Introduction To ProjectManagementEng. Mohamed Abd Elmoneim OsmanE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgChapters One, Two, & ThreePMBOK- 4th Edition
Course Objectives1. Understand the role of project management and theproject manager in achieving project success.2. Comprehend entire gamut of concepts, tools andtechniques, and terminology relating to the professionof Project Management in conformance with per PMIStandards3. Master identification of project needs, creation of WBSand how to plan to avoid scope creep, time and costoverruns, or quality problems later in the project.This course offers a methodological approach toProject Management to enable attendees to:2
Course Objectives4. Command the art of estimating project costs andschedules using simple and proven techniques.5. Attain expertise on meeting triple constraints,assessing and dealing with risks, and establishing adependable project control and monitoring system.6. Acquire knowledge and ability to pass PMPexamination.3
Why Project Management?The Need for Project Management:Before starting the Project Management science, the only way toimprove productivity was to demand harder and longer hours fromworkersUsing Project Management tools, most of the organizations andproject managers have increased their methodological effectivenessin dealing with project problems and increased their operationaloverall performance.17
• What Does Project Management Give to Managers ?Project Management gives managers:• greater control over extremely complex projects,• greater usage of available resources, and• more utilization of project time.18
About Project Management• History:The origin of Project Management science started in thelater half of 19th century, by studying and defining the“Work Process” from a simple scientific Processperspective by Frederic Taylor (1856:1915). He iscalled the father of scientific management.• Taylors associate, Henry Gantt (1861:1919) who isconsidered to be the forefather of project management,studied in great detail the order of operations in work.19
About Project Management• History:However Project Management techniquesrevolution did not start until the early 1950safter WWII when complex network diagramscalled PERT charts are used to controlcomplex projects.Later on, Project Management practitionersdeveloped the concept of project life cycle andincluded the concept of “Work BreakdownStructure” WBS .20
PMI & PMP• The Project Management Institute (PMI) is projectmanagement professional association with over 500,000member. Established in 1969 and located in US.• Project Management Professional (PMP) credentialrecognizes demonstrated knowledge and skill in leading anddirecting project teams and in delivering project results withinthe constraints of schedule, budget and resources.
The Project Management Framework• Chapter 1 –Introduction• Chapter 2 –Project Life Cycle and Organization• Chapter 3 – Project Management Process for a Project
Advantages of Using Formal Project Management• Better control of financial, physical, and human resources• Improved customer relations• Shorter development times• Lower costs• Higher quality and increased reliability• Higher profit margins• Improved productivity• Better internal coordination• Higher worker morale (less stress)
What is a project?“A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken tocreate a unique product, service or result”PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge)Is progressively elaboratedDistinguishing characteristics of each unique project will beprogressively detailed as the project is better understood.Progressive Elaboration -- definitionContinuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed andspecific information and more accurate estimates become available as theproject progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and completeplans that result from the successive iterations of the planning process.
What is a project?What do we mean by the word TEMPORARY?Temporary means:• Definite beginning and end. Not a continuous process.• With defined project objectives (scope, time, cost, andquality)• Team disbanded upon completion.Temporary does not necessarily mean Short in duration!Projects can last for several years!!All that temporary means is that project duration is finite, notongoing.
What is a project?Temporary does not mean:The product of the project will also be temporary.Most projects are done to produce products,service or result that is long lasting.Examples: a bridge, a dam, a building, a parkSome projects produce a product or service for aparticular occasion.Examples: Olympics, Fashion show, Grammy awards
What is a project?What do we mean by the words A UNIQUE?Unique product, service, or resultProjects involve creating a product, service, or result that hasnot been done exactly the same way before EVEN IF YOUHAVE BEEN DOING SAME CATEGORY OF PROJECTSMANY TIMES OVER!Different CLIENTS, REQUIREMENTS, LOCATIONS,etc.
