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  1. 1. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Study Guide Chapter 12 THE STRUCTURE OF VIRUSES A. Viruses Occur in Various Shapes 1. Differentiate between helix, icosahedron, and complex shapes B. Viruses Lack Cellular Structure 2. Examine virus structure and composition (genome, capsid, and envelope) C. Virus Structure Determines Host Range and Specificity 3. Compare viral host range and tissue tropism THE REPLICATION OF VIRUSES A. Replication of Bacteriophages Is a Five-Step Process 4. Describe the five steps Attachment and receptor sites Penetration Biosynthesis and the use of host cell components Maturation Release (burst time and burst size) B. Animal Virus Replication Has Similarities to Phage Replication 5. Contrast the similarities of animal virus replications with phage replication Attachment at plasma membrane (specificity and variability of sites) Penetration of whole virus and uncoating Replication of DNA viruses Replication of RNA viruses (positive- and negative-stranded RNA) Reverse transcriptase in retroviruses Budding and envelope acquisition C. Some Animal Viruses Can Exist as Proviruses 6. Explain the formation of proviruses and the concept of latency 7. Asses the relationship of provirus formation to cancer OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES A. Nomenclature and Classification Do Not Use Conventional Taxonomic Groups 8. Describe how viruses are named 9. Explain virus classification by family or tissue affected B. Cultivation and Detection of Viruses Are Critical to Virus Identification 10. Compare virus cultivation to bacterial cultivation 11. Describe inoculations into fertilized eggs and in cell cultures (cytopathic effect) 12. Examine the diagnostic tests with antibodies (clumping and hemagglutination reactions) 13. Describe the signs of viral presence by microscopy 14. Demonstrate the usefulness of plaque formation 15. Compare Rivers' postulates to those of Koch C. Synthetic Drugs Can Inhibit Virus Replication 16. Describe the basis for antiviral drug design 17. Provided examples of base analogs, and reverse transcriptase, protease, and neuraminidase inhibitors D. Interferon Puts Cells in an Antiviral State 18. Describe the chemical nature of interferons 19. Illustrate how interferons are produced and how they generate the antiviral state E. Viral Vaccines Offer the Best Protection against Infection 20. Contrast inactivated and attenuated viruses 21. Compare viral subunit vaccines with DNA vaccines
  2. 2. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner F. Physical and Chemical Agents Can Inactivate Viruses 22. Physical agents (heat, ultraviolet light) 23. Chemical agents (halogens, heavy metals, formaldehyde, lipid solvents, and enzymes) VIRUSES AND CANCER A. Cancer Is an Uncontrolled Growth of Cells 24. Define tumors and the characteristics of cancer cells 25. Describe how cancer cells affect the body B. Viruses Are Responsible for 20 Percent of Human Cancers 26. Explain how viruses can be carcinogens 27. Assess the potential of oncogenic viruses using examples such as herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-cell leukemia virus C. Oncogenic Viruses Transform Infected Cells 28. Explain the oncogene theory and the nature of v-oncogenes EMERGING VIRUSES AND EVOLUTION A. Genetic Recombination and Mutation Create New Viruses 29. Provide examples of the evolution of new viruses B. The Environment and Social Conditions Can Produce New Viruses 30. Describe how viruses can jump species 31. Examine the roles of animal-human proximity and animal host populations on generating emerging viruses C. There Are Three Hypotheses for the Origin of Viruses 32. Describe the three hypothesis for virus origins Regressive evolution Cellular origins Independent entities VIRUS-LIKE AGENTS A. Viroids Are Infectious RNA Particles 33. Describe viroids and plant disease B. Prions Are Infectious Proteins 34. Discuss mad cow disease (BSE) and its relationship to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) 35. Examine the nature of prions 36. Explain the protein-only hypothesis 37. Illustrate how infectious prions influence normal prion folding 38. Describe variant CJD
  3. 3. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chap 12. Vocabulary Acyclovir Helix Point mutation Antibody Hemagglutination (HA) Positive-stranded RNA Antiviral state Hemagglutination- Prion Attachment inhibition (HAI) test Prophage Attenuated virus HIV infection Protease inhibitor Autoclave Host range Protein-only hypothesis Azidothymidine (AZT) HTLV-1 Proto-oncogenes Bacteriophage (phage) HTLV-2 Provirus Base analog Icosahedron Receptor site Benign Inactivated virus Regressive evolution Biosynthesis Interferon hypothesis Bovine spongiform Koplik spots Release encephalopathy (BSE) Latency Retrovirus Budding Lipschütz body Reverse transcriptase Burkitt's lymphoma Lysis stage Reverse transcriptase inhibitor Cancer Lysozyme Rivers' postulates Capsid Mad cow disease Sabin vaccine Capsomere Malignant Salk vaccine Carcinogen Maturation Serological test Cell culture Metastasize Specialized transduction Chemical agents Monolayer Spike Complex symmetry Mutation T lymphocytes Contact inhibition Negative-stranded RNA T-cell leukemia Cytopathic effect (CPE) Negri body Tissue tropism Dedifferentiation Neuraminidase inhibitors Tobacco mosaic disease Dimers Nucleocapsid Transmissible spongiform DNA vaccines Oncogene theory encephalopathy (TSE) Eclipse period Oncogenes Tumor Electron microscopy Oncogenic virus Ultraviolet (UV) light Emerging viruses Oncology Viral subunits Envelope Penetration Virion Formaldehyde Phage typing Viroid Genetic recombination Phagocytosis X rays Genome Plaque
  4. 4. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 13 PNEUMOTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Influenza Is a Highly Communicable Disease 1. Identify the characteristics of the influenza viruses 2. Topics to cover include: Structure Antigenic variation Nomenclature of the virus Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment and prevention Complications (Guillain-Barré and Reye's syndromes) B. Adenovirus Infections Often Are Responsible for Colds 3. Identify the characteristics of the adenoviruses (Adenoviridae) 4. Topics to cover include: Adenovirus structure and inclusions Cellular diseases (common cold syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis) 5. Describe the use of the virus for gene therapy experiments C. Respiratory Syncytial Disease Affects the Lower Respiratory Tract in Young Children 6. Identify the characteristics of the respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) 7. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Occurrence in children Viral pneumonia D. Parainfluenza Accounts For 40 Percent of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children 8. Describe the mild nature of the disease and its transmission E. Rhinovirus Infections Produce Inflammation in the Upper Respiratory Tract 9. Identify the characteristics of the rhinoviruses (Picornaviridae) 10. Topics to cover include: Common colds and head colds Receptor site location F. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Spreads through Close Person-to-Person Contact 11. Identify the characteristics of the SARS Co-V (Coronaviridae) 12. Examine what is know concerning the transmission of SARS Co-V 13. Describe the symptoms DERMOTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Herpes Simplex Are Widespread, Often Recurrent Infections 14. Identify the characteristics of the herpes simplex viruses (Herpesviridae) 15. Describe the manifestations of herpes simplex Cold sores Herpes encephalitis-TORCH Gingivostomatitis Herpes keratitis Genital herpes Herpes encephalitis 16. Identify treatments available
  5. 5. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner B. Other Herpesvirus Infections Have Been Detected Recently 17. Topics to cover include: Multiple sclerosis and human herpesvirus 6 Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 B virus infections C. Chickenpox (Varicella) Is a Common, Highly Contagious Disease 18. Identify the characteristics of the chickenpox virus 19. Topics to cover include: Transmission and communicability Symptoms Complications (Reye's syndrome, other complications) Vaccination Herpes zoster (shingles) and relationship to chickenpox D. Measles (Rubeola) Is Another Highly Communicable Disease 20. Identify the characteristics of the measles virus (Paramyxoviridae) 21. Topics to cover include: Symptoms and Koplik spots Respiratory symptoms Complications Immunization-MMR E. Rubella (German Measles) Is an Acute but Mildly Infectious Disease 22. Topics to cover include: Rubella virus transmission Symptoms Congenital rubella syndrome Immunization-MMR F. Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum) Produces a Mild Rash 23. Identify the characteristics of the parvovirus B19 (Parvoviridae) 24. Topics to cover include: Symptoms (“Slapped cheek disease”) Relationship to parvoviruses G. Mumps Is Spread by Respiratory Droplets 25. Identify the characteristics of the mumps virus 26. Topics to cover include: Symptoms in parotid glands (obstructions and swellings) Complications (orchitis in male adults and other complications) Immunization-MMR OTHER DERMOTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Smallpox (Variola) Is a Contagious and Sometimes Fatal Disease 27. Identify the characteristics of the smallpox virus (Poxviridae) 28. Describe the symptoms and stages of the disease 29. Discuss the worldwide effort that eradicated smallpox 30. Assess smallpox as a bioterrorism agent B. Monkeypox Is a New Disease to the Western Hemisphere 31. Discuss the reason for the emergence of monkeypox in the US 32. Describe the symptoms and relationship to smallpox C. Molluscum Contagiosum Forms Mildly Contagious Skin Lesions 33. Identify the characteristics of the molluscum contagiosum virus
  6. 6. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner 34. Describe the symptoms (lesion formation) D. Warts or Cervical Cancer Can Be Produced by Papilloma Viruses 35. Describe the types of warts 36. Examine the role of papilloma viruses to cancer Chap 13 Vocabulary Acute disease Herpes keratitis Orchitis Acyclovir Herpes simplex Papule Adenoid tissue type I virus & Parainfluenza Amantadine type II virus Parotid gland Antigenic drift Herpes zoster Plantar warts Antigenic shift Human herpesvirus 6 Pneumotropic B19 infection (HHV-6) Pock Cataract Human herpesvirus 8 Pustule Cervical cancer (HHV-8) Red spots Chickenpox Human papilloma viruses Respiratory syncytial (RS) Cold sore Inclusions disease Common cold Influenza Reye's syndrome Condylomata Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) Rhinovirus Congenital rubella Kawasaki disease (KD) Rimantadine syndrome Kawasaki syndrome Roseola Cowpox Keratoconjunctivitis Rubella Croup Koplik spots Rubeola Dermotropic Lipshütz bodies Severe acute respiratory Desquamation Macule syndrome (SARS) Epidemic parotitis Maculopapular Shingles Erythema Malaise Slapped check disease infectiosum Matrix protein Smallpox Fifth disease Measles Spike Genital herpes Measles-mumps-rubella Syndrome Genital warts (MMR) vaccine TORCH Gingivostomatitis Molluscum bodies Vaccination Glaucoma Molluscum contagiosum Vaccinia Guillain-Barré Monkeypox Varicella syndrome (GBS) Multiple sclerosis Varicella-zoster virus Head cold Mumps Variola Hemagglutinin Neonatal herpes Variolation Herpes Neuraminidase Viral pneumonia encephalitis Olfactory nerves Zanamivir
  7. 7. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 14 VISCEROTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Yellow Fever Is Transmitted by Mosquitoes 1. Describe yellow fever's role in history 2. Identify the characteristics of the yellow fever virus (Flaviviridae) 3. Topics to cover include: Transmission by Haemogogus and Aedes aegypti Symptoms (liver infection, jaundice, bloodstream invasion) Treatment and immunization B. Dengue Fever Can Progress To a Hemorrhagic Fever 4. Identify the characteristics of the dengue fever virus (Flaviviridae) 5. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Complications (Dengue hemorrhagic fever) C. Infectious Mononucleosis Is Most Common in Children and Young Adults 6. Topics to cover include: Describe the contact transmission mechanism Symptoms Complications Carrier state transmission Diagnosis Involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (Burkitt's lymphoma; Chronic fatigue syndrome) D. Hepatitis A Is Transmitted Most Often by the Fecal-Oral Route 7. Identify the characteristics of the hepatitis A virus (Picornaviridae) 8. Topics to cover include: Resistance to physical and chemical agents Transmission by fecal-oral route Incubation period Symptoms and diagnosis Treatment and immunization E. Hepatitis B Can Produce a Chronic Liver Infection 9. Identify the characteristics of the hepatitis B virus (Hepadnaviridae) 10. Topics to cover include: Fragility to physical and chemical agents Transmission methods by contact with body fluids Symptoms Hepatocarcinoma Treatment and immunization F. Hepatitis C Often Causes Cirrhosis and Liver Failure 11. Identify the characteristics of the hepatitis C virus (Flaviviridae) 12. Topics to cover include: Liver cirrhosis Screening test G. Other Viruses Also Cause Hepatitis 13. Viruses to cover include: Delta hepatitis virus Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis G virus OTHER VISCEROTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Viral Gastroenteritis Is Caused by Any of Several Viruses 14. Describe the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis
