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  • Keywords: personality
  • Keywords: psychoanalytic approach, unconscious motivation Graphics: picture of Freud pg. 420 Myers
  • Keywords: conscious, preconscious, unconscious Graphics: fig. 11.1 pg. 475 Hockenbury
  • Keywords: id Graphics: fig. 11.1 pg. 475 Hockenbury
  • Keywords: defense mechanisms
  • Keywords: repression, reaction formation
  • Keywords: displacement, sublimation
  • Keywords: projection, rationalization, regression
  • Keywords: fixation
  • Keywords: oral stage
  • Keywords: anal stage
  • Keywords: phallic stage, Oedipus complex, Electra complex
  • Keywords: latency stage
  • Keywords: genital stage
  • Keywords: Karen Horney, object relations theories, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung Graphics: pics. of Horney pg. 484, Adler pg. 485 of Hockenbury, pic. of Jung pg. 425 Hockenbury, pic. of Erikson pg.407 Hockenbury
  • Personality

    1. 1. Personality <ul><li>A person’s general style of interacting with the world </li></ul><ul><li>People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Approach: Freudian Psychoanalysis and Post-Freudian Theories </li></ul>Personality
    3. 3. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Developed by Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes unconscious motivation - the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind </li></ul>
    4. 4. Psychoanalytic Approach Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Information which can easily be made conscious Thoughts, feelings, urges, and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness Information in your immediate awareness Rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality Irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality
    5. 5. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Conscious - all things we are aware of at any given moment </li></ul>Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
    6. 6. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Preconscious - everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness </li></ul>Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
    7. 7. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Unconscious - inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives </li></ul>Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
    8. 8. Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind <ul><li>Id - instinctual drives present at birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does not distinguish between reality and fantasy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operates according to the pleasure principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego - develops out of the id in infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understands reality and logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mediator between id and superego </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internalization of society’s moral standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for guilt </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety </li></ul>
    10. 10. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Repression - keeping anxiety-producing thoughts out of the conscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction formation - replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite </li></ul>
    11. 11. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Displacement - when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation - displacement to activities that are valued by society </li></ul>
    12. 12. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Projection - reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization - reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Regression - retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development </li></ul>
    13. 13. Psychosexual Stages <ul><li>Freud’s five stages of personality development, each associated with a particular erogenous zone </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation - an attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are equivalent to how it way achieved in these stages </li></ul>
    14. 14. Oral Stage (birth - 1 year) <ul><li>Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood </li></ul>
    15. 15. Anal Stage (1 - 3 years) <ul><li>Anus is associated with pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood </li></ul>
    16. 16. Phallic Stage (3 - 5 years) <ul><li>Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals </li></ul><ul><li>Oedipus or Electra complex can occur </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females </li></ul>
    17. 17. Latency Stage (5 - puberty) <ul><li>Sexuality is repressed </li></ul><ul><li>Children participate in hobbies, school and same-sex friendships </li></ul>
    18. 18. Genital Stage (puberty on) <ul><li>Sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work, fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages </li></ul>
    19. 19. Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories <ul><li>Karen Horney’s focus on security </li></ul><ul><li>Object relations theories </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler’s individual psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung’s collective unconscious </li></ul>