Slide 1 – Lymohocyte
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  • 1. Micro Anatomy – Defense I 28/10/2004 03:56:00 ←Slide 1 – Lymohocyte ←Slide 2 – Monocyte (model appearance of nucleus) ←Slide 3 – arrow to platelet also Neutrophils present ←Slide 4 – Eosinophil ←Slide 5 – Basophil – S shaped nucleus that is hard to see ←The defense system protects and individual from insults • pathogens o bacteria o viruses o fungi o parasites • environmental agents • tumors ←Cells of the Immune Systems • Lymphocytes o T cells o B cell – produce antibodies and present antigen o Natural Killer cells – cytotoxic cells  bind to and kill other cells  either tumor or virually effected cells
  • 2.  due it a nonspecific manner • Monocytes o blood monocytes o move into tissue called macrophages (histiocytes)  alveolar macrophages in lung (wrong in slide)  Kupffer cells – Liver  Microglia – Brain  Langerhan’s cells – epidermis o Dendritic cells o function of these cells  phagocytes – fight infection  antigen presenting cells (APC)  antigen is bound to Major Histocompatiblity C.. (MHC) and presented to T cells  earliest cell to arrive on the scence • Granulocytes o Neutrophils o Eosinophils  bind IgE  allergies o Basophils • Others
  • 3. o Mast cells – similar to basophils but different origin ←Table 13-1 covers the above cells ←Innate Immunity • does not require preexposure to antigen to ellicite a response • does not inrease following repeat exposure to an antigen • not a lot of specificity • does not provide long term protection – do not develop immunity • mediated by the phagocytic cells o neutrophils o monocytes/macrophages ←Adaptive Immunity • likely to come down with chicken pox if you have never seen it but once you get it you are resistant • you are not innately immune o exposure induces immunity • involves increased response following subsequent exposure to the antigen due to immunological memory (described below) o making cells to fight specifically against that virsus • Discriminates with exquisite detail between antigens • provides long-term protection against re-infection by the same pathogen • Mediated by B & T cells (lymphocytes) o have activation and clonal expansion of lymphocytes  only the ones that recognize antigen though
  • 4. o expansion leads to  effector lymphocytes  memory lymphocytes • Types of Adaptive Immunity o Humoral Immunity – adaptive immunity which is mediated by antibodies produced by cells of the B cell lineage. Humoral immunity can be transferred to NAÏVE recipients with immune serum containing specific antibody  antibodies produced and do not require cells to initiate response??? o Structure of antibodies  Figure 12-1  2 Heavy chains  blue region is relatively constant (Fc) • gives us IgA,D,E,G (immunoglobin)  yellow is variable – recognize antigens  2 light chains  have variable region – recognize antigens  How do you get variable region  V (variable)  J (joining)  C (constant)  D (…)  can combine in different patterns  actually change DNA
  • 5. o Clones have distinct antigen specifies  body removes self-reactive  Lymphocyte recognizes some protein the body makes that is bad so the body gets ride of that clone.  left with non-self recognizing  only specific clone will respond to nonself antigen • best clone wins and differenates more– like evolution o it is get the best feedback so it lives o goes dormanit to form memory  do not have to go through whole process again to get antibodies  Something about plasma cells being the antibody making for immune response and B cell being used for memory  b cell showed antibodies on surface vs plasma did not o one distinction slide showing plasma cells  see cytoplasm has a light stain next to the nucleus  light stain = golgi • because cell is making large amounts of protein (antibody) o Cell-mediated Immunity – adaptive immunity principally mediated by T cells. Cell mediated immunity includes all adaptive immunity that cannot be transferred to NAIRVE recipients by humoral antibodies. Cell mediated immunity requires the presence of immune cells  Structure of T cell receptors  is an Ig (immunoglobin)  also other molecules that help called CD • CD 4 = helper??  MHC presents antigen from APC to T cell receptor
  • 6. • MHC I – all cells have this (just about) • MHC II – professional antigen presenting cells o dendrictic cells o b cells o macrophages  T cell activation  MHC see above  occurs similar to B cell  T cell subsets  helper • 1 – cytotoxic t cells to perform their function and make cytokines to help activate macrophages o has to recognize APC  cytotoxic T cells also sees APC  but must receive signals from T1h  cytokines –  IL-2 – leads to proliferation  IFNγ (interferon gama)  see cytoxic T cell for rest o IFNα also goes to macrophage telling it to swallow bacteria, etc…  but T1 signals self via Il-2 to proliferate and then bind to macrophage and release TNFα • 2 – help B cells respond to forgein substances
  • 7. o B cell presents to T2 releasing cytokines  IL-4,5,6, & 10  leads to mature plasma cells and B memory cells  helps them to differentiate  cytotoxic • lysis of transformed cells (sick)  suppressor/regulatory  memory ←Diseases resulting from aberrant immune functions • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) o don’t have T cells in the immune system • Bare lymphocyte syndrome o Lack of MHC on surface of cells – affets abilito to recognize t cells • DiGeorge’s syndrome o no thymus – site of t cell differenation – don’t have t cells  t is for thymus • Autoimmune diseases o recognize self – body starts to attack self ←
  • 8. 28/10/2004 03:56:00 ←
  • 9. 28/10/2004 03:56:00 ←