  8. 8. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner 15. Identify the characteristics of the: Rotaviruses (Reoviridae) Noroviruses (Caliciviridae) Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae) (Cocksackie virus and echoviruses) B. Viral Fevers Can Be Caused by a Variety of Viruses 16. Topics to cover include: Colorado tick fever (Reoviridae) Sandfly fever and Rift Valley fever (Bunyaviridae) 17. Discuss the hemorrhagic fevers, including: Lassa fever (Arenaviridae) Marburg disease and Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Filoviridae) Other viral hemorrhagic fevers C. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Produces Sudden Respiratory Failure 18. Identify the characteristics of the Hantaan virus (Bunyaviridae) 19. Describe the symptoms 20. Explain the complications (Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) D. Cytomegalovirus Disease Can Produce Serious Birth Defects 21. Identify the characteristics of the cytomegaloviruses (Herpesviridae) 22. Topics to cover include: Transmission Relationship to TORCH and AIDS E. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Results from Immune System Dysfunction 23. Briefly explain the normal immunologic response 24. Identify the characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Concept of a retrovirus (Retroviridae) How HIV affects immune cells 25. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Opportunistic infections and cancer (Kaposi's sarcoma) Transmission and Standard Precautions Diagnosis Prevention (vaccines) NEUROTROPIC VIRAL DISEASES A. Rabies Is a Highly Fatal Infectious Disease 26. Identify the characteristics of the rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae) 27. Topics to cover include: High mortality rate Incidence among animals Transmission by saliva Incubation period Symptoms: Hydrophobia Immunization Rabies in historical perspective B. Polio May Be the Next Infectious Disease Eradicated 28. Identify the characteristics of the polio virus (Picornaviridae) 29. Topics to cover include: Transmission Body involvement Vaccine development
  9. 9. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner C. Arboviral Encephalitis Is Caused by Blood-Sucking Arthropods 30. Identify the characteristics of arboviral encephalitis (Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae) 31. Forms to cover include: St. Louis encephalitis California encephalitis La Crosse and Japanese B encephalitis D. West Nile Fever Is an Emerging Disease in the Western Hemisphere 32. Identify the characteristics of the West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) 33. Discuss transmission by mosquitoes 34. Describe the symptoms of West Nile fever 35. Explain the potential complications (encephalitis and meningitis) 36. Assess protective measures E. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Follows Exposure to Rodent Feces 37. Discuss viral involvement and symptoms (Arenaviridae)
  10. 10. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 14 Vocabulary 24-hour virus Hantavirus Meningitis Acquired immune pulmonarysyndrome Myocarditis deficiency disease (HPS) Neurotropic (AIDS) Hepatitis A (infectious Norovirus Arboviral encephalitis hepatitis) Opportunistic infection Arbovirus Hepatitis A Pleurodynia Aseptic meningitis immune globulin Polio Azidothymidine (AZT) Hepatitis B (serum Poliomyelitis B lymphocyte hepatitis) Postexposure Bulbar polio Hepatitis B core antigen immunization Burkitt's lymphoma (HBcAg) Postpolio syndrome (PPS) Cervical cancer Hepatitis B immune Preventative vaccine Chronic fatigue syndrome globulin Protease inhibitor Cirrhosis Hepatitis B surface antigen Rabies CMV-induced retinitis (HBsAg) Reverse transcriptase Colorado tick fever Hepatitis C Reverse transcriptase Coxsackie virus Hepatitis E inhibitor Cytomegalovirus disease Hepatitis G Rift Valley fever Dane particle Hepatocarcinoma Rotavirus Delta antigen Herpangina Sandfly fever Delta hepatitis Heterophile antibodies Sexually transmitted Dengue fever HIV infection disease Dengue hemorrhagic fever Human immunodeficiency Short-incubation hepatitis Downey cells virus (HIV) St. Louis encephalitis Dumb rabies Hydrophobia T lymphocyte Ebola hemorrhagic fever Infectious mononucleosis Therapeutic vaccine Ebola virus Kaposi's sarcoma TORCH Echovirus Korean hemorrhagic fever Trivalent Encephalitis Lassa fever Viral gastroenteritis Enterovirus Leukopenia Viral hemorrhagic fever Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Long-incubation hepatitis Viral load Filovirus Lymphocytic Viscerotropic Furious rabies choriomeningitis (LCM) West Nile fever Fusion inhibitor Lymphoma West Nile virus (WNV) Marburg hemorrhagic Yellow fever fever
