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  1. 1. BIOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING Contact Hours/ Week : (03+01) Credits : 3.5 Total Lecture Hours :39+13 CIE Marks : 50 Sub. Code : BT 51 SEE Marks : 50 Module 1 INTRODUCTION: Scope of Chemical Reaction Engineering. Classification of reactions. Rate equation and rate of reaction. Factors affecting rate of reaction. Chemical kinetics and Thermodynamics Equilibrium. Temperature dependency of rate constant from Arrhenius, Collision and Transition state theories. Molecularity and order of reaction. NON-ELEMENTARY REACTIONS: Difference between elementary and non-elementary reactions. Kinetic models and mechanisms for nonelementary reactions. Types of reactors. 12 Hours Module 2 HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS Interpretation of batch reactor data. Constant & Variable Volume batch reactor. Analysis : Differential method, Integral method, half-life method. Method of excess and method of isolation (For Reverssible and Irriversibale reactions up to second order). Autocatalytic reactions. 9 Hours Module 3 DESIGN OF IDEAL REACTORS Concept of ideality. Development of design equations for batch, tubular and stirred tank reactors for both constant and variable volume reactions. Evaluation of rate equations from data obtained in these reactors. COMPARISON OF IDEAL REACTORS General graphical comparison. 9 Hours Module 4 MULTIPLE REACTOR SYSTEMS Plug flow and/or Mixed flow reactors in Series, parallel and series parallel. Reactors of different types and sizes in series. DESIGN OF REACTORS FOR MULTIPLE REACTIONS Design of Batch reactor, Plug and Mixed flow reactors for Parallel, Series and Series- Parallel reactions (Only irreversible reactions must be considered). 11 Hours Module 5 NON-ISOTHERMAL REACTORS Introduction, Material, Energy balances and conversions. ANALYSIS OF NON ISOTHERMAL REACTOR Design procedure (For single/ simple reactions only). Optimum temperature Progression. 11 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Chemical Reaction Engineering - Octave Levenspeil, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
  2. 2. 2. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering - H. Scott Fogler, 3 edition, Prentice Hall 2001. rd REFERENCE BOOK: 1. Chemical Engineering Kinetics - J.M. Smith, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1984.
  3. 3. IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY Contact Hours/ Week : 04 Credits : 4 Total Lecture Hours :52 CIE Marks : 50 Sub. Code : BT 52 SEE Marks : 50 MODULE- 1 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Introduction, anatomy of immune system, cells and organs of the immune system, Primary and secondary Lymphoid organs, antigens, Different Characteristics of Antigens, Mitogens, Hapten, Immunogen, Adjuvants. Classification of immune responses: Types of immune responses – Racial, special and individual, Classification of immune system – innate - Skin and mucosal surface, Physiological Barriers, Phagocytic Barriers, Inflammation and adaptive immunity. 10 Hours MODULE- 2 HUMORAL MEDIATED IMMUNITY: B-lymphocytes and their activation; structure and function of immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin classes and subclasses, idiotypes and anti- idiotypic antibodies, genetic control of antibody production CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Thymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) - their ontogeny and types, MHC Complex, antigen presenting cells (APC), mechanisms of T cell activation, macrophages, dendritic cells, langerhans cells, mechanism of phagocytosis, Antigen processing and presentation. 12 Hours MODULE- 3
  4. 4. IMMUNE REGULATION AND TOLERANCE: Complement activation and types and their biological functions, cytokines and their role in immune response, immunotolerance, Hypersensitivity its types and treatment. IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDER: Autoimmune disorders and types, pathogenic mechanisms, treatment, experimental models of auto immune disease, primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders, mechanism of AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies. 10 Hours MODULE- 4 TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY: Immunological basis of graft, types of transplantation, mechanism of graft rejection, role of HLA in graft rejection, tissue typing, immunosuppression and immunosuppressive drugs, Tumor of the immune system: tumor specific antigens, tumor potent immune response – NK cells and Macrophages. 10 Hours MODULE- 5 MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY: Basic concepts of vaccine design and development Vaccines and their types, production of recombinant-DNA vaccines. Catalytic antibodies, application of PCR technology to produce antibodies, immunotherapy with genetically engineered antibodies. Production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and their applications. Stem cells isolation, culturing and applications to immunology. Immunological Techniques: Antigen antibody interaction – Precipitation reactions, Agglutination reactions, Blood typing, A, B, ABO & Rh, principles and applications of ELISA, RadioImmuno Assay (RIA), immuno-electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence, chemiluminescence assays. 10 Hours TEXT BOOKS 1. Immunology an Introduction – Tizard, Thomson 2004. 2. Immunology – J Kubey, WH Freeman. 2003. 3. Immunology & Immunotechnology – Ashim K Chakravarthy, Oxford University Press, 2006. 4. Immundiagnostics – S C Rastogi, New Age International. 1996. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Essential Immunology – Roitt I. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1991. 2. Molecular Immunology – Benjamini E. 2002.
  5. 5. 3. Immunology A short course – Benjamini E. and Leskowitz S. Wiley Liss, NY, 1991. 4. The Immune System – Peter Parham, Garland Science, 2005 5. Understanding Immunology – Peter Wood, Pearson Education, II edition, 2006 GENETIC ENGINEERING & APPLICATIONS Contact Hours/ Week :03 Credits : 3 Total Lecture Hours :39 CIE Marks : 50 Sub. Code :BT 53 SEE Marks : 50 MODULE-1 INTRODUCTION: Role of genes with in cells, genetic code, Plasmids: Definition, types, Classification and Purification. Biology and salient features of vectors, types of vectors – plasmids, cosmids, phages and viruses. Method of creating recombinant DNA molecules. ENZYMES IN GENETIC ENGINEERING: Introduction Restriction Endonculeases - Exo & exdo nucleases, classification, mode of action. Enzymes in modification -
  6. 6. Polynucleotidephosphorylase, phosphatases, polynucleotide Kinase, Ligases, DNase, RNase and their mechansim of action. 09 Hours MODULE-2 CONSTRUCTION OF DNA LIBRARIES: Isolation and purification of nucleic acids, quantification, sequencing and storage. Construction of genomic and CDNA libraries, screening and its application. NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION AND AMPLIFICATION: Methods of nucleic acid hybridization – Southern, Northern hybridization and Western blot. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Principle, PCR methodology, types and its applications, nucleic acid mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro 09 Hours MODULE-3 METHODS OF GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES: Gene transfer techniques- electroporation, microprojectile system, liposome mediated transfer, gene gun and calcium phosphate co- precipitation etc. Agro bacterium-mediated gene transfer in plants – Ti plasmid: structure and functions, Ti plasmid based vectors - advantages. 07 Hours MODULE-4 TRANSGENIC SCIENCE AND GENETIC IMPROVEMENT: Transgenic science in plant improvement, biopharming – plants as bioreactors, transgenic crops for increased yield. Marker-assisted selection and breeding for improvement. Transgenic science for animal improvement, biopharming - animals as bioreactors for recombinant proteins. Marker- assisted selection and genetic improvement of livestock. 07 Hours MODULE-5 rDNA - APPLICATIONS: Gene Cloning in Medicine (Insulin, Growth hormones). Engineering microbes for the production of antibiotics. Introduction, methods of Gene Therapy (Ex Vivo and In Vivo), Case study of ADA, cancer, SCID as an example. Advantages and Limitations of Gene Therapy. 07 Hours TEXT BOOKS 1. Introduction to Genetic Engineering – Nicholl. Cambridge Low Price Edition, 2006. 2. Principles of gene manipulation – An introduction to genetic engineering, Old R.W., Primrose S.B., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993. 3. the molecular pathology of human disease – From Genetics to Gene Therapy – by David S Latchman, BIOS scientific publishers, 1994. 4. Genes VIII – Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell Press, 2007. 5. DNA Science – David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer and Dvaid A Crotty, I K International, 2003. REFERENCE BOOKS
  7. 7. 1. Molecular Biotechnology – Principles and Practices by Channarayappa, 2006, University Press. 2. Genetic Engineering Vol. 1-4 – (Williamson Edition) 3. Recombinant DNA – Watson et al., 1983. 4. Vectors – Rodriguer and Denhardt, 1987. 5. Current protocols in molecular biology – Greena Publishing Associates, NY, 1988. Berger S.L. Kimmel A.R. Methods in enzymology, Vol.152, Academic Press, 1987. 6. Molecular cloning Volumes I, II and III – Sambrook J et al (2000). Cold Spring Harbor lab Press. ENZYME TECHNOLOGY Contact Hours/ Week : 03 Credits : 3 Total Lecture Hours : 39 CIE Marks : 50 Sub. Code : BT 54 SEE Marks : 50 MODULE- 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction to enzymes, History, Classification, Sources,Mechanism and kinetics of enzyme action: Concept of active site and energetics of enzyme substrate complex formation, specificity of enzyme action; kinetics of single substrate reactions; turn over number; estimation of Michaelis-Menton parameters. Importance of KM . 9 Hours
