Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
[PPT]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

[PPT]

301

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
301
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Publication costs are research costs Robert Terry Senior Policy Adviser The Wellcome Trust r.terry@wellcome.ac.uk
  • 2. One of the world’s largest medical research charities Planned expenditure in 2002/03 of c £500 million Supports more than 5,000 researchers at 400 locations in 42 different countries Funding major initiatives in public engagement with science and SciArt projects The UK’s leading supporter of research into the History of Medicine
  • 3. The present Clinical and Experimental Immunology Journal of Immunology
  • 4. The small print
  • 5. The web has transformed access to research results
  • 6. ……almost
  • 7. ……and this is why it matters Funded by the Wellcome Trust
  • 8. Why should open access publication be important to research funders?  Just funding the research is a job only part done – a fundamental part of their mission is to ensure the widest possible dissemination and unrestricted access to that research.  Web developments have created a new publishing model - not fully realised whilst access mediated through subscriptions and bundle deals.  90% of NHS-funded research available online full text  30% immediately available to public  Only 40% immediately available to NHS staff
  • 9. Shouldn’t those who pay for the research be able to read it?  Over 90% of research funded in UK universities is public money from government, research councils and charities (17%) “..Speak to people in the medical profession, and they will say the last thing they want are people who may have illnesses reading this information, marching into surgeries and asking things. We need to be careful with this very, very high-level information.” Oral evidence to House of Commons inquiry, March 1st 2004, John Jarvis (Managing) Director, Wiley Europe)
  • 10. Economic analysis of scientific research publishing http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/ scipubreport
  • 11. Major concerns  subscription charge increases: 200% in last ten years - pressure on library budgets, reduction in number of subscriptions  publisher retention of copyright and therefore control  “excessive” profits: 35%+ margins  restrictive online access - the bundle deal
  • 12. The economic Shareholder £ Profit s & Societies cycle of Publishers scientific publishing £ Free Free Libraries £ £ Public funders & HEFCE
  • 13. Why don’t Shareholder £ Profit s & Societies researchers Publishers know or care? £ Funders mission? Free Free Libraries £ £ Public funders & HEFCE
  • 14. Alternative model - open access  The copyright holder(s) must grant to the public a free, irrevocable, perpetual license to use, copy, distribute and make derivative works, in any medium for any purpose.  A digital copy must be deposited in an open public archival repository (for example US National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central).
  • 15. Human genome project
  • 16. Early days but - open access increases impact The mean number of citations to offline articles is 2.74, and the mean number of citations to online articles is 7.03, an increase of 157%. […a clear correlation between the number of times an article is cited and the probability that the article is online. More highly cited articles, and more recent articles, are significantly more likely to be online, in computer science.] Steve Lawrence, NEC Research Institute, Nature 411, 521 (2001)
  • 17. What will it cost? Costs and business models in scientific research publishing http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/ publications
  • 18. Will it cost more? Cost element Proportion of costs 1. Refereeing 22% 2. Editorial and typesetting (i.e. from 33% acceptance to first copy) 3. Subscription management 7% 4. Physical production and distribution 23% (including postage) 5. Sales and marketing 13% 6. Promotion to authors 2% Total 100%
  • 19. Will it cost more? Cost element Proportion of costs Whole system savings of 30% ? 1. Refereeing 22% Estimated costs per article: 2. Editorial and typesetting (i.e. from 33% acