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  • 1. Chapter 5: International Context 115 国际背景 National Initiatives in Europe / By Katja Mruck & Rubina Vock, Centre for Digital Systems, Freie Universität Berlin(81) 欧洲国家的行动 / 卡嘉·姆鲁克,鲁比娜·沃克(柏林自由大学数字系统中心)(注 81) 注 81: 感谢 Gudrun Gersmann、Stefan Gradmann 及 Norbert Lossau 的建议 及补充 Introduction••••••••••••• 导论 The demand for free access to scientific and scholarly information, which was originally voiced in the North American natural sciences, has now reached ‘old Europe’: many initiatives that are important for the international Open Access movement are of European origin(82). “ ”对自由获取科学和学术信息的需求,源自北美的自然科学界,现在已经传到了 老欧洲 , 国际开放获取运动的许多重要行动,源于欧洲(注 82)。 注 82: On European initiatives see 欧洲的行动,见: Ramjoué, Celina in this volume; on the history of Open Access cf. 开放获取历史,参见 Mruck, Katja/Gradmann, Stefan and Mey, Günter, 'Open Access: Wissenschaft als Öffentliches Gut', in: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(2) 2004: Art. 14, http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-04/2- 04mrucketal-d.htm. At the same time, a closer look at relevant position papers highlights national differences in the support accorded to Open Access in Europe. 与此同时,仔细研究有关的立场文件,发现欧洲各国在支持开放获取方面,有着明显的差异。 * In Europe the ‘Budapest Open Access Initiative’(83) was mainly signed by German, English, French, Italian and Spanish institutions, overwhelmingly by universities and university publishers, but more rarely by, for example, eastern European and Scandinavian institutions. “ ”在欧洲, 布达佩斯开放获取倡议 (注 83)主要的签署机构来自德国、英国、法国、 意大利和西班牙,几乎都是大学和大学出版社,甚少来自东欧和斯堪的纳维亚。 注 83: http://www.soros.org/openaccess/ * The ‘Berlin Declaration’(84) was signed by many associations of university rectors and research institutions in Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Spain, but, here too, eastern European countries and also Austria and the United Kingdom are hardly represented. In addition, 77 Italian universities signed the Berlin Declaration, but the national
  • 2. funding bodies and the conference of university presidents did not. “ ”柏林宣言 (注 84)被很多比利时、德国、法国、荷兰、瑞士和西班牙的大学校长协 会与研究机构签署,但同样的,鲜有来自东欧以及奥地利和英国的。此外,有 77 所意大利 大学签署了柏林宣言,但国立资助单位和大学校长会议却没有签名。 注 84: http://oa.mpg.de/openaccess- berlin/berlindeclaration.html * Currently, it is the ‘EU Petition’(85) that has the greatest distribution with almost 25 000 signatories (as of March 2007): besides institutions in the countries listed above, this petition has been signed by (funding) institutions and learned societies, for example, from Estonia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, as well as a few signatures from representatives of Greek, Polish, Romanian and Russian academic institutions. “ ”进行中的 向欧盟请愿 (注 85)涉及面最大,已有近 25,000 位签署者(至 2007 年 3 月)。除了来自以上国家的机构外,还包括来自其它国家的(资助)机构及学会签署,例 如爱沙尼亚、立陶宛、乌克兰、丹麦、挪威和瑞典,以及希腊、波兰、罗马尼亚和俄罗斯的 学术机构代表。 注 85: http://www.ec-petition.eu/ Open Access in individual European countries•••••••• 各欧洲国家的开放获取 The following overview of national Open Access initiatives in Europe is necessarily fragmentary(86). In addition, some countries do not have a well-developed Open Access debate (or if they do, it may only be accessed in that country’s native language). 以下概述的欧洲各国开放获取行动,必然是不完整的(注 86)。此外,某些国家没有充分 的开放获取讨论(或者有,可能只能以其母语获得)。 注 86: 德国的情形不在此描述,因为已经在本书其它章节详述。未做介绍的还包括瑞典的 数字科学档案馆门户(Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet, DiVA),目前已经联接 了 15 个大学典藏库,见 http://www.diva-potral.org/, 以及 Hagerlid, Jan, 'Open Access in Sweden 2002 - 2005' =[开放获取在瑞典,2002-2005], 2006, http://www.kb.se/openaccess/dokumentation/janh_elpub_final.pdf. United Kingdom 英国 Great Britain opened up the debate on Open Access early on, and in a very dedicated manner. In a comprehensive report, the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee(87) investigated access possibilities to academic works, business models of traditional and Open Access publishers, as well as alternative forms of publication. On the basis of this appraisal, it was recommended that British universities set up repositories through which university publications could be archived and made freely
  • 3. accessible on the Internet, a recommendation that the Research Councils UK(88) also subsequently adopted. As the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR)(89) shows, many repositories are now available in Great Britain for the implementation of this recommendation. 英国很早就开始辩论开放获取,且以非常专注的方式进行。在一份完整的报告里,下议院科 学和技术委员会(注 87)调查获取学术作品的可能性,传统及开放获取出版社的商业模式, 以及替代的出版形式。在此评估的基础上,建议英国大学设立典藏库,存档大学出版物,并 经由因特网自由获取,此建议随后也被英国研究理事会采纳(注 88)。如开放获取典藏库 目录(注 89)所示,为实施此一建议,现在英国有许多典藏库。 注 87: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctec h/399/399.pdf. 注 88: http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/; and http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/access/default.htm. 