  8. 8. MODULE- 2 BIOCATALYSTS Advantages of enzymes vs chemical catalysts, Enzyme catalysis (Acid-base, Covalent, Metal ion catalysis). Mechanism of coenzymes (NAD/NADP, FAD/FADH2) ENZYMES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE Acetylcholinesterase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE Inhibitors, HMG Co A reductase inhibitors , chymotrypsin; amylase isoenzymes. 08 Hours MODULE- 3 Purification of enzymes Strategies of purification of enzymes, criteria of purity, molecular weight determination and characterization of enzymes. Few examples of enzyme purification. Enzyme inhibition Introduction reversible inhibition-competitive, uncompetitive, non competitive. Irreversible inhibition. 07 Hours MODULE- 4 ENZYMATIC TECHNIQUES Enzyme assays: spectrophotometry, turbidometry, Methods for investigating the kinetics of Enzyme catalyzed reactions –Initial velocity studies, rapid-reaction techniques. IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES Physical and chemical techniques of enzyme immobilization; applications of immobilized enzyme. Catalytic antibodies. Biocatalysts from extreme Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic microorganisms (extremozymes). Artificial enzymes. 08 Hours ` MODULE--5 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS Importance of enzymes in diagnostics, Enzyme pattern in diseases like Myocardial infarctions (SGOT, SGPT & LDH). Isoenzymes (CK, LD). Use of isozymes as markers in cancer . INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Enzymes used in detergents, use of proteases in food, leather and wool industries; methods involved in production of glucose syrup from starch (using starch hydrolyzing enzymes), production of maltose and sucrose, uses of lactase in dairy industry. 07 Hours Text books: 1. Fundaments of Enzymology - Nicholas C Price and Stevens Oxford Press. (1999). 2.Understanding Enzymes -Trevor Palmer. 3. Enzymes in Industry: Production and -W. Gerhartz Applications
  9. 9. 4. Enzymes - Dixon and Webb. IRL Press. 5.Lehninger principles of Biochemistry -Nelson &cox CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN I Contact Hours/ Week : 03 Credits : 3 Total Lecture Hours : 39 CIE Marks : 50 Sub. Code : BT 55 SEE Marks : 50 Module 1 INTRODUCTION Basic considerations in design. General design procedure. Equipment classification. Various components of process equipment. Design parameters. Pressure vessel codes. 7 Hours Module 2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
  10. 10. Material selection. Factors affecting design. Stresses due to static and dynamic loads (Internal & External).Temperature effects. Economic considerations. 7 Hours Module 3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Design parameters, conditions & stresses. Design of shell and other vessel components. Vessel at low & high operating temperatures. Numerical design problems using given process parameters. 8 Hours Module 4 VESSEL COMPONENT DESIGN Design of supports for vessels - Bracket, Lug, Leg, Saddle and Skirt supports. Design of flanges & nozzles – Classification of flanges. Flange thickness calculation, Gasket selection and design, Bolt selection and calculation. Nozzle design. Design of vessel closures – Flat plates, Formed heads, Elliptical & Hemispherical heads. 8 Hours Module 5 REACTION VESSELS Design of reaction tanks with agitation and jacket. Types of agitators, baffles. Power requirement calculations. Design of tank dimensions and agitation system components. Drive calculations & selection of accessories. Design of jackets. Support calculations for the system. Numerical problems. 9 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Process Equipment Design - M. V. Joshi, Macmillan & Co. India, Delhi, 3rd Edn. reprint 1998. 2. Process Equipment Design – Vessel Design - Brownell & Young, John Willey, 1951 3. Process Design of Equipment – Vol 1 - S. D. Dawande, Central Techno Publications. 3rd. Edn, 2003. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Chemical Engineers Handbook - Perry & Green, 7th Edn, McGraw Hill, 1997. 2. Pressure Vessel Code – IS 2825 - IS Code, B.I.S., New Delhi, 1969.
  11. 11. BIOKINETICS & ENZYME TECHNOLOGY LAB Lab Hours/ Week :3 Credits : 1.5 Sub. Code : BTL52 CIE Marks : 50 SEE Marks : 50 1. Mixed Flow Reactor Analysis. 2. Plug Flow Reactor Analysis. 3. Batch Reactor Analysis 4. RTD in PFR 5. RTD in MRF 6. Isolation of alpha-amylase from sweet potato or saliva 7. Determination of Kinetics constants (Km & Vmax) and Specific activity of an enzyme 8. Effect of pH on enzyme activity 9. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity 10. Effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity 11. Molecular weight determination of a protein by molecular sieving 12. Enzyme Immobilization Techniques. 13. Kinetics of immobilized enzymes. TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill (2nd Ed.). 1986. 2. Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992. 3. Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and Gene 4. Expression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992. 5. Smith J.M. Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, New Delhi, 1981. 6. Carbery J A. Chemical and Catalytic Reactor Engineering, McGraw Hill, 1976. 7. Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications : W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH Publishers, New York. 8. Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1990. 9. Enzymes: Dixon and Webb. IRL Press. 10. Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications (1993): B Heinemann Ltd. Oxford.