BIOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
Contact Hours/ Week : (03+01) Credits : 3.5
Total Lecture Hours :39+13 CIE Marks : 50
Sub. Code : BT 51 SEE Marks : 50
Scope of Chemical Reaction Engineering. Classification of reactions. Rate equation and rate of reaction. Factors
affecting rate of reaction. Chemical kinetics and Thermodynamics Equilibrium. Temperature dependency of rate
constant from Arrhenius, Collision and Transition state theories. Molecularity and order of reaction.
Difference between elementary and non-elementary reactions. Kinetic models and mechanisms for nonelementary
reactions. Types of reactors. 12 Hours
Interpretation of batch reactor data. Constant & Variable Volume batch reactor. Analysis : Differential method,
Integral method, half-life method. Method of excess and method of isolation (For Reverssible and Irriversibale
reactions up to second order). Autocatalytic reactions.
DESIGN OF IDEAL REACTORS
Concept of ideality. Development of design equations for batch, tubular and stirred tank reactors for both constant
and variable volume reactions. Evaluation of rate equations from data obtained in these reactors.
COMPARISON OF IDEAL REACTORS
General graphical comparison. 9 Hours
MULTIPLE REACTOR SYSTEMS
Plug flow and/or Mixed flow reactors in Series, parallel and series parallel. Reactors of different types and sizes in
DESIGN OF REACTORS FOR MULTIPLE REACTIONS
Design of Batch reactor, Plug and Mixed flow reactors for Parallel, Series and Series- Parallel reactions (Only
irreversible reactions must be considered). 11 Hours
Introduction, Material, Energy balances and conversions.
ANALYSIS OF NON ISOTHERMAL REACTOR
Design procedure (For single/ simple reactions only). Optimum temperature Progression.
1. Chemical Reaction Engineering - Octave Levenspeil, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
2. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering - H. Scott Fogler, 3 edition, Prentice Hall 2001.
1. Chemical Engineering Kinetics - J.M. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1984.
Contact Hours/ Week : 04 Credits : 4
Total Lecture Hours :52 CIE Marks : 50
Sub. Code : BT 52 SEE Marks : 50
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Introduction, anatomy of immune system, cells and organs of the
immune system, Primary and secondary Lymphoid organs, antigens, Different Characteristics of
Antigens, Mitogens, Hapten, Immunogen, Adjuvants.
Classification of immune responses: Types of immune responses – Racial, special and
individual, Classification of immune system – innate - Skin and mucosal surface, Physiological
Barriers, Phagocytic Barriers, Inflammation and adaptive immunity.
HUMORAL MEDIATED IMMUNITY: B-lymphocytes and their activation; structure and
function of immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin classes and subclasses, idiotypes and anti-
idiotypic antibodies, genetic control of antibody production
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Thymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) - their ontogeny and
types, MHC Complex, antigen presenting cells (APC), mechanisms of T cell activation,
macrophages, dendritic cells, langerhans cells, mechanism of phagocytosis, Antigen processing
and presentation. 12 Hours
IMMUNE REGULATION AND TOLERANCE: Complement activation and types and their
biological functions, cytokines and their role in immune response, immunotolerance,
Hypersensitivity its types and treatment.
IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDER: Autoimmune disorders and types, pathogenic
mechanisms, treatment, experimental models of auto immune disease, primary and secondary
immunodeficiency disorders, mechanism of AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies.
TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY: Immunological basis of graft, types of
transplantation, mechanism of graft rejection, role of HLA in graft rejection, tissue typing,
immunosuppression and immunosuppressive drugs,
Tumor of the immune system: tumor specific antigens, tumor potent immune response – NK
cells and Macrophages. 10 Hours
MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY: Basic concepts of vaccine design and development Vaccines
and their types, production of recombinant-DNA vaccines. Catalytic antibodies, application of
PCR technology to produce antibodies, immunotherapy with genetically engineered antibodies.
Production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and their applications. Stem cells isolation,
culturing and applications to immunology.
Immunological Techniques: Antigen antibody interaction – Precipitation reactions,
Agglutination reactions, Blood typing, A, B, ABO & Rh, principles and applications of ELISA,
RadioImmuno Assay (RIA), immuno-electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence, chemiluminescence
assays. 10 Hours
1. Immunology an Introduction – Tizard, Thomson 2004.
2. Immunology – J Kubey, WH Freeman. 2003.
3. Immunology & Immunotechnology – Ashim K Chakravarthy, Oxford University Press,
4. Immundiagnostics – S C Rastogi, New Age International. 1996.
1. Essential Immunology – Roitt I. Blackwell Scientific Publications,
2. Molecular Immunology – Benjamini E. 2002.
3. Immunology A short course – Benjamini E. and Leskowitz S. Wiley
Liss, NY, 1991.