  11. 11. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 15 CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI A. Fungi Share a Combination of Characteristics 1. Describe the eukaryotic cells of the hypha and mycelium formation 2. Recall the organelles typical of eukaryotic cells 3. Describe the cell wall components, cross-walls (septa), and the coenocytic life style 4. Discuss heterotrophic and saprobic growth B. Fungal Growth Is Influenced by Several Factors 5. Describe the factors important to fungal growth Growth through absorption Primarily aerobic organisms Optimum temperature Acidity requirement 6. Indicate the fungi involved in food contamination 7. Describe mutualism and the mycorrhizal fungi C. Reproduction in Fungi Involves Spore Formation 8. Describe the unique nature of fungal fruiting bodies and reproduction Importance of the spore Asexual reproduction Heterokaryon formation Diploid and haploid conditions Advantages of sexual reproduction CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI A. The Zygomycota Have Nonseptate Hyphae 9. Describe the Zygomycota and explain zygospore formation B. The Ascomycota Are the Sac Fungi 10. Describe the Ascomycetes and ascospore formation 11. Explain the symbiotic relationship involved in the lichens C. The Basidiomycota Are the Club Fungi 12. Describe the Basidiomycota and basidiospore formation 13. Indicate that there are several plant diseases that involve the rusts and smuts D. The Deuteromycota Lack a Sexual Reproduction Phase 14. Describe the Deuteromycota and the lack of known sexual reproduction E. The Yeasts Are Microscopic, Unicellular Fungi 15. Discuss the general properties of the yeasts 16. Identify the important characteristics of Saccharomyces Morphology and reproduction Economic importance FUNGAL DISEASES OF HUMANS A. Cryptococcosis Usually Occurs in Immunocompromised Individuals 17. Identify the characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans 18. Topics to cover include: Transmission Symptoms Relationship to AIDS B. Candidiasis Often Is a Mild, Superficial Infection 19. Identify the characteristics of Candida albicans
  12. 12. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner 20. Topics to cover include: Associated diseases Related to antibiotic overuse Relationship to AIDS C. Dermatophytosis Is an Infection of the Body Surface 21. Identify the characteristics of “tinea” infections 22. Topics to cover include: Multiple causes among fungi Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment D. Histoplasmosis Can Produce a Systemic Disease 23. Identify the characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum 24. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Transmission Treatment E. Blastomycosis Is Endemic in the Southeastern United States 25. Identify the characteristics of Blastomyces dermatitidis 26. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Prevalence in U.S. Transmission Treatment F. Coccidioidomycosis Primarily Is a Respiratory Infection 27. Identify the characteristics of Coccidioides immitis 28. Topics to cover include: Symptoms and cause Localization in US G. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Causes Illness and Death within Immunosuppressed Individuals 29. Identify the characteristics of Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. carinii) 30. Topics to cover include: Relationship to AIDS Trophozoite stage Treatment H. Other Fungi Also Cause Mycoses 31. Other fungi to cover include: Aspergillus species (aspergillosis and aflatoxins) Claviceps purpurea (ergot disease) Sporothrix schenkii (sporotrichosis)
  13. 13. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 15 Vocabulary Absorption Cryptococcosis Pneumocystis Aflatoxin Dermatophyte pneumonia AIDS Dermatophytosis Potato dextrose agar Amphotericin B Deuteromycota Rose thorn disease Arthrospore Dimorphic Rust disease Ascocarp Diploid Sabouraud dextrose Ascomycota Ergot agar Ascospore Ergotism Sclerotium Ascus Fruiting body Septate Aspergilloma Haploid Septum Aspergillosis Heterokaryon Smut disease Basidiocarp Heterotrophic Spherule Basidiomycota Histoplasmosis Sporangiospore Basidiospore Hypha Sporangium Basidium Lichen Spores Blastomycosis Mating type Sporotrichosis Blastospore Mold Thrush Bud Mutualism Trophozoite Budding Mycelium Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis Mycology Yeast Chitin Mycorrhizal fungi “Yeast infection” Coccidioidomycosis Mycotoxin Zygomycota Coenocytic Nonseptate Zygospore Conidiophore Oral candidiasis Conidium Otomycosis
