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  1. 1. National non-European Initiatives: 欧洲以外各国的行动: Open Access in India – the Status Quo / Mangala Hirwade, Shivaji Science College, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India) 开放获取在印度的现状 / 曼格拉·爱伟(西瓦吉理学院,印度马哈拉施特拉邦那格浦尔市) India’s national Open Access policy••••••• 印度的国家开放获取政策 The Right to Information Act, which came into effect in 2005, has had an impact on publicly financed research: since this act was passed, all citizens have had the right to know the results and social benefits of this type of research. 2005 年生效的信息权利法案,对公共资助的研究产生影响:自法案通过后,所有公民都有权 知道这类研究的成果和社会效益。 The Indian government expects authors to make their works accessible preferably free of charge if they are the result of publicly funded research. The special session on the subject of Open Access, which took place at the 93rd Science Congress in Rajendranagar (Hyderabad) on 6 January 2006, expressed a recommendation for an ‘Optimal National Open Access Policy’. The recently formed National Knowledge Commission of India (NKC) and the National Association of Software and Service Companies of India (NASSCOM) together with other organisations support the ‘open courseware’ movement(122) in India for the purpose of improved distribution of knowledge resources. The NKC also formulates Open Access policies and guidelines for the sphere of higher education, research and development with the goal of improving access to research results and achieving their worldwide dissemination. 印度政府期望,对于公共资助研究的成果,作者应使其作品可免费获取。2006 年 1 月 6 日, 在拉晋多那加(海得拉巴)举行的第 93 届科学会议上,有个开放获取主题的特别会议,其建 议是“优化国家开放获取政策”。最近成立的印度国家知识委员会(NKC)和印度全国软件和服 务公司协会(NASSCOM)与其它组织共同支持在印度的“开放课程”运动(注 122),以改善知 识资源的传播。国家知识委员会也制订高等教育、研究与发展领域的开放获取政策和指导方 针,以改善获取研究成果,达到传播全球的目标。 注 122:‘Open courseware‘ is freely accessible study material (ed.). “开放课程”指自由获取学习教材(编者注) Open Access archiving••••• 开放获取存档 The Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Chennai, one of the first institutions in Open Access archiving in India, set up a mirror(123) for the Open Access archive arXiv in 1997. Even though there are more
  2. 2. than 29 open repositories available in India, so far only 16 are listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories (DOAR) (as of 6 April 2007). 清奈的数学研究所是印度首批开放获取存档机构之一,于 1977 年为开放获取档案库 arXiv 设 立镜像站。虽然现在印度已有 29 个以上的开放典藏库,但只有 16 个名列开放获取典藏库目录 (DOAR)(截至 2007 年 4 月 6 日)。 注 123: A ‘mirror‘ is the name given to an exact copy of data in computer networks (ed.). “镜像”指在计算机网络里,精确复制的一套数据(编者注)。 Open Access journals•••••• 开放获取期刊 The Open J-Gate portal (http://www.openj-gate.com/), which was set up by Informatics India Ltd. in 2006, provides electronic access to global journal literature and contains 3 801 Open Access journals (as of 3 May 2007). Currently there are 108 Indian research journals providing Open Access to full texts. They are mostly published by six journal publishers: Medknow Publications, Indian Medlars Centre of National Informatics, Indian Academy of Sciences, Indianjournals.com, Kamla-Raj Enterprises and Indian National Science Academy. None of these Open Access journals demands an author’s fee. They finance their operation by subscriptions, advertisements or grants. 印度信息学公司于 2006 年设立开放期刊门户(http://www.openj-gate.com/),提供对 全球期刊文献的电子访问,收录 3,801 种开放获取期刊(截至 2007 年 5 月 3 日;到 2009 年 3 月,收录 4,805 种,其中 2,626 种为同行评审期刊)。目前有 108 种印度研究期刊提供全 文的开放获取,大部分由六家期刊出版社出版:Medknow 出版社、印度 Medlars 国立信息学 中心、印度科学院、Indianjournals.com、Kamla-Raj 企业及印度国家科学院。这些开放 获取期刊都不向作者收费,收入来自订阅、广告与补助。 Initiatives for open source software• •••••••••••••• 开放源码软件的行动 The Open Source Software Resource Centre (OSSRC) was founded by IBM India, the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and the Indian Institute of Technology with the goal of significantly promoting the development of open source software in India. 开放源码资源中心(OSSRC)由 IBM 印度公司、先进计算发展中心(C-DAC)及印度理工学院 创办,以大力推动开放源码软件在印度的发展为目标。 The MAHITI.ORG (http://www.mahiti.org/) organisation provides services in the area of information and communications technology that are based on free/open source software, including a purely offline version of Wikipedia.org. MAHITI.ORG 提供基于自由/开放源码软件的信息与通讯技术服务,包括离线版的维基百科。