Differences between Project and Operation Similarities with Operations/ Process :Performed by people (even one person)Constrained by limited resourcePlanned, executed and controlled series of tasksand activitiesperformed to achieve organizational objectives orstrategic plan Differences fromProject Operation/ProcessTemporary On-going & repetitiveUnique Similar outputsResources on Permanent resourcestemporaryupon-need basis3030
What is a Management ?“To manage is to forecast and plan,to organize, to command, tocoordinate, and to control”“Henry Fayol”“Management is the process of usingthe available resources with bestway to achieve the organizationgoals”31
What is a available Resources ?32(4M & E)Man powerMoneyMachineMaterialsEnvironment
What is a project management?Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, andtechniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.Project management is accomplished through the appropriate applicationand integration of the 42 logically grouped project managementprocesses comprising the 5 Process Groups.These 5 Process Groups are:Initiating,Planning,Executing,Monitoring and Controlling, andClosing
Project Management Knowledge AreasFour core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives. Project scope management involves defining and managing all the work requiredto complete the project successfully. Project time management includes estimating how long it will take to complete thework, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completionof the project. Project cost management consists of preparing and managing the budget for theproject. Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated orimplied needs for which it was undertaken.
Project Management Knowledge Areas• Four facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which theproject objectives are achieved.Project human resource management is concerned with making effectiveuse of the people involved with the project.Project communications management involves generating, collecting,disseminating, and storing project information.Project risk management includes identifying, analyzing, and respondingto risks related to the project.Project procurement management involves acquiring or procuring goodsand services for a project from outside the performing organization.• One knowledge area (project integration management) affects andis affected by all of the other knowledge areas.
Foundational Terms and Concepts• Essential Terms• Think of a process as a package of inputs,tools, and outputs used together to dosomething on the project.38
Projects and Strategic Planning• Projects are means ofAchieving organization’s strategic plan.Organizing activities that cannot be addressed within the organizationsnormal operational limits.• Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategicconsiderations:Market demandStrategic opportunity/business needCustomer requestTechnological advancementLegal requirementsEcological / Environmental ImpactsSocial need
project managementManaging a project typically includes:Identifying requirements,Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of thestakeholders as the project is planned and carried out,Balancing the competing project constraints including, but not limitedto:Scope,Quality,Schedule,Budget,Resources, andRisk.
The Triple ConstraintsTime: Finish on timeCost: Complete within budgetQuality: Meet performancerequirements and qualitytargets. Scope: All deliverables arecompleted.41
The Project Manager (PM)“Accountability is the one managerial task thatcannot be delegated. There must be ONEperson whose responsibility is to make aproject work; the Project Manager”,Norman Augustine,President and CEO,Lookheed Martin Corp.43
Role of a Project Manager (PM)• PM is the person assigned by the performingorganization to achieve the project objectivesEffective Project Management requires:• Understanding and applying the knowledge, toolsand techniques recognized as good practice• Possessing the needed characteristics of:1. Knowledge2. Performance3. Personal44
Project Management, ProgramManagement, and Portfolio Management“Project Management exists in a broader context governedby Program Management and Portfolio Management.”Organizational Strategies and Priorities are linked and have relationships- Between portfolios and programs,- Between programs and individual projects!PMOPort folioProgramProject s & Operat ion
Program & PortfolioOrganizational Planning decides prioritization amongthe projects, having regard to:- Strategic plan- Funding- RiskThis means finds and support for component projectsis provided on the basis of risk categories, specificlines of business, or general type of projects (internalprocess improvement or infrastructure projects).
Portfolio ManagementA portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and otherwork that are grouped together to facilitate effectivemanagement of that work to meet strategic businessobjectives.Portfolio Management help their organizationsmake wise investment decisionsby helping to select and analyze projects from a strategicperspective
Program ManagementA program is:“a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtainbenefits and control not available from managing them individually.”A program manager provides leadership and direction for the projectmanagers heading the projects within the program.ADVANTAGESDecreased riskEconomies of ScaleProgram Management: the centralized coordinated management of aprogram to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.
Project Management, ProgramManagement, and Portfolio Management
Project Management, ProgramManagement, and Portfolio ManagementPORTFOLIOSPROGRAMSPROJECTS
Project Management VS. Project Portfolio Management
Project Management OfficeA project management office (PMO):is a department that centralizes the management of projects.A PMO usually takes one of three roles:• Project Support:Provide project management guidance to project managers inbusiness units.• Project Management Process/Methodology:Develop and implement a consistent and standardizedprocess.• Training:Conduct training programs or collect requirements for anoutside company
Project Management Office (PMO) – Cont’d• Home for project managers:– Maintain a centralized office from which project managers are loanedout to work on projects.• Internal consulting and mentoring:–Advise employees about best practices.• Project management software tools:–Select and maintain project management tools for use by employees.• Portfolio management:– Establish a staff of program managers who can manage multipleprojects that are related, such as infrastructure technologies, desktopapplications and so on, and allocate resources accordingly.