  14. 14. Chapter 16 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOZOA A. Protozoa Contain Typical Eukaryotic Organelles 1.Describe the size and cellular features of the protozoa 2.Discuss their association with water and contractile vacuoles B. Most Protozoa Are Heterotrophs 3.Discuss how protozoa procure nutrients 4.Describe protozoal heterotrophic and saprobic existence 5.Examine reproduction CLASSIFICATION OF PROTOZOA A. Amoebas Form Pseudopods 6.Identify the characteristics of the Sarcodina (Rhizopoda) 7.Asses the role of the radiolarians and foraminiferans B. Flagellates Move by One or More Flagella 8.Identify the characteristics of the Mastigophora 9.Discuss Euglena and photosynthesis 10.Identify the parasitic dinoflagellates C. Ciliates Have Two Types of Nuclei 11.Identify the characteristics of the Ciliophora 12.Describe the complexity in Paramecium D. Apicomplexans (Sporozoa) Are Obligate Parasites 13.Identify the characteristics of the Apicomplexans 14.Discuss the parasitic forms PROTOZOAL DISEASES CAUSED BY AMOEBAS AND FLAGELLATES A. Amoebiasis Is the Second Leading Cause of Death from Parasitic Disease 15. Identify the characteristics of Entamoeba histolytica 16. Topics to cover include: Worldwide incidence Transmission Disease progression and recurrence B. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis Is a Sudden and Deadly Infection Identify the characteristics of Naegleria fowleri Describe the symptoms C. Giardiasis Occurs in an Estimated 5 Percent of American Adults 17. Identify the characteristics of Giardia lamblia 18. Topics to cover include: Transmission Symptoms Diagnostic signs Treatment D. Trichomoniasis Affects Over 10 Percent of Sexually Active Individuals 19. Identify the characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis 20. Topics to cover include: Transmission Symptoms in females and males Diagnosis Treatment E. Trypanosomiasis Is Two Different Diseases 21. Identify the characteristics of Trypanosoma species 22. Explain African sleeping sickness
  15. 15. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Transmission by tsetse fly (Glossina species) Symptoms 23. Describe American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) Transmission by triatomid bugs (Triatoma and Rhodnius species) Symptoms 24. Explain the antigenic changes in trypanosomes F. Leishmaniasis Is of Two Forms 25. Identify the characteristics of Leishmania species 26. Topics to cover include: Transmission by sandflies (Phlebotomus species) Types (visceral and cutaneous disease) and Gulf/Iraq Wars Leishmania and transposons PROTOZOAL DISEASES CAUSED BY CILIATES AND APICOMPLEXANS (SPOROZOA) A. Balantidiasis Is Contracted from Water or Food Contaminated with Pig Feces 27. Identify the characteristics of Balantidium coli 28. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Treatment B. Toxoplasmosis Is One of the Most Common Infectious Diseases 29. Identify the characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii 30. Topics to cover include: Transmission Symptoms and diagnosis Congenital risk (TORCH) Risk in persons with AIDS C. Malaria Is Caused by Four Different Protozoal Species 31. Describe its worldwide incidence 32. Identify the characteristics of Plasmodium species 33. Discuss transmission by mosquitoes (Anopheles species) 34. Identify the symptoms and pathology of disease 35. Describe treatment and methods of control D. Babesiosis Is Found in the Northeastern Unites States 36. Identify the characteristics and transmission of Babesia microti E. Cryptosporidiosis Is Caused by a Highly Infectious Protozoan 37. Identify the characteristics of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. coccidi) 38. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Occurrence in persons with AIDS F. Cyclosporiasis Develops after Eating Contaminated Fresh Produce 39. Identify the characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis 40. Topics to cover include: Symptoms Transmission Chapter 16 Vocabulary Actin Amoeba Amoeboid motion African sleeping sickness Amoebiasis Apicomplexa American trypanosomiasis Amoebic dysentery Apicomplexan
