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  • 1. Open Access and the Structure of Academic Communication / By Hans Pfeiffenberger, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven 開放近用與學術傳播的結構 / 漢斯‧斐芬柏格, 德國阿爾弗雷德威根納極地與海洋研究中心, 不來 梅港 The criterion for any assessment of the system and means of academic communication must be their maximum contribution to the benefit and progress of science and scholarship. In particular, individual means are no more than a necessary service for science and scholarship, a service whose effectiveness and efficiency needs occasional examination. 任何評鑑系統的規範和學術傳播的方法, 必須對科學與學術的進步有貢獻。特別是,個別的方法 不該超越對科學與學術的必要服務, 必須不定期檢驗此等服務的效果和效率。 State of the art••••••••••• 現況 Beginning in 1665 with the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, the peer-reviewed article in an academic journal has become the gold standard of academic communication. It did partly replace communication by letter between colleagues and rivals. For the pure communication of results, the journal was and is more efficient, and professional editing probably also makes it more effective. The ‘date stamp’ of a trustworthy publisher established priority, which previously was difficult or impossible to determine in disputed cases. Finally, refereeing by peers provided a quality assurance that allowed the reader, to a degree, to accept the facts and conclusions contained in the paper as correct. 1665 年, 英國皇家學會的自然科學會報發刊以來, 於學刊登載經過同儕評閱的論文, 成為學術傳 播的標準程序, 取代同事和對手間的信件往返。從單純傳播結果來看,學刊是較有效率的方法, 經由專業的編輯更可建立其效果。值得信賴的出版社建立'標章'之前, 很難或不可能解決有爭議 的案例。最後,同儕的評閱提供品質的保證, 在某個程度上, 讀者接受此事實, 並以論文方式發 表, 才算是正確的。 To a certain extent, the journal article still has these advantages, even if these are no longer undisputed. Above all, the efficiency of communication is fundamentally questioned when the Blue Ribbon/Atkins Report(41) notes that: ‘The primary access to the latest findings in a growing number of fields is through the Web, then through classic preprints and conferences, and lastly through refereed archival papers.’ 在一定程度上,學刊論文仍然具有這些優勢,即使不再是無可爭議的。總之,傳播的效率是最 根本的問題, 藍帶/阿特金斯報告(註 41)指出: '最新發現的主要近用管道, 是日益成長的網頁, 接著 是傳統的前印本及會議, 最後才是評閱過的被典藏論文'。 註 41: Atkins et al., Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, 2003, Furthermore, the value of quality assurance is in decline as growing quantities of underlying primary data, as well as other materials, no longer form part of the publication as printed, and are assessed neither during the review process nor otherwise. Recent major scientific scandals are largely connected with invented or falsified data, or with erroneous evaluation and summarisation.
