Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer
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Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer

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Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer Presentation Transcript

  • Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer Raúl Morales MD IIB Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Institute for Biomedical Research
  • This review describes the experience with the development of a novel form of immunotherapy that may represent the first practical and effective means of performing tumor-loaded dendritic cell immunotherapy. Extra Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer
  • Human cancer is comprised of more than 200 different diseases. Facts : View slide
  • Together, they account for about one fifth of all deaths in the industrialized countries of the Western World . Facts : Lung Bowel Prostate Colon Other Unknown site Breast Pancreas Rectum Non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma Melanoma Leukaemia Stomach Bladder Brain Kidney Oesophagus Ovary Liver Multiple myeloma Myeloproliferative disorders Number of Deaths View slide
    • One person out of three will be treated for a severe cancer in their lifetime.
    Facts : Female Cancer incidence worldwide Male
    • The incidence of most cancers increases with age,
    • these figures are rising, as life expectancy continues
    • to increase.
    Facts :
    • Surgery and radiotherapy are often successful
    • in organ-confined cases.
    Facts :
    • Chemotherapy is moderately effective for some advanced cancers.
    Facts :
    • Cancer treatment needs to be carefully chosen to maximize the chance for a cure while retaining a quality of life.
    Facts : Should I say yes? “ The Trial & Tribulations of Clinical Trials”
    • Quality of life is now widely accepted as a
    • criterium for successful therapy.
    Facts :
    • Effective cancer therapy requires an understanding of the principles of tumor biology, cellular kinetics, pharmacology and drug resistence.
    What do we currently have ? Cancer Metastasis Gen Mutation
    • Treatment of metastatic carcinomas remains the weakest point of current cancer therapy.
    Metastatic Carcinomas Prostate Anterior chest wall.
    • Targeted chemotherapeutic agents, Novel cytotoxic drugs, Vaccine, etc.
    Biological and Immunotherapies.
  • “ A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents, but rather because its opponents die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck Nobel prize in physics (1918). The XXI century truth:
  • Adoptive immunotherapy : A novel form of treatment of cancer The combination of mononuclear cells obtained by Photopheresis and incubated with grow factors, as autologous vaccine (dendritic cells therapy). Has substantial potential for the management of life-threatening or debilitating antigenic cancers and T-cell mediated disorders.
  • The passage of mononuclear cells through UV light will convert to mature and educated dendritic cells . This method works as photodynamic therapy : Mature and educated Dendritic Cell Mononuclear Cell
  • Upon exposure to UVA light, covalent crosslinking of DNA occurs. This resulting in the proliferative arrest of the treated cells and cell death (apoptosis). How works ? photosensitizer agents DNA sequence Apoptotic cell UV Light
    • Cells exposed to UVA light may undergo cell-cycle arrest , which Usually occurs at S phase or G-1 S boundary.
    • The cell may repair itself and
    • tolerate the damage before
    • resuming the cell cycle.
    • Or, the cell may die by apoptosis.
    • UV light favors apoptosis.
    Cell Cycle
  • T-cell mediated immune response Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer The generation of an effective T cell-mediated immune response requires the activation of both the cytotoxic (CD8+) and the helper (CD4+) T lymphocyte subsets.
  • Injection of grow factors, combined with tumor antigens in vivo will attract autologous DCs to the immunization site where they would uptake the injected antigens. Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer
  • In the light of these findings, the combination of extracorporeal photopheresis and immunizations with autologous dendritic cells cultured ex vivo (functionally intact), prepulsed with tumor antigens is a wonderful strategy to elicit a strong immune response in the cancer patient. Stimulating the immune system to fight cancer :
  • Now that we comprehend the mechanism, it is possible to apply this adoptive immunetherapy to poor-prognosis solid tumors or with minimal residual diseases , will get prolonged survival with good quality of life and without undesirable effects poor-prognosis cancer patient Minimal residual diseases patient What patients should be treated ?
  • IIB´s Founder Raul Morales, M.D., founded the Institute in 1999. Dr. Morales, Associate Professor of Hematology, is a graduate of Medicine of the University Of Guadalajara, Mexico. He received his post-graduate training, Internal Medicine and sub-specialized in Hematology and transfusional medicine at the National University of Mexico. He is a member of the Mexican Society of Hematology, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, International Society of Hematology, Association European of Hematology, American Association of Blood Banks, member of the National Mexican Council of Hematology. Dr. Morales is an active academic representative of the University of Guadalajara. He has the responsibility of establishing relationships among Universities and other medical institutions with the purpose of exchanging knowledge and experiences in scientific and academic affairs.