  16. 16. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Babesiosis Gametocyte Radiolarian Balantidiasis Giardiasis Rhizopoda Bilateral symmetry Humidifier fever Sandfly Blackwater fever Kala-azar Sarcodina Carrier Kappa factor Sexual recombination Chagas' disease Leishmaniasis Sexually transmitted Ciliate Lysosome disease Ciliophora Malaria Sporozoan Coccidiosis Malaria attack Sporozoite Congenital infection Mastigophora Tertian malaria Conjugation Mefloquine Testes fly Contractile vacuole Merozoite Tick Cryptosporidiosis Myosin Toxoplasmosis Cutaneous disease Oriental sore Traveler's diarrhea Cyclosporiasis Parasitology Trichocyst Cyst Pellicle Trichomoniasis Dose level Primary amoebic Trophozoite Enterotest capsule meningoencephalitis Trypanosomiasis Estivo-autumnal malaria (PAM) Visceral disease Flagellate Protista Flagellum Pseudopod Food vacuole Quartan malaria Foraminiferan Quinine
  17. 17. Chapter 17 – Parasites FLATWORMS 1. Identify the general properties, reproduction, and classification of flatworms A. Flukes Use Snails as an Intermediate Host 2. Identify the characteristics of Class Trematoda 3. Contrast intermediate and definitive hosts with stages in their life cycle B. Schistosomiasis Is Very Common Worldwide 4. Identify the characteristics of Schistosoma species 5. Topics to cover include: Life cycle Symptoms C. Chinese Liver Fluke Disease Involves Two Intermediate Hosts 6. Identify the characteristics of Clonorchis sinensis 7. Topics to cover include: Life cycle and transmission by fish D. Other Fluke Also Cause Human Disease 8. Organisms to cover include: Fasciolopsis buski, the intestinal fluke Paragonimus westermani, the lung fluke Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke E. Tapeworms Are Flatworms that Live in the Host Intestines 9. Identify the characteristics and reproduction of tapeworms F. Beef and Pork Tapeworm Diseases Usually Are Chronic but Benign 10. Identify the characteristics of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium 11. Topics to cover include: Transmission in beef and pork Life cycles G. Fish Tapeworm Disease Results from Eating Undercooked, Infected Freshwater Fish 12. Identify the characteristics of Diphyllobothrium latum 13. Topics to cover include: Life cycle of the fish tapeworm Transmission by fish H. A Few Other Tapeworms Also Cause Disease 14. Organisms to cover include: Hymenolepis nana, the dwarf tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, the dog tapeworm 17.2.ROUNDWORMS 15. Identify the general properties, classification, and reproduction of roundworms A. Pinworm Disease Is the Most Prevalent Helminthic Infection in the United States 16. Identify the characteristics of Enterobius vermicularis 17. Topics to cover include: Life cycle Diagnosis and transmission B. Whipworm Disease Comes from Eating Food Contaminated with Parasite Eggs 18. Identify the characteristics of Trichuris trichiura 19. Discuss its life cycle and transmission C. Roundworm Disease Is Prevalent in the American South 20. Identify the characteristics of Ascaris lumbricoides 21. Discuss its life cycle and transmission D. Trichinosis Occurs Worldwide
  18. 18. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner 22. Identify the characteristics of Trichinella spiralis 23. Topics to cover include: Life cycle Infection in pigs and humans Incidence in the US E. Hookworm Disease Is an Infection of the Upper Intestine 24. Identify the characteristics of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus 25. Describe its life cycle and transmission F. Strongyloidiasis Is a Parasitic Intestinal Infection 26. Identify the characteristics of Strongyloides stercoralis 27. Topics to cover include: Life cycle Vietnam exposure G. Filariasis Is a Lymphatic System Infection 28. Identify the characteristics of Wuchereria bancrofti 29. Topics to cover include: Life cycle Transmission and symptoms H. Guinea Worm Disease Causes Skin Ulcers 30. Identify the characteristics of Dracunculus medinensis 31. Topics to cover include: Life cycle and transmission I. Eyeworm Disease Occurs in the Rain and Swamp Forests of Africa 32. Identify the characteristics of Loa loa 33. Describe its life cycle and transmission Chapter 17 Vocabulary Aschelminthes Chinese liver fluke Elephantiasis Beef tapeworm Copepod Eyeworm Bilateral symmetry Cyst Filariasis Bilharziasis Definitive host Filariform Cercariae Dog tapeworm Fish tapeworm Cestoda Dwarf tapeworm Flatworm Gravid proglottid Intestinal fluke Guinea worm Hermaphroditic Hydatid cyst Helminths Hookworm Intermediate host Liver fluke Roundworm Lung fluke Schistosomiasis Metacercariae Scolex Miracidia Sporocyst Nemathelminthes Strongyloidiasis Nematoda Swimmer's itch New World hookworm Tapeworm Old World hookworm Trematoda Parasitology Trichinosis Pinworm Whipworm Platyhelminthes Pork tapeworm Proglottid Redia Rhabditiform