4. The Immune System – Peter Parham, Garland Science, 2005
5. Understanding Immunology – Peter Wood, Pearson Education, II edition, 2006
GENETIC ENGINEERING & APPLICATIONS
Contact Hours/ Week :03 Credits : 3
Total Lecture Hours :39 CIE Marks : 50
Sub. Code :BT 53 SEE Marks : 50
INTRODUCTION: Role of genes with in cells, genetic code, Plasmids: Definition, types,
Classification and Purification. Biology and salient features of vectors, types of vectors –
plasmids, cosmids, phages and viruses. Method of creating recombinant DNA molecules.
ENZYMES IN GENETIC ENGINEERING: Introduction Restriction Endonculeases - Exo &
exdo nucleases, classification, mode of action. Enzymes in modification -
Polynucleotidephosphorylase, phosphatases, polynucleotide Kinase, Ligases, DNase, RNase and
their mechansim of action.
CONSTRUCTION OF DNA LIBRARIES: Isolation and purification of nucleic acids,
quantification, sequencing and storage. Construction of genomic and CDNA libraries, screening
and its application.
NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION AND AMPLIFICATION:
Methods of nucleic acid hybridization – Southern, Northern hybridization and Western blot.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Principle, PCR methodology, types and its applications,
nucleic acid mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro
METHODS OF GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES: Gene transfer techniques-
electroporation, microprojectile system, liposome mediated transfer, gene gun and calcium
phosphate co- precipitation etc. Agro bacterium-mediated gene transfer in plants – Ti plasmid:
structure and functions, Ti plasmid based vectors - advantages.
TRANSGENIC SCIENCE AND GENETIC IMPROVEMENT:
Transgenic science in plant improvement, biopharming – plants as bioreactors, transgenic crops
for increased yield. Marker-assisted selection and breeding for improvement. Transgenic science
for animal improvement, biopharming - animals as bioreactors for recombinant proteins. Marker-
assisted selection and genetic improvement of livestock.
rDNA - APPLICATIONS:
Gene Cloning in Medicine (Insulin, Growth hormones). Engineering microbes for the production
Introduction, methods of Gene Therapy (Ex Vivo and In Vivo), Case study of ADA, cancer,
SCID as an example. Advantages and Limitations of Gene Therapy.
1. Introduction to Genetic Engineering – Nicholl. Cambridge Low Price Edition, 2006.
2. Principles of gene manipulation – An introduction to genetic engineering, Old R.W.,
Primrose S.B., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993.
3. the molecular pathology of human disease – From Genetics to Gene Therapy – by David S
Latchman, BIOS scientific publishers, 1994.
4. Genes VIII – Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell Press, 2007.
5. DNA Science – David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer and Dvaid A Crotty, I K International, 2003.
1. Molecular Biotechnology – Principles and Practices by Channarayappa, 2006, University
2. Genetic Engineering Vol. 1-4 – (Williamson Edition)
3. Recombinant DNA – Watson et al., 1983.
4. Vectors – Rodriguer and Denhardt, 1987.
5. Current protocols in molecular biology – Greena Publishing Associates, NY, 1988. Berger
S.L. Kimmel A.R. Methods in enzymology, Vol.152, Academic Press, 1987.
6. Molecular cloning Volumes I, II and III – Sambrook J et al (2000). Cold Spring Harbor lab
Contact Hours/ Week : 03 Credits : 3
Total Lecture Hours : 39 CIE Marks : 50
Sub. Code : BT 54 SEE Marks : 50
Introduction to enzymes, History, Classification, Sources,Mechanism and kinetics of enzyme
action: Concept of active site and energetics of enzyme substrate complex formation, specificity
of enzyme action; kinetics of single substrate reactions; turn over number; estimation of
Michaelis-Menton parameters. Importance of KM . 9 Hours
Advantages of enzymes vs chemical catalysts, Enzyme catalysis (Acid-base, Covalent, Metal ion
catalysis). Mechanism of coenzymes (NAD/NADP, FAD/FADH2)
ENZYMES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE
Acetylcholinesterase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE Inhibitors, HMG Co A
reductase inhibitors , chymotrypsin; amylase isoenzymes. 08 Hours
Purification of enzymes
Strategies of purification of enzymes, criteria of purity, molecular weight determination and
characterization of enzymes. Few examples of enzyme purification.