A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in avariety of ways which may include, but are not limited to:Managing shared resources across all projects administered bythe PMO;Identifying and developing project management methodology,best practices, and standards;Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight;Monitoring compliance with project management standardspolicies, procedures, and templates via project audits;Developing and managing project policies, procedures,templates, and other shared documentation (organizationalprocess assets); andCoordinating communication across projects.Project Management Office
Differences between the role of project managers and a PMO mayinclude the following:The project manager focuses on the specified project objectives, whilethe PMO manages major program scope changes which may be seen aspotential opportunities to better achieve business objectives.The project manager controls the assigned project resources to best meetproject objectives while the PMO optimizes the use of sharedorganizational resources across all projects.The project manager manages the constraints (scope, schedule, cost, andquality, etc.) of the individual projects while the PMO manages themethodologies, standards, overall risk/opportunity, andinterdependencies among projects at the enterprise level.Project Management Office
StakeholdersSome examples of project stakeholders
Enterprise Environmental Factors• Refer to both internal & external environmental factors that surround orinfluence a project’s success• As an input in almost all project management process• May enhance or constrain project management options• May have positive or negative influence on the outcome• Examples: Organizational culture, structure,and processes Government or industry standards Infrastructure Existing human resources Personnel administration Company work authorizationsystems Marketplace conditions Stakeholder risk tolerances Political climate Organization’s establishedcommunications channels Commercial databases Project management information
The Project Life CycleA project life cycle is a collection of generally sequential and sometimesoverlapping project phases whose name and number are determined bythe management and control needs of the organization or organizationsinvolved in the project, the nature of the project itself, and its area ofapplication.No matter how large or small, simple or complex, all projects can bemapped to the following life cycle structure:Starting the project,Organizing and preparing,Carrying out the project work, andClosing the project.
Project Life Cycle Characteristics• Uncertainty and risk are highest in the beginning.• The chances of successfully completing the projectare therefore lowest at the start.• But as we proceed, the uncertainty, risk becomeprogressively reduced, and our chances ofsuccessfully completing the project becomeprogressively brighter
Project PhasesProject phases are divisions within a project where extra control is needed toeffectively manage the completion of a major deliverable.Project phases are typically completed sequentially, but can overlap in someproject situations.A project phase is not a Project Management Process Group.All phases have similar characteristicsWhen phases are sequential, the close of a phase ends with some form oftransfer or handoff of the work product produced as the phase deliverable.This phase end represents a natural point to reassess the effort underwayand to change or terminate the project if necessary. These points are referredto as phase exits, milestones, phase gates, decision gates, stage gates, or killpoints.The work has a distinct focus that differs from any other phase. This ofteninvolves different organizations and different skill sets.The primary deliverable or objective of the phase requires an extra degree ofcontrol to be successfully achieved.
Phase-to-Phase RelationshipsThere are three basic types of phase-to-phase relationships:A sequential relationship, where a phase can only start once theprevious phase is complete. The step-by-step nature of this approachreduces uncertainty, but may eliminate options for reducing theschedule.An overlapping relationship, where the phase starts prior tocompletion of the previous one. Overlapping phases may increaserisk and can result in rework if a subsequent phase progressesbefore accurate information is available from the previous phase.An iterative relationship, where only one phase is planned at anygiven time and the planning for the next is carried out as workprogresses on the current phase and deliverables. This approach isuseful in largely undefined, uncertain, or rapidly changingenvironments such as research, but it can reduce the ability toprovide long term planning.
Product vs. Project Life Cycle RelationshipsThe product life cycle consists of generally sequential, non-overlappingproduct phases determined by the manufacturing and control need of theorganization.All projects have a purpose or objective, but in those cases where theobjective is a service or result, there may be a life cycle for the service orresult, not a product life cycle.When the output of the project is related to a product, there are manypossible relationships, for e.g.:The development of a new product could be a project on its own.Alternatively, an existing product might benefit from a project to addnew functions or features, or a project might be created to develop a newmodel.