  19. 19. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 18 Infection and Disease THE HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIP A. The Human Body Is Host to Its Own Microbiota 1.Explain the concept of the human microbiota (normal flora) 2.Describe symbiosis with examples of mutual and commensalism 3.Identify the locations of the microbiota 4.Examine the introduction of microbiota in the newborn B. Pathogens Differ in Their Ability to Cause Disease 5.Examine the variations in pathogenicity 6.Describe virulence Variations and avirulent organisms Genetic relationship 7.Discuss pathogenicity islands C. Diseases Progress through a Series of Stages 8.Examine the stages of disease 9.Describe clinical and subclinical diseases D. Diseases Are Transmitted by Direct or Indirect Means 10.Examine the direct and indirect methods, including: Fomites Arthropod vectors (mechanical and biological) E. Reservoirs Represent Sources of Disease Organisms 11. Explain the concept of a reservoir and give examples (animals; water and soil) F. Diseases Can Be Described by Their Behavior and Occurrence in a Population 12. Contrast between communicable and noncommunicable diseases 13. Compare endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases G. Diseases Can Be Classified By Severity and Host Involvement 14. Discuss disease severity Acute and chronic diseases 15. Examine host involvement Primary and secondary diseases Local and systemic diseases Blood dissemination THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DISEASE A. Pathogens Enter and Leave the Host through Portals 16. Give examples of portals of entry 17. Discuss portals of exit B. Disease Onset Is Influenced by the Number of Invading Pathogens 18. Examine pathogen dose and provide examples C. Most Pathogens Must Penetrate Host Tissues 19. Discuss the genetic basis 20. Describe invasiveness and cell penetration 21. Assess the importance of virulence factors D. Adhesins Are Important Virulence Factors 22. Describe cell internalization with examples E. Enzymes Can Increase the Virulence of a Pathogen 23. Describe the influence of enzymes on virulence
  20. 20. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner 24. Examine enzymatic virulence factors 25. Recall the importance of biofilms F. Toxins Are Poisonous Virulence Factors 26. Define bacterial toxins 27. Examine the exotoxins: Production by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria Related to disease symptoms Exotoxin classification (neurotoxins and enterotoxins) Responses to exotoxins Antitoxins and toxoids 28. Examine the endotoxins: Production by gram-negative bacteria Related to disease symptoms Endotoxin shock THE HUMAN CIRCULATORY AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS A. Blood Consists of Three Major Components 29. Identify blood components (serum and plasma) 30. Examine the types of granulocytes 31. Examine the types of agranulocytes B. The Lymphatic System Has Three Functions 32. Assess the significance of lymph 33. Examine the lymphatic tissues (location and composition) 34. Describe the functions of the lymphatic system
  21. 21. MCB1000L Spring 2005 Dr. Barbara R. Sharak Genthner Chapter 18 Vocabulary Acme period Noncommunicable Acute disease disease Adhesin Normal flora Adhesion Opportunistic Antitoxin Outbreak Arthropod Pandemic disease Avirulent Parasitemia Bacteremia Parasitism Basophil Pathogen Biological vector Pathogenicity Blood platelet Pathogenicity island Cadherin Period of convalescence Carrier Period of decline Chronic disease Phagocyte Climax Plasma Clinical disease Polymorphonuclear Coagulase leukocyte (PMN) Commensalism Portal of entry Communicable disease Portal of exit Contagious Primary infection Direct method Prodromal phase Disease Reservoir Dose Respiratory droplet Endemic disease Secondary infection Endotoxin Septicemia Enterotoxin Serum Eosinophil Sign Epidemic disease Sterile Erythrocyte Streptokinase Exotoxin Subclinical disease Fomite Symbiosis Fungemia Symptom Hemolysin Systemic disease Hyaluronidase Toxemia Incubation period Toxigenicity Indirect method Toxin Infection Toxoid Invasiveness Vector mechanical vector Jaundice Viremia Leukocidin Virulence Leukocyte Virulence factor Local disease Lymph Lymph node Lymphocyte Macrophage Microbiota Monocyte Mutualism Neurotoxin