Tumor Immunology (Cancer)


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Tumor Immunology (Cancer)

  1. 1. Tumors arise Tumor Immunology from accumulated genetic mutations (Cancer) Robert Beatty MCB150 Mutations Types of genes that control cancer Usually have >6 mutations in both activation/growth factors Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Viral infection * Oncogenes can be Mutations receptors or activation/signaling proteins. Mutations lead to changes in tissue growth and further progression can result in tumors. *APC- adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Tumor suppressor.
  2. 2. Types of genes that control cancer Inherited predisposition to cancer  Tumor suppressor genes – cancer arises when the tumor suppressor genes stop working, lack of growth inhibitory signals. Most inherited cancer genes are mutated – These genes are part of normal control of cell cycle, tumor suppressor genes. usually inhibiting growth-promoting factors and cell division. These inherited genes can result in early  Cell Death Proteins onset of cancer (higher predisposition). – The cell death proteins are either activating or inhibiting cell death, apoptosis. Immunological Surveillance New Theory (Burnet, Thomas) Adaptive immune response can kill tumors BUT tumor cells evade host immune response Hypothesis: Tumors are constantly arising. A major role of the Mechanisms of Tumor Escape immune system is to eliminate this constant threat. Tumors get through when immune system fails.  Antigen loss  Loss of MHC or TAP Evidence:  Production of inhibitory cytokines (TGFb)  Pro: Incidence of cancer is higher in conditions of immunosuppression, ie. Transplant recipients, AIDS.  Expression of FasL Tumor Seen as Self  Con: Those tumors seem to be largely of viral origin, so findings are no different than for any infectious agent.  Do not initiate inflammation  Induction of tolerance
  3. 3. What is the Anti-Tumor Immune Response to Tumors Immune Response? Cell Mediated – Cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. TNF-a and LT-a (TNF-b) directly toxic to some Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes including CTLS tumor cells. and NK cells were isolated from tumors. – CD8+ CTL, NK cells, and macrophages activated by IFN-g from CD4+ T cells. These CTLS were specific for tumor antigens. What are these tumor antigens? Antibody Response – ADCC and Complement lysis possible. I. Identification of Tumor Antigens Sources of Antigens that Stimulate Using TBiochemicalMHC from tumorpatient peptides. cell clones from cells, elute identification: Anti-tumor Immune Reponses Purify Isolate peptides by HPLC and determine sequence  Fundamentally related to the neoplastic process – Mutated oncogenes, suppressor genes (ras, p53) – New antigens generated by translocation (bcr/abl fusion Use T cell clones to screen tumor cell cDNA library. protein) Confirm with synthetic peptide of predicted sequence – Antigens derived from oncogenic virus (EBV, HPV)  Coincidental antigens – Overexpressed normal differentiation antigen – Re-expressed oncofetal antigen
  4. 4. II. Types of Tumor Antigens Origins of Shared Human Tumor antigens Shared tumor antigens.  Rexpressed embryonic antigens. Self antigens. (oncofetal proteins).  Cancer/Testes Antigens - MAGE, BAGE, GAGE  Differentiation antigens. Overexpressed normal proteins such as melanocyte regulation proteins  Differentiation Antigens - Tyrosinase, Melan-A, TRP-1, TRP-2 expressed in melanomas can become antigens.  Overexpressed proteins - HER-2/neu, p53  Viral antigens. Oncogenic viruses.  Viral proteins - HPV-E7  Mutated self proteins. Point mutations of normal cellular genes (unique tumor antigens). Shared Tumor Antigens Shared Tumor Antigens Differentiation antigens Overexpressed proteins found in tumors from unique cell type. Immune system was probably not tolerized in thymus to these antigens. – Examples: Melanoma tumor antigens which are proteins used in melanin production. MART-1, tyrosinase. Embryonic antigens Overexpressed e.g. MAGE-1---MAGE-12, melanocyte proteins
  5. 5. Cancer II. Older Cancer Treatments Therapies SLASH/BURN/POISON I. Prevention Most preventive agents can be Slash Surgery effective at different Burn Radiation stages along the progression towards Poison Chemotherapy cancer. Janne and Mayer NEJM 342:1960. 2000 Cancer Therapy New Targeted Cancer Therapies III. New Targeted Cancer Treatments Enhance immune response to tumors •Receptor antagonists. •Protein Kinase inhibitors. •Enzyme Inhibitors.  CK therapy •Antisense oligonucleotides. IL-2, IFN-g, TNF-a given in IV doses. •Anti-angiogenic factors  Adoptive transfer of anti-tumor immune cells lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)  Cancer vaccines – Irradiate tumor cells inject back into patient. – Shared tumor antigens as vaccines.  Manipulate costimulation – Add B7. Block CTLA4
  6. 6. Two Signals Required for T cell Activation B7 Transfected tumor cells are rejected No Proliferation Proliferation (Anergy?) IL-2 T Cell T Cell Dendritic Cells Epithelial Cells Macrophages Tumor Cells APC APC Act. B cells TCR CD28 Peptide/MHC B7 CTLA-4 Blockade Enhances Tumor-Specific Immune Responses Combinatorial Tumor Vaccines Attenuated Unrestrained Proliferation Proliferation Tumor B7 plus IL-2 B7 plus IL-12 GM-CSF plus CTLA-4 blockade APC APC Surgical reduction plus CTLA-4 blockade GM-CSF Vaccine Chemotherapy plus CTLA-4 blockade Peptide-pulsed DCs TCR CD28 CTLA-4 AND/OR Irradiation Chemotherapy Peptide/MHC B7 B7
  7. 7. Pre-established B16-BL-6 melanoma tumors can be eradicated using Anti-CTLA4/GMCSF-Vaccine anti-CTLA-4 and a GM-CSF producing cellular vaccine Combination Immunotherapy 106 irradiated GM-CSF producing B16-BL6 s.c, days 0, 3, 6 Anti-CTLA-4 i.p., days 3, 6, 9 104 live B16-BL6 s.c., day -12, -8, -4 or 0 Skin and hair depigmentation as a result of Strategies Based on Knowledge of Antigenic treatment of B16 tumors with anti-CTLA-4 and Peptides GM-CSF producing vaccines  Active Immunization: – Peptide: With adjuvant, linked to helper peptide, challenge pulsed on APC – Peptide followed by immunostimulatory cytokines – Recombinant virus: Epitope together with genes vaccination rejected day 8 tumor encoding cytokines, costimulatory molecules, or other immunomodulatory agents  Passive Immunotherapy: – Adoptive transfer of anti-tumor lymphocytes expanded in culture by stimulation with antigenic peptides rejected B16-F10 lung metastases CD4 depleted
  8. 8. Antibody-based therapy Oncolytic Viruses  Viruses naturally selected or lab engineered to grow in and specifically kill tumor cells. – Example: Engineer measles virus to interact with  Tumor-specific therapies: Not very successful due to specific receptor that is overexpressed on tumor cells. lack of true tumor specific antigens, some problems with delivery – Example: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can replicate in tumor cells deficient in IFN pathway.  Anti-CD20 (Rituximab), anti-Her2/Neu (Herceptin) Tumor cells with mutations in their interferon  Immunotoxins: Antibody specific to tumor used to response can be rapidly killed by VSV. deliver toxic molecule to lyse tumor cells.  Advantages of oncolytic viruses – Can elicit host immune response against tumor – Limited resistance developed