The Immune System
Protects the body from disease through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
Infectious Disease <ul><li>Disease  – any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body </l...
Spreading Disease <ul><li>Physical Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contaminated fo...
Fighting Diseases <ul><li>Antibiotics are compounds that interfere with the cellular processes of pathogenic organisms wit...
Nonspecific Defenses
First Line of Defense <ul><li>The skin provides a barrier to most pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the skin is broken, p...
Second Line of Defense <ul><li>The inflammatory response is activated when tissue is damaged by injury or infection. </li>...
Specific Defenses
After the nonspecific defenses fail, the antigen that has entered the body trigger an immune response <ul><li>B lymphocyte...
Types of Immunity <ul><li>Active immunity appears after exposure to an antigen as a result of the immune response and can ...
Immune Response Summary Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B  - Cell Kills Infected Cells M...
Immune System Disorders
Allergies <ul><li>Allergy causing antigens enter the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Antigens attach to mast cells and trigger the...
Asthma <ul><li>A chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower causing wheezing, coughing, and dif...
Autoimmune Diseases <ul><li>The body mistakenly attacks its own cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of autoimmune diseases i...
Immunodeficiency Diseases <ul><li>Can be caused by viral infections or result from errors during development. </li></ul><u...
Environment and Health <ul><li>Factors including air quality, water quality, poisonous wastes, and solar radiation exposur...
Immune system Animations <ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_i...
 
Vaccinations <ul><li>http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/ABPI/immune/immAnim3.htm </li></ul>
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The Immune System Protects the body from

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The Immune System Protects the body from

  1. 1. The Immune System
  2. 2. Protects the body from disease through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
  3. 3. Infectious Disease <ul><li>Disease – any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Germ theory of Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteur & Koch conclude that disease caused by germs & not curses /evil spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases are caused by pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, worms, materials in the environment, and genetic disorders </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Spreading Disease <ul><li>Physical Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contaminated food or water </li></ul><ul><li>Infected animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals that carry pathogens from person to person are called vectors </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fighting Diseases <ul><li>Antibiotics are compounds that interfere with the cellular processes of pathogenic organisms without harming the cells of the human or animal host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally occurring: Penicillin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic: Cipro </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nonspecific Defenses
  7. 7. First Line of Defense <ul><li>The skin provides a barrier to most pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the skin is broken, pathogens can enter & multiply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily secretions including mucus, saliva, and tears contain lysozyme which destroys bacterial cell walls </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>The inflammatory response is activated when tissue is damaged by injury or infection. </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells (WBC’s) enter the infected tissues and engulf and destroy bacteria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in body temperature (fever) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in heart rate and blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interferon fights viral infections </li></ul>
  9. 9. Specific Defenses
  10. 10. After the nonspecific defenses fail, the antigen that has entered the body trigger an immune response <ul><li>B lymphocytes (B cells) provide humoral immunity by attacking antigens and pathogens in body fluids using antibodies that recognize and bind to pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>T lymphocytes (T cells) provide cell mediated immunity by attacking abnormal cells and pathogens living inside living cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killer T cells destroy bacteria, fungi, protists, & foreign tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory T cells cause a response if the same antigen enters the body again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supressor T cells shut down killer T cells once the pathogen is under control </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Immunity <ul><li>Active immunity appears after exposure to an antigen as a result of the immune response and can develop as a result of natural exposure or from a vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Passive immunity occurs when antibodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream and lasts only a short time. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Immune Response Summary Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B - Cell Kills Infected Cells Memory T- Cell Plasma Cell Memory B-Cell Antibodies Deactivates Antigens
  13. 13. Immune System Disorders
  14. 14. Allergies <ul><li>Allergy causing antigens enter the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Antigens attach to mast cells and trigger the inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><li>Histamine is released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flow to area increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus production in the respiratory tract increases </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Asthma <ul><li>A chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower causing wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Triggered by allergies, respiratory infections, exercise, stress, cold air, and certain medications. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Autoimmune Diseases <ul><li>The body mistakenly attacks its own cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of autoimmune diseases include Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, and multiple schlerosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be treated with medications to relieve symptoms or supress the immune response. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Immunodeficiency Diseases <ul><li>Can be caused by viral infections or result from errors during development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS is caused by HIV (a retrovirus) that evades the defenses of the immune system and destroys helper T cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.roche-hiv.com/portal/eipf/pb/hiv/Roche-HIV/demonstrationoffusioninhibition </li></ul>
  18. 18. Environment and Health <ul><li>Factors including air quality, water quality, poisonous wastes, and solar radiation exposure can affect health. </li></ul><ul><li>When environmental factors cause changes in DNA, tumors which may be malignant form. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogens are chemical compounds known to cause cancer. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Immune system Animations <ul><li>http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_immune_response.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://pennhealth.com/health_info/animationplayer/immune_response.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/inflam.html </li></ul>
  20. 21. Vaccinations <ul><li>http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/ABPI/immune/immAnim3.htm </li></ul>
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