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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology ...
 

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    Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology ... Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology ... Presentation Transcript

    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology/Immunology Cecile Sanders, M.Ed., MT(ASCP), CLS (NCA)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • The Immune System
        • Complex system of tissues, cells, cell products, & biologically active chemicals
        • Produces an Immune Response
        • Defense mechanism against foreign substances called “antigens” (ag)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Natural Resistance vs. Specific Immunity
        • Natural Resistance
          • Includes physical barriers (skin, mucous membranes, etc.), white blood cells like neutrophils, and proteins that cause inflammation
          • Non-specific
          • Does not require exposure to an antigen
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
        • Specific Immune Response
          • Recognition – recognizes foreign antigens and distinguishes them from “self”
          • Specificity – reacts with a specific antigen without reacting with others
          • Memory – “anamnestic response”
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Cells, Tissues, and Organs of Immune System
        • Lymphocytes – B Cells and T Cells
        • Primary Lymphoid Organs = Bone Marrow and Thymus (glandular
        • tissue located
        • at the base of the
        • sternum)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
        • Secondary Lymphoid Tissue = Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Appendix, and Tonsils
      • Humoral Immunity
        • B Lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens
        • Good protection against bacteria, toxins, and circulating antigens
      • Cell-Mediated Immunity
        • T Lymphocytes protect against viruses, fungi, tumor cells, and intracellular organisms
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Immunoglobulins (Ig)
        • Also called “antibodies” (ab)
        • Named by placing the prefix anti before the name of the antigen with which the antibody reacts
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Primary vs. Secondary Antibody Response
        • Primary occurs after first exposure to an antigen
        • Secondary Response
          • Sometimes called “anamnestic response”
          • Lymphocytes remember the antigen
          • Immunizations or vaccinations (such as for measles, tetanus, etc.) are effective because of the Secondary Response
        • Seroconversion = when an antibody is detectable in patient who has previously tested negative for the antibody
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • First and Second Responses to Antigens
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Categories of Conditions Associated with Immune System Abnormalities
        • Autoimmune Disease (RA, Lupus, Juvenile Type I Diabetes, Myasthenia Gravis)
        • Hypersensitivies (Hay fever, Asthma, Dermatitis)
        • Malignancies (Lymphomas, Leukemias, Multiple Myeloma)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Categories of Conditions Associated with Immune System Abnormalities (cont’d)
        • Acquired Immunodeficiencies (Infections, Systemic Disease, Malignancies, Reactions to Drugs, Irradiation)
        • Congenital Immunodeficiencies (DiGeorge Syndrome, Aggamaglobulinemia, SCID – Severe Combined Immune Deficiency)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Tests of Immune Function
        • Based on Antigen-Antibody Reactions
          • May be qualitative (positive or negative)
          • May be quantitative (Titer = Reciprocal of the highest dilution of patient’s serum showing a positive reaction with antigen)
        • Principles of Immunological Tests
          • Agglutination and Agglutination Inhibition – visible clumping of cells or particles due to their reaction with an antibody
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Agglutination of Red Blood Cells with Antibody
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
        • Principles of Immunological Tests (cont’d)
          • Precipitation – formation of an insoluble complex when a specific antibody is reacted with a soluble antigen (usually in a gelatin-like substance)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
        • Principles of Immunological Tests (cont’d)
          • Labeled Antibody Techniques – Molecules (labels) are attached to the antibodies, producing a visible reaction. Labels may be dyes, enzymes or radioisotopes.
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA)
    • Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
      • Visit this website for a virtual immunology lab visit and experiment:
      • http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/immunology/index.html
      • Try to complete the lab by following website directions! Very cool!