注 89: http://www.opendoar.org/. The Wellcome Trust and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are two examples of important UK-based actors. Even though the Wellcome Trust, an independent charity organisation, has not signed any of the above-listed position papers, it requires the recipients of its funds to make articles accessible without charge in PubMed Central(90) no later than six months after they are published(91). JISC, which is responsible for the use of new information and communications technologies in education and research in the UK, supports Open Access through various projects. Thus, for example, JISC supported the (further) development of Open Access publication models and improved metadata research between 2004 and 2006(92). 惠康信托基金会和联合信息系统委员会(JISC)是英国扮演重要角色的两个例子。惠康信 托基金会作为独立的慈善组织,尽管没有签署任何前述的立场文件,仍要求受资助者在研究 成果出版后 6 个月内(注 90),将文章置于 PubMed Central(注 91)供免费获取。 JISC 负责英国在教育与研究领域使用新的信息与通讯技术,通过多种计划支持开放获取, 如在 2004-2006 年间,JISC 支持(进一步)发展开放获取出版模式,以及改进元数据研 究(注 92)。 注 90:http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/. 注 91:见 http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD002766.html. 注 92:On metadata and Open Access see: Horstmann, Wolfram, ch. 3 in this volume. 有关元数据及开放获取,见本书第三章:沃尔夫勒姆·霍斯特曼的文章 The Netherlands 荷兰 In 2005, one of the most comprehensive national Open Access projects was launched in the Netherlands: DAREnet (Digital Academic Repositories)(93) manages the digital documents of every Dutch university, the National Library of the Netherlands, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Dutch research
  • 4. organisations. It is the only comprehensive network of digital academic repositories in any European state. At the end of March 2007, users had research access to more than 100 000 full-text documents. In addition, the full-text documents are automatically incorporated into the electronic inventory of the National Library of the Netherlands (e-depot). 2005 ——年,荷兰启动最完整的国家开放获取计划 数字学术典藏库(DAREnet)(注 93),管理每个荷兰大学、荷兰国家图书馆、荷兰皇家艺术与科学院及其它荷兰研究机构 的数字文献。这是欧洲唯一的综合性数字学术典藏库网络。至 2007 年 3 月底,用户可以获 取超过 10 万件全文资料。此外,全文文献自动纳入荷兰国家图书馆的电子呈缴库(e- depot)。 注 93: http://www.darenet.nl/ Approximately 45 000 publications by more than 200 renowned Dutch academics are accessible via Cream of Science, a further project in the context of DAREnet. The availability of complete bibliographies (and in many cases full-text documents)(94) means greater visibility for the work of the academics involved and their universities; for academic and general users, it means a well-developed availability of scientific and scholarly results. 200 多所荷兰知名学术机构的 45,000 “ ”件出版物,可经由 科学奶油 (Cream of Science)获取,这是 DAREnet 的进一步计划。可以获得完整的书目(很多是全文文献) (注 94),意味着学者及其大学的作品曝光率大增,对学者及一般用户来说,意味着可以 更好地获得科学与学术成果。 注 94: Approximately 60% of the works are freely available as full texts; this is not possible for the other texts for legal reasons. 大约 60%的作品免费提供全文。基于法律原因,其它作品不能提供全文。 France 法国 The Open Access movement in France is coordinated in a very centralised manner, in particular by the Centre for Direct Scientific Communication (Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe) of the National Science Research Centre, CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). The Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique)(95) of the CNRS provides in-depth information about Open Access on its website and has the objective of facilitating access to global research results. 法国的开放获取运动,以相当集中的方式协调,尤其由国家科学研究中心(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS)的直接科学交流中心 (Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe)。CNRS 所属的科学 技术信息研究所(Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique) (注 95)在其网站上,提供开放获取的深度信息,以方便获取全球的研究成果。 注 95: http://www.inist.fr/ In September 2005, numerous French research institutions came together to form a joint portal, the Hyper Articles en Ligne (HAL)
  • 5. (hyper articles online) archive(96). Subsequently, amongst other things, the platform PubliCNRS, on which all of the CNRS laboratories had placed their publications, was integrated in HAL. In contrast to many other European states, France places a particular emphasis on archiving documents from the humanities and social sciences. With the TGE ADONIS(97) project launched in 2004, the CNRS hopes to create a central platform for the international dissemination of documents in the humanities and social sciences. 2005 年 9 “ ”月,众多法国研究机构组成一个联合门户 在线超论文 (Hyper Articles en Ligne, HAL)档案馆(注 96)。随后 PubliCNRS,这个 CNRS 所有实验室原来放置其出 “ ”版物的平台,整合入 在线超论文 。与其它欧洲国家不同,法国特别强调存档人文和社会 科学的文献。2004 年,CNRS “启动 TGE ”阿多尼斯 计划(注 97),希望创建一个集中式平 台,在国际间传播人文和社会科学领域的文献。 