  • 2. 而且,底層的原始材料及其他材料越來越多, 不以印本出版品為限, 未經評閱或其他評估的程序, 導致品質保證的價值卻下滑。最近發生的重大科學醜聞, 基本上是創造或偽造數據,或者錯誤的 評價和解釋。 Modern demands and possibilities• •••••••••••• 當代需求與可行性 From a relaxed point of view, one could say that the age of Internet-based communication is only just beginning — and this certainly goes for academe, too. However, access to academic journals is currently almost exclusively via the Internet. The reason for this rapid development must be the greater efficiency of net-based access, which in turn has many reasons. 從輕鬆的角度來看,可以說,網際網路為基礎的傳播時代正在掘起中 — 而且必然摻入學術界。 然而,由網際網路近用學術期刊的模式, 幾乎已經完成, 這麼快速發展的理由, 一定是因為效率更 佳的網路近用, 反過來, 也有很多原因。 The increase in efficiency is also absolutely necessary, since the proportion of the population engaged in research or using research results is increasing. If the efficiency of reception were not rising, the proportion of what any one individual could take in would constantly be on the decline, as would the use of any individual research result. 提高效率是絕對的必要,因為從事研究或運用研究成果的人口愈來愈多。如果納入研究圈的效 率未提昇,加入的人數會逐漸下降, 被使用的研究成果也會下降。 A further reason why there is a need for a clear increase in efficiency lies in the shape of certain areas of research. There are those which are particularly costly, and thus require as complete an exploitation of the results as possible. Others are of highest relevance to society and at the same time of great interdisciplinary complexity. They require the correlation and utilisation of many results from many different disciplines. We might cite as examples such ‘modern’ research topics as Risk Habitat Megacity(42) and of course Global Change. Relevant disciplines range from the further development of climate models, via examinations of traffic flow from an engineering point of view, to sociological insights into the change in the lives of Arctic peoples. 在特定研究領域裡, 對提高效率的需求, 特別殷切。它們的研究非常昂貴,需要儘可能地公告完 整的研究成果。還有一些與社會極度相關的領域,而且具有複雜的跨學科性, 他們需要其他不同 學科的相關研究成果和運用研究成果的資料。我們可以舉的例子包括,'現代'的研究課題, 如居 住在大城市的風險(註 42)、全球變遷。相關的學科範圍, 從進一步發展的氣候模式,經由工程學 觀點檢驗交通流量, 至由社會學觀察極地居民的生活改變。 註 42: Strategies for Sustainable Development in Megacities and Urban Agglomerations, The 50 000 participants in (and doubtless also the recipients of the insights obtained from) the International Polar Year 2007–2008 ( — a programme that represents only part of research into global change — come from 60 nations. Its persistent results — including a ‘data snapshot’ of the Polar Regions, which is perhaps more important than journal articles — will form a basis on which global change will be tracked in the coming decades. For this reason, the programme has adopted a policy which includes an obligation to make resulting data available rapidly and freely.
  • 3. Both the implementation of this one coordinated research programme of 170 formally independent project clusters and the utilisation of results demand an extremely rapid, effective and efficient communication system. This does not yet exist in institutionalised form, but it is planned in order to exchange data sets in real time that are needed for the implementation of the project. 來自 60 個國家的 50,000 人參加(無疑也是受益的)的 2007-2008 國際極地年(研究, 祗 是全球變遷研究的方案之一,它的持續性結果 — 包括極地的'資料快照', 或許比學刊論文更重要 — 將成為未來數十年研究全球變遷的基礎。出於這個原因,該方案採用一項政策,包括將資料 儘快且自由公告的義務。需要一個快速、有效果且有效率的傳播機制, 才能夠將 170 個個別獨立 的正式計畫, 群聚在一起, 並研究其成果。機構形式還不足以應因, 必須建立即時的交換資料集機 制, 才能滿足實施研究的需求。 Approaches to a solution• •• 解決方案 In the global knowledge society, the extensive knowledge present in people’s heads, the information that has been written down, and the data obtained at huge expense can only be really comprehensively and effectively accessed and utilized if they can be linked in every possible way, including ways as yet unknown. To the degree necessary, this is clearly beyond human capability. Therefore, machine processes — from the (full text) search engine to techniques of text and data mining — need to be employed. Today, however, only a financial giant like Google would be in any position to purchase access to the entire material of major publishers if it wanted to. Accordingly, in today’s STM (science, technology, medicine) fields, for example, only one (commercial) entity is in a position to make available a relevant part of all electronically available scientific texts of a certain quality standard and to network these via their citation structures: 在全球性的知識社會裡,知識廣泛地存在於人們的頭腦內,被記載下來的知識和花大錢取得的 數據, 必須以任何可能方式連結起來, 包括還不知道的方式, 才能夠真正地被全面地、有效果地被 近用與利用。