  3. 3. Open Courseware•••••••• 开放课程 The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and the National Council of Educational Research (NCERT) are leaders in the area of ‘open courseware’ (OCW). IGNOU produces materials for private study, offers educational television on different channels, and initiated the founding of the National Digital Repository for OCW. NCERT is in the process of making schoolbooks freely available — mainly in English, Hindi and Urdu — to students and teachers via its website (www.ncert.nic.in). 英迪拉·甘地国立开放大学(IGNOU)及国家教育研究委员会(NCERT)是开放课程(OCW)领 域的领导者。IGNOU 制作个人学习资料,在各频道提供教育电视节目,发起建立开放课程的国 立数字典藏库。NCERT 处理学校教科书——主要为英语、印地语及乌尔都语——通过其网站 (www.ncert.nic.in),免费向师生提供。 Metadata search services••• 元数据搜索服务 India has six significant metadata search services: Open J-Gate, Search Digital Libraries (SDL), CASSIR, Seed, Knowledge Harvester@ INSA and the Cross Journal Search Service of Scientific Journal Publishing in India (SJPI). 印度有六家重要的元数据搜索服务单位:开放期刊门户(Open J-Gate)、搜索数字图书馆 (SDL)、CASSIR、Seed、Knowledge Harvester@ INSA 与印度科学期刊出版跨刊搜索 服务(SJPI)。 Open Access — the perspective of scientists and scholars• ••••••••••• 开放获取——科学家与学者的观点 Academics in India see the advantages of Open Access on the one hand in its simplified, free access to knowledge, which would particularly benefit developing countries, and, on the other hand, in its potential to reach a very large readership. 印度学者看到了开放获取的优点,一方面可以简单自由地获取知识,特别有益于发展中国家, 另一方面有可能扩大读者面。 Many Indian academics, however, still do not consider Open Access an attractive proposition. Their criticism is that research institutions, funding bodies and government authorities are paying too little attention to the issue.They say that neither research institutions nor government bodies recognise Open Access publications or create incentives to publish research results via Open Access. According to researchers, a complete and accessible repository of Open Access publications is missing, as are the necessary experience with Open Access publishing and the required infrastructure, e.g. in
  4. 4. the form of hardware and electronic data links with high transmission rates. Finally, there is criticism that there is no national umbrella organisation which both upholds a clear policy in the area of Open Access and has the necessary competencies to promote it. 然而,还有很多印度学者并未将开放获取视为吸引人的建议,他们批评研究机构、资助单位与 政府机关对此问题关注不够。他们说,研究机构与政府单位都没有认同开放获取出版物,也没 有创造经由开放获取出版研究成果的激励机制。根据研究者的看法,欠缺一个完整可获取的开 放获取出版物典藏库,也没有必要的开放获取出版经验以及所需的基础设施,如硬件及高速传 输的电子数据链接。最后,还有人批评没有全国性的联盟组织,既能支持清晰的开放获取政 策,也有必需的推广能力。 Many scientists and scholars believe that publishers of renowned journals would not accept the archiving of research works in Open Access repositories. In actual fact, however, even renowned journals allow authors to archive preprints and postprints. In addition, scientists and scholars fear that the assessment of the impact of their research results would be difficult if they were not published in standard journals. Not least, they argue, jobs and distinctions are often awarded on the basis of the impact factor of a journal in which relevant research works are published. 许多科学家与学者认为,知名期刊的出版社不会接受在开放获取典藏库存档研究作品。其实不 然,即使是知名期刊,也允许作者存档预印本和后印本。此外,科学家与学者担心,如果没有 在传统期刊出版,对其研究成果影响力的评估较为困难。他们特别提出,工作与名声通常根据 出版研究成果的期刊的影响因子而定。 Despite these concerns, the National Institute of Technology in Rourkela decided in May 2006 that Open Access archiving of all of the institute’s research works, including doctoral dissertations and master’s theses, was mandatory. 尽管有这些顾虑,鲁吉拉的国立理工学院仍决定,从 2006 年 5 月开始,强制开放获取存档学 院的所有研究成果,包括博士与硕士论文。 Conclusion••••••••••••• 结论 So far, there are only a few open archives and Open Access initiatives in India, and there is still a long way to consolidation. Indian academia, however, under the active participation of government authorities and publishers, has taken a first step in this direction. Indian researchers see the value of Open Access journals and archives particularly in the increased visibility of information, the higher citation rate of articles, and the potential for knowledge to become usable more quickly by society. 到目前为止,印度只有少数的开放档案馆与开放获取行动,还有很长的路要走。但是,在政府 机关和出版社的积极参与下,印度学界已经朝此方向迈出了第一步。印度的研究者看到开放获 取期刊和档案馆的价值,特别在增加信息的曝光率、论文的高引用率以及知识更快被社会使用 的潜力方面。
  5. 5. p. 128 - 130 Open Access: Opportunities and Challenges. A handbook [开放获取 : 机会 及挑战] / European Commission, German Commission for UNESCO. -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 p., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5