注 96: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ 注 97: http://www.tge-adonis.fr/ Italy 意大利 In reaction to the Berlin Declaration, a conference to promote the dissemination of academic publications in line with the Open Access principle was organised among others by the Conference of Presidents of Italian Universities (Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane) in November 2004. During this conference, the rectors of 32 Italian universities signed the ‘Messina Declaration’(98) in support of the Berlin Declaration. Seventy- seven Italian universities have signed the Berlin Declaration, making Italy the country that has hitherto provided the largest number of signatories. While only a small percentage of Italian universities possesses institutional repositories, Italy does operate some international repositories, such as E-LIS(99), an Open Access archive for library and information sciences, and the archive of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics(100), through which scientists and scholars from all over the world, and particularly those from developing countries, can publish their academic documents (not just those from the field of physics) for free. 为了响应柏林宣言,意大利大学校长会议(Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane)于 2004 年 11 月参与组织了一次会议,以开放获取原则推动学 术出版物的传播。在此会议上,32 “ ”位大学校长签署了 墨西拿宣言 (注 98)以支持柏林宣 言。77 所意大利的大学已签署了柏林宣言,使意大利成为签署者最多的国家。虽然仅一小 部分意大利大学拥有机构典藏库,意大利却运营着若干国际级的典藏库,如 E-LIS(注 99)图书馆信息学开放获取档案馆,以及国际理论物理中心档案馆(注 100),全球的科 学家与学者,尤其是来自发展中国家的,均可免费在此发表其学术文献(不以物理学为限)。 注 98: http://www.aepic.it/conf/index.php?cf=1. 注 99: http://eprints.rclis.org/. 注 100: http://eprints.ictp.it/information.html.
  • 6. Summary••••••••••••••• 摘要 We have attempted to sketch the development of Open Access by way of examples: the UK as one of the pioneers of European Open Access, the Netherlands as a national network of repositories currently unique in Europe, France as an academic organisation with a centralised character, where, unlike in many other countries, Open Access initiatives in the humanities and social sciences play an important role, and Italy, where declarations of intent for Open Access exist in all universities, but where the necessary infrastructure for the practice of Open Access is only developing gradually, and in a largely decentralised fashion. 我们试图以实例方式,勾勒出开放获取的发展:英国是欧洲开放获取的先驱;荷兰的全国典 藏库网络独步全欧;法国的集中式学术组织与众不同,人文及社会科学的开放获取行动具有 重要作用;意大利虽然发表了代表所有大学的开放获取宣言,但开放获取实务所必需的基础 设施仍在逐步发展,而且多半以去中心的方式。 What is not sufficiently present as yet are forums through which information can be disseminated more systematically and continuously than has so far been the case, and through which national players can communicate with one another. One possible idea would, for example, be a European enlargement of the Open Access information platform (www.open-access.net), supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) amongst others, which was initially launched for the German-speaking area in May 2007. 不足的是,目前还没有建立论坛,信息无法更有系统且持续地传播,各国之间无法沟通。一 个可能的想法如欧洲的开放获取信息平台(www.open-access.net),由德国研究基金 会(DFG)及其它单位共同支持,已经于 2007 年 5 月上线,服务于德语区(2009 年 3 月 已有德、英双语界面)。 p. 115-119 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [开放获取 : 机 会及挑战] / European Commission, German Commission for UNESCO. -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 p., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79- 06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5
  • 7. Summary••••••••••••••• 摘要 We have attempted to sketch the development of Open Access by way of examples: the UK as one of the pioneers of European Open Access, the Netherlands as a national network of repositories currently unique in Europe, France as an academic organisation with a centralised character, where, unlike in many other countries, Open Access initiatives in the humanities and social sciences play an important role, and Italy, where declarations of intent for Open Access exist in all universities, but where the necessary infrastructure for the practice of Open Access is only developing gradually, and in a largely decentralised fashion. 我们试图以实例方式,勾勒出开放获取的发展:英国是欧洲开放获取的先驱;荷兰的全国典 藏库网络独步全欧;法国的集中式学术组织与众不同,人文及社会科学的开放获取行动具有 重要作用;意大利虽然发表了代表所有大学的开放获取宣言,但开放获取实务所必需的基础 设施仍在逐步发展,而且多半以去中心的方式。 What is not sufficiently present as yet are forums through which information can be disseminated more systematically and continuously than has so far been the case, and through which national players can communicate with one another. One possible idea would, for example, be a European enlargement of the Open Access information platform (www.open-access.net), supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) amongst others, which was initially launched for the German-speaking area in May 2007. 不足的是,目前还没有建立论坛,信息无法更有系统且持续地传播,各国之间无法沟通。一 个可能的想法如欧洲的开放获取信息平台(www.open-access.net),由德国研究基金 会(DFG)及其它单位共同支持,已经于 2007 年 5 月上线,服务于德语区(2009 年 3 月 已有德、英双语界面)。 p. 115-119 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [开放获取 : 机 会及挑战] / European Commission, German Commission for UNESCO. -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 p., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79- 06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5