因此,需要用機器處理, 從(全文)搜尋引擎到文字和數據的探勘技術。然而,今天 只有像谷歌這樣的金融鉅子, 如果它想要, 才有能力購置主要出版社全部出版品的近用權。同樣 的,在今天的科學技術醫學領域裡,將具有相當水準的科學論述, 以引文結構透過電子方式連結 起來, 只有一個(商業)實體具有此等能力: [] By contrast, what can already be done for openly accessible material at evidently little effort is made clear by limited, simple services such as Citeseer ( or Scientific Commons ( Alongside obvious search functionality, both services also contain textmining approaches in order to identify networks of persons (authors and co-authors), schools or communities. Such navigation aid for the sea of information would be highly useful only in complex contexts such as global change. 相形之下, 沒有太多力氣用在開放近用材料方面, 現有的網路引文搜尋引擎 (或科學共用(等, 其服務就顯得相當單 薄。除了明顯的搜尋功能外,這兩項服務也包含文字探勘,辨識網路上的人(作者和合作者)、 學校或社群。這種資訊之海的輔助領航工作, 在全球變遷這種複雜議題下, 非常有用。 An example of the evaluation of texts on biochemical compounds(43) shows that only their machine analysis allows researchers to recognise far-reaching correlations and to draw conclusions when the
  • 4. underlying foundations of these conclusions are spread over hundreds of publications. 在評估生物化學化合物的文本(註 43)時,只有經由機器分析, 研究人員才能體認影響深遠的相關 性,並得出結論,其結論的基礎遍布數以百計的出版品間。 註 43: Hofmann-Apitius, M., ‘Paradigm Changes Affecting the Practice of Scientific Communication in the Life Sciences’, in: Scientific Publishing in the European Research Area, Brussels, 15 February 2007. That even the refereeing of individual articles will not be able to manage without such techniques was pointed out by the journal Nature in a Special Report: ‘As information technology becomes more sophisticated, I think you are going to see more journals adding new tools to their screening processes.’(44) The report also explains why access to underlying data, presumed to be stored on CDs in cardboard boxes, is not a possible procedure in the refereeing context. 科學學刊在特別報告裡指出, 即使對論文逐一評閱, 也不能在沒有此等技術的情況下完成:'隨著 資訊技術變得更加成熟,更多的學刊使用新的工具篩選論文'(註 44)。該報告還解釋未公開的光 碟, 儲存的基本數據, 不能納入評閱的程序。 註 44: Marris, E., ‘Should journals police scientific fraud?, in: Nature. 439 (2006), 520–521, doi:10.1038/439520a. The need for access to full text and to underlying data becomes particularly clear if one considers that even the most valuable datasets are not adequately retrievable and usable if the texts which describe them or are otherwise associated with them are not available for automatic analysis services. Pure data- set catalogues, not connected with publications and the other contexts in which the authors of the data work, cannot in the long term do justice to the data(45) any more than just the abstracts of articles in journals can. 如果, 描述數據集的文字或其他相關的資訊沒有被自動分析服務納入, 即使最有價值的數據集也 不能充份地被檢索和使用,所以, 近用全文及底層數據的需求, 愈來愈明顯。沒有與作者其他的 作品相連結, 長遠來看, 單純的數據集目錄就不能發揮學刊論文(註 45)的摘要以外功能。 註 45: Pfeiffenberger, H., & Macario, A., ‘Text, Data and People – How to Represent Earth System Science’, CERN workshop on Innovations in Scholarly Communication(OAI4), Geneva, 20 October 2005. Conclusions••••••••••••• 結論 These considerations lead to the expectation that the future of academic communication will be marked
  • 5. by a wide variety of Internet-based services, which will efficiently make available and effectively present freely accessible articles, data and other materials in a variety of ways. 學術傳播的未來, 透過這些考量, 將指向放在以寬廣多樣網際網路為基礎的服務, 形成更有效率的 服務, 更有效果地以多種方式, 自由近用論文、資料及其他材料。 p. 62-65 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission/German Commission for UNESCO). -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 pp., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459,