就開以辯論開放近用,且以非常專注的方式進行。在一份完整的報告裡,下議院科學 和技術委員會(註 87)調查傳統及開放近用出版社的商業模式,探討近用學術著作及其他出版品 的商業模式。在此評價的基礎上,英國研究理事會建議(註 88), 英國大學設立典藏所, 讓大學的 出版品可以典藏其間, 經由網際網路可以自由近用。如開放近用典藏所目錄(註 89)所述,許多典 藏所根據此建議,已在英國實施。 註 87: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/399/399.pdf. 註 88: http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/; and http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/access/default.htm. 註 89: http://www.opendoar.org/. The Wellcome Trust and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are two examples of important UK-based actors. Even though the Wellcome Trust, an independent charity organisation, has not signed any of the above-listed position papers, it requires the recipients of its funds to make articles accessible without charge in PubMed Central(90) no later than six months after they are published(91). JISC, which is responsible for the use of new information and communications technologies in education and research in the UK, supports Open Access through various projects. Thus, for example, JISC supported the (further) development of Open Access publication models and improved metadata research between 2004 and 2006(92). 惠康信託基金會和英國資訊系統委員會在英國扮演重要的角色。身為獨立的慈善組織,惠康信 託基金會沒有簽署任何前述的立場文件,它仍要求所有受補助者在研究成果出版後, 在 6 個月之 內(註 90)典藏在公共醫學中心(註 91)的典藏所。負責將新的資訊與通訊技術應用在英國的教育 和研究的英國資訊系統委員會,經由各種計畫支持開放近用。因此,舉例說,2004 年至 2006 年之間(註 92), 英國資訊系統委員會支持(進一步)發展開放近用出版模式,以及改進後設資料 。 註 92: 有關後設資料及開放近用, 參見本書第三章沃爾夫勒姆‧霍斯特的文章 The Netherlands 荷蘭 In 2005, one of the most comprehensive national Open Access projects was launched in the Netherlands: DAREnet (Digital Academic Repositories)(93) manages the digital documents of every Dutch university, the National Library of the Netherlands, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Dutch research organisations. It is the only comprehensive network of digital academic repositories in any European state. At the end of March 2007, users had research access to more than 100 000 full-text documents. In addition, the full-text documents are automatically incorporated into the electronic inventory of the National Library of the Netherlands (e-depot). 2005 年,荷蘭啟動最完整的國家型開放近用計畫: 數位學術典藏所(DAREnet)(註 93),管理每 個荷蘭大學、荷蘭國家圖書館、荷蘭皇家藝術與科學院及其他荷蘭研究機構的數位文件。這是 歐洲唯一的綜合性數位學術典藏所網路。至 2007 年 3 月底,使用者可以近用超過 10 萬件全文 資料。此外,全文的文件自動納入荷蘭國家圖書館的數位呈繳資料庫 。
  4. 4. 註 93: http://www.darenet.nl/ Approximately 45 000 publications by more than 200 renowned Dutch academics are accessible via Cream of Science, a further project in the context of DAREnet. The availability of complete bibliographies (and in many cases full-text documents)(94) means greater visibility for the work of the academics involved and their universities; for academic and general users, it means a well-developed availability of scientific and scholarly results. 200 多所荷蘭知名學術機構的 45,000 個出版品, 經由數位學術典藏所項下的科學霜計畫, 可以被 開放近用。完整的目錄(很多是全文)(註 94)學者及其大學的曝光率大增, 對學者及一般使用者來 說,順利使用科學與學術成果。 註 94: 大約 60%的作品免費提供全文, 基於法律的要求, 其他的作品還不能提供全文。 France 法國 The Open Access movement in France is coordinated in a very centralised manner, in particular by the Centre for Direct Scientific Communication (Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe) of the National Science Research Centre, CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). The Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique) (95) of the CNRS provides in-depth information about Open Access on its website and has the objective of facilitating access to global research results. 開放近用運動在法國的發展, 以相當集中的方式協調,尤其是法國國家科學研究中心(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS)的直接科學交流中心(Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe)。法國國家科學研究中心所屬的科學技術資訊所(Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique)(註 95)在其網頁提供開放近用的深度資訊,以強化近用全球的研究成 果。 