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The Immune System Protects the body from
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The Immune System Protects the body from


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  • 1. The Immune System
  • 2. Protects the body from disease through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
  • 3. Infectious Disease
    • Disease – any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
    • Germ theory of Disease
      • Pasteur & Koch conclude that disease caused by germs & not curses /evil spirits
      • Diseases are caused by pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, worms, materials in the environment, and genetic disorders
  • 4. Spreading Disease
    • Physical Contact
      • Direct or indirect
    • Contaminated food or water
    • Infected animals
      • Animals that carry pathogens from person to person are called vectors
  • 5. Fighting Diseases
    • Antibiotics are compounds that interfere with the cellular processes of pathogenic organisms without harming the cells of the human or animal host
      • Naturally occurring: Penicillin
      • Synthetic: Cipro
  • 6. Nonspecific Defenses
  • 7. First Line of Defense
    • The skin provides a barrier to most pathogens
      • If the skin is broken, pathogens can enter & multiply
      • Bodily secretions including mucus, saliva, and tears contain lysozyme which destroys bacterial cell walls
  • 8. Second Line of Defense
    • The inflammatory response is activated when tissue is damaged by injury or infection.
    • White blood cells (WBC’s) enter the infected tissues and engulf and destroy bacteria.
      • Increase in body temperature (fever)
      • Increase in heart rate and blood flow
    • Interferon fights viral infections
  • 9. Specific Defenses
  • 10. After the nonspecific defenses fail, the antigen that has entered the body trigger an immune response
    • B lymphocytes (B cells) provide humoral immunity by attacking antigens and pathogens in body fluids using antibodies that recognize and bind to pathogens.
    • T lymphocytes (T cells) provide cell mediated immunity by attacking abnormal cells and pathogens living inside living cells
      • Killer T cells destroy bacteria, fungi, protists, & foreign tissue
      • Memory T cells cause a response if the same antigen enters the body again
      • Supressor T cells shut down killer T cells once the pathogen is under control
  • 11. Types of Immunity
    • Active immunity appears after exposure to an antigen as a result of the immune response and can develop as a result of natural exposure or from a vaccine
    • Passive immunity occurs when antibodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream and lasts only a short time.
  • 12. Immune Response Summary Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B - Cell Kills Infected Cells Memory T- Cell Plasma Cell Memory B-Cell Antibodies Deactivates Antigens
  • 13. Immune System Disorders
  • 14. Allergies
    • Allergy causing antigens enter the body.
    • Antigens attach to mast cells and trigger the inflammatory response
    • Histamine is released
      • Blood flow to area increases
      • Mucus production in the respiratory tract increases
  • 15. Asthma
    • A chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower causing wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing
    • Triggered by allergies, respiratory infections, exercise, stress, cold air, and certain medications.
  • 16. Autoimmune Diseases
    • The body mistakenly attacks its own cells.
    • Examples of autoimmune diseases include Type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, and multiple schlerosis.
    • Can be treated with medications to relieve symptoms or supress the immune response.
  • 17. Immunodeficiency Diseases
    • Can be caused by viral infections or result from errors during development.
      • AIDS is caused by HIV (a retrovirus) that evades the defenses of the immune system and destroys helper T cells.
  • 18. Environment and Health
    • Factors including air quality, water quality, poisonous wastes, and solar radiation exposure can affect health.
    • When environmental factors cause changes in DNA, tumors which may be malignant form.
    • Carcinogens are chemical compounds known to cause cancer.
  • 19. Immune system Animations
  • 20.  
  • 21. Vaccinations