Organizational Influences on Project ManagementThe organizational culture, style, and structure influence how projectsare performed. An organization’s degree of project management maturityand its project management systems can also influence the project.When a project involves external entities as part of a joint venture orpartnering, the project will be influenced by more than one enterprise.
Organizational Cultures and StylesCultures and styles may have a strong influence on a project’s ability tomeet its objectives. Cultures and styles are typically known as “culturalnorms.” The “norms” include a common knowledge regarding how toapproach getting the work done, what means are considered acceptablefor getting the work done, and who is influential in facilitating the workgetting done.Most organizations have developed unique cultures that manifest innumerous ways including, but not limited to:Shared visions, values, norms, beliefs, and expectations,Policies, methods, and procedures,View of authority relationships, andWork ethic and work hours.The organizational culture is an enterprise environmental factor
Types of Organizational Structures (1)Functional• Organization is groupedby areas of specialization• Project generally occurwithin a single departmentProjectized• Entire company isorganized by projects• Personnel are assignedand report to a projectmanager
Types of Organizational Structures (2)Weak Matrix• Power rest with thefunctional manager• Power of project manager= coordinator orexpediterBalanced Matrix• Power is shared betweenthe project manager andthe functional manager
Types of Organizational Structures (3)Strong Matrix• Power rest with the projectmanager• Composite
Organizational StructureAdvantages DisadvantagesFunctional • Easier management of specialists• Team members report to only onesupervisor• Similar resources are centralized, as thecompany is grouped by specialties• Clearly defined career paths in areas ofwork specialization• People place more emphasis on theirfunctional specialty to the detriment of theproject• No career path in project management• The project manager has little or no authorityProjectized • Efficient project organization• Loyalty to the project• More effective communication thanfunctional• No “home” when project is completed• Lack of professionalism in disciplines• Duplication of facilities and job functions• Less efficient use of resourcesMatrix • Highly visible project objectives• Improved project manager control overresources• More support from functional area• Maximum utilization of scarce resources• Better coordination• Extra administration is required• More than one boss for project teams• More complex to monitor and control• Tougher problems with resource allocation• Need extensive policies and procedures
Organizational StructureInfluences of organizational structure on projects
The Project Manager’sPower by Organization Type79
Organizational Process Assets• Processes & Procedures Organizational standard processes such as standards, policies Standardized guidelines, work instruction, proposal evaluation criteria, and performancemeasurement criteria Templates Financial control procedures Procedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorization Etc.• Corporate Knowledge Base Process measurement databases Project files Historical information & lesson learned knowledge bases Issue and defect management databases Configuration management knowledge bases Financial databases Etc.
1. Develop Project Charter: is the process of developing a document thatformally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initialrequirements that satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations. Inmultiphase projects, this process is used to validate or refine thedecisions made during the previous iteration of Develop Project Charter.2. Identify Stakeholders: is the process of identifying all people ororganizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevantinformation regarding their interests, involvement, and impact on projectsuccess.Initiating Process Group
Planning Process Group1. Develop Project Management Plan: is the process of documenting theactions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate allsubsidiary plans. The project management plan becomes the primarysource of information for how the project will be planned, executed,monitored and controlled, and closed.2. Collect Requirements: is the process of defining and documentingstakeholders’ needs to meet the project objectives3. Define Scope: is the process of developing a detailed description of theproject and product.4. Create Work Breakdown Structure: is the process of subdividingproject deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageablecomponents.
Planning Process Group6. Sequence Activities: is the process of identifying and documentingrelationships among the project activities.7. Estimate Activity Resources: is the process of estimating the type andquantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required toperform each activity.5. Define Activities: is the process of identifying the specific actions to beperformed to produce the project deliverables.8. Estimate Activity Durations: Estimate Activity Durations is theprocess of approximating the number of work periods needed tocomplete individual activities with estimated resources.
9. Develop Schedule: Develop Schedule is the process of analyzingactivity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and scheduleconstraints to create the project schedule.10. Estimate Costs: Estimate Costs is the process of developing anapproximation of the monetary resources needed to complete projectactivities.Planning Process Group11. Determine Budget: Determine Budget is the process of aggregatingthe estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establishan authorized cost baseline.12. Plan Quality: Plan Quality is the process of identifying qualityrequirements and/or standards for the project and product, anddocumenting how the project will demonstrate compliance.