註 95: http://www.inist.fr/ In September 2005, numerous French research institutions came together to form a joint portal, the Hyper Articles en Ligne (HAL) (hyper articles online) archive(96). Subsequently, amongst other things, the platform PubliCNRS, on which all of the CNRS laboratories had placed their publications, was integrated in HAL. In contrast to many other European states, France places a particular emphasis on archiving documents from the humanities and social sciences. With the TGE ADONIS(97) project launched in 2004, the CNRS hopes to create a central platform for the international dissemination of documents in the humanities and social sciences. 2005 年 9 月,許多法國研究機構組成一個聯合網站, 線上超論文(Hyper Articles en Ligne, HAL)檔 案庫(註 96)。 將原本置於 PubliCNRS 平台上的法國國家科學研究中心各實驗室的出版品, 整合 入線上超論文。與其他歐洲國家不同,法國特別強調典藏人文和社會科學的文獻。2004 年, 法 國國家科學研究中心啟動 TGE 阿多尼斯計畫(註 97),希望建立一個集中式平台,在國際間傳播
  5. 5. 人文和社會科學領域的文獻。 註 96: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ 註 97: http://www.tge-adonis.fr/ Italy 義大利 In reaction to the Berlin Declaration, a conference to promote the dissemination of academic publications in line with the Open Access principle was organised among others by the Conference of Presidents of Italian Universities (Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane) in November 2004. During this conference, the rectors of 32 Italian universities signed the ‘Messina Declaration’(98) in support of the Berlin Declaration. Seventy-seven Italian universities have signed the Berlin Declaration, making Italy the country that has hitherto provided the largest number of signatories. While only a small percentage of Italian universities possesses institutional repositories, Italy does operate some international repositories, such as E-LIS(99), an Open Access archive for library and information sciences, and the archive of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics(100), through which scientists and scholars from all over the world, and particularly those from developing countries, can publish their academic documents (not just those from the field of physics) for free. 為了回應柏林宣言,於 2004 年 11 月召開義大利大學校長會議(Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane), 以開放近用原則推動散播學術出版品。在此會議上,32 位大學校長簽署 了'墨西拿宣言'(註 98),支持柏林宣言。77 所義大利的大學已簽署了柏林宣言,使義大利成為簽 署者最多的國家。雖然只有少許義大利大學建置機構典藏所,義大利已經有若干國際級的典藏 所, 如 E-LIS(註 99), 圖書資訊學開放典藏所, 以及國際理論物理中心典藏所(100), 全球的學者, 尤 其是發展中國家的學者, 均可免費在此出版其學術文獻(不以物理學為限)。 註 98: http://www.aepic.it/conf/index.php?cf=1 註 99: http://eprints.rclis.org/ 註 100: http://eprints.ictp.it/information.html Summary••••••••••••••• 摘要 We have attempted to sketch the development of Open Access by way of examples: the UK as one of the pioneers of European Open Access, the Netherlands as a national network of repositories currently unique in Europe, France as an academic organisation with a centralised character, where, unlike in many other countries, Open Access initiatives in the humanities and social sciences play an important role, and Italy, where declarations of intent for Open Access exist in all universities, but where the necessary infrastructure for the practice of Open Access is only developing gradually, and in a largely decentralised fashion. 以幾個例子, 我們試圖勾勒開放近用的發展:英國是歐洲開放近用的先驅; 荷蘭的全國典藏所獨 步全歐; 法國的集中式學術組織,與眾不同,開放近用行動在人文及社會科學領域佔有極重要的
  6. 6. 地位; 雖然, 義大利發表了代表所有大學的開放近用宣言, 但它們的開放近用實務還不足以形成必 要的基礎建設, 而且多半是分散式的。 What is not sufficiently present as yet are forums through which information can be disseminated more systematically and continuously than has so far been the case, and through which national players can communicate with one another. One possible idea would, for example, be a European enlargement of the Open Access information platform (www.open-access.net), supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) amongst others, which was initially launched for the German-speaking area in May 2007. 不過, 目前還沒有建立論壇, 無法更有系統且持續地散布資訊, 彼此之間無法溝通。建立全歐的開 放近用資訊平台(www.open-access.net), 由德國研究基金會及其他單位共同支持, 已經於 2007 年 5 月上線, 目前有英語與德語介面。 p. 115-119 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission, German Commission for UNESCO. -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 p., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5