Introduction reversible inhibition-competitive, uncompetitive, non competitive. Irreversible
inhibition. 07 Hours
Enzyme assays: spectrophotometry, turbidometry, Methods for investigating the kinetics of
Enzyme catalyzed reactions –Initial velocity studies, rapid-reaction techniques.
Physical and chemical techniques of enzyme immobilization; applications of immobilized
enzyme. Catalytic antibodies. Biocatalysts from extreme Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic
microorganisms (extremozymes). Artificial enzymes. 08 Hours
Importance of enzymes in diagnostics, Enzyme pattern in diseases like Myocardial infarctions
(SGOT, SGPT & LDH). Isoenzymes (CK, LD). Use of isozymes as markers in cancer
Enzymes used in detergents, use of proteases in food, leather and wool industries; methods
involved in production of glucose syrup from starch (using starch hydrolyzing enzymes),
production of maltose and sucrose, uses of lactase in dairy industry. 07 Hours
1. Fundaments of Enzymology - Nicholas C Price and Stevens Oxford
2.Understanding Enzymes -Trevor
3. Enzymes in Industry: Production and -W. Gerhartz
4. Enzymes - Dixon and Webb. IRL Press.
5.Lehninger principles of Biochemistry -Nelson &cox
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN I
Contact Hours/ Week : 03 Credits : 3
Total Lecture Hours : 39 CIE Marks : 50
Sub. Code : BT 55 SEE Marks : 50
Basic considerations in design. General design procedure. Equipment classification. Various components of process
equipment. Design parameters. Pressure vessel codes. 7 Hours
Material selection. Factors affecting design. Stresses due to static and dynamic loads (Internal &
External).Temperature effects. Economic considerations. 7 Hours
Design parameters, conditions & stresses. Design of shell and other vessel components. Vessel at low & high
operating temperatures. Numerical design problems using given process parameters.
VESSEL COMPONENT DESIGN
Design of supports for vessels - Bracket, Lug, Leg, Saddle and Skirt supports. Design of flanges & nozzles –
Classification of flanges. Flange thickness calculation, Gasket selection and design, Bolt selection and calculation.
Nozzle design. Design of vessel closures – Flat plates, Formed heads, Elliptical & Hemispherical heads.
Design of reaction tanks with agitation and jacket. Types of agitators, baffles. Power requirement calculations.
Design of tank dimensions and agitation system components. Drive calculations & selection of accessories. Design
of jackets. Support calculations for the system. Numerical problems.
1. Process Equipment Design - M. V. Joshi, Macmillan & Co. India, Delhi, 3rd Edn. reprint 1998.
2. Process Equipment Design – Vessel Design - Brownell & Young, John Willey, 1951
3. Process Design of Equipment – Vol 1 - S. D. Dawande, Central Techno Publications. 3rd. Edn, 2003.
1. Chemical Engineers Handbook - Perry & Green, 7th Edn, McGraw Hill, 1997.
2. Pressure Vessel Code – IS 2825 - IS Code, B.I.S., New Delhi, 1969.
BIOKINETICS & ENZYME TECHNOLOGY LAB
Lab Hours/ Week :3 Credits : 1.5
Sub. Code : BTL52 CIE Marks : 50
SEE Marks : 50
1. Mixed Flow Reactor Analysis.
2. Plug Flow Reactor Analysis.
3. Batch Reactor Analysis
4. RTD in PFR
5. RTD in MRF
6. Isolation of alpha-amylase from sweet potato or saliva
7. Determination of Kinetics constants (Km & Vmax) and Specific activity of an enzyme
8. Effect of pH on enzyme activity
9. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity
10. Effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity
11. Molecular weight determination of a protein by molecular sieving
12. Enzyme Immobilization Techniques.
13. Kinetics of immobilized enzymes.
1. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill (2nd Ed.).
2. Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.
3. Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and Gene
4. Expression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992.
5. Smith J.M. Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, New Delhi,
6. Carbery J A. Chemical and Catalytic Reactor Engineering, McGraw Hill, 1976.
7. Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications : W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH
Publishers, New York.
8. Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press,
9. Enzymes: Dixon and Webb. IRL Press.
10. Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications (1993): B Heinemann Ltd.