13. Develop Human Resource Plan: Develop Human Resource Plan isthe process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities,and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffingmanagement plan.14. Plan Communications: Plan Communications is the process ofdetermining project stakeholder information needs and defining acommunication approachPlanning Process Group15. Plan Risk Management: Plan Risk Management is the process ofdefining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.16. Identify Risks: Identify Risks is the process of determining whichrisks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.
Planning Process Group17. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Perform Qualitative RiskAnalysis is the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or actionby assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.18. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Perform Quantitative RiskAnalysis is the process of numerically analyzing the effect of identifiedrisks on overall project objectives.19. Plan Risk Responses: Plan Risk Responses is the process ofdeveloping options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reducethreats to project objectives.20. Plan Procurements: Plan Procurements is the process of documentingproject purchasing decisions, specifying the approach, and identifyingpotential sellers.
Executing Process group1. Direct and Manage Project Execution: Direct and Manage ProjectExecution is the process of performing the work defined in the projectmanagement plan to achieve the project’s objectives.2. Perform Quality Assurance: Perform Quality Assurance is the processof auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality controlmeasurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operationaldefinitions are used.3. Acquire Project Team: Acquire Project Team is the process ofconfirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessaryto complete project assignments.4. Develop Project Team: Develop Project Team is the process ofimproving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall teamenvironment to enhance project performance.
Executing Process group5. Manage Project Team: Manage Project Team is the process of trackingteam member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, andmanaging changes to optimize project performance.6. Distribute Information: Distribute Information is the process ofmaking relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned.7. Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Manage Stakeholder Expectationsis the process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meettheir needs and addressing issues as they occur.8. Conduct Procurements: Conduct Procurements is the process ofobtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group1. Monitor and Control Project Work: Monitor and Control Project Workis the process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meetthe performance objectives defined in the project management plan.Monitoring includes status reporting, progress measurement, andforecasting. Performance reports provide information on the project’sperformance with regard to scope, schedule, cost, resources, quality, andrisk, which can be used as inputs to other processes.2. Perform Integrated Change Control: Perform Integrated ChangeControl is the process of reviewing all change requests, approvingchanges, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizationalprocess assets, project documents, and the project management plan.
3. Verify Scope: Verify Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance ofthe completed project deliverables.4. Control Scope: Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status ofthe project and product scope and managingchanges to the scope baseline.5. Control Schedule: Control Schedule is the process of monitoring thestatus of the project to update project progress andmanaging changes to the schedule baseline.6. Control Costs: Control Costs is the process of monitoring the status ofthe project to update the project budget andmanaging changes to the cost baseline.Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
7. Perform Quality Control: Perform Quality Control is the process ofmonitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities toassess performance and recommend necessary changes.8. Report Performance: Report Performance is the process of collectingand distributing performance information including status reports,progress measurements, and forecasts.9. Monitor and Control Risks: Monitor and Control Risks is the processof implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks,monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating riskprocess effectiveness throughout the project.10. Administer Procurements: Administer Procurements is the process ofmanaging procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance,and making changes and corrections as needed.Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
Closing Process Group1. Close Project or Phase: Close Project or Phase is the process offinalizing all activities across all of the management Process Groups toformally complete the project or phase.2. Close Procurements: Close Procurements is the process of completingeach project procurement.
Why Project Management :• Increase sales• Reduce costs• Improve quality• Improve Customer satisfaction• Enhance the Work Environment• Enhance the result in many other benefits.114PM (Summary)
PM (Summary) Projects: Temporary & Unique Project Life Cycle:Initiation, Planning, Execution, control and Close Out Project Management:Knowledge , skills and Tools & Techniques Project Management Constraints:Time, Cost, and Quality (for a defined Scope) The Project Manager = Accountability Planning = Scope + schedule + resources+ risks + budgeting Organization structure Function & Projectized and matrix Project Management Process Groups 115
PMI PMP Certification Overview• 4 hours of examination• 200 Objective type questions• 175 questions for scoring and the rest 25 for validating future examination questions• 4 hours of exam time• Additional 15 minutes for tutorial• Exam components1. Initiation: 11%2. Planning: 23%3. Executing: 27%4. Monitoring and Controlling: 21%5. Closing: 9%6. Professional and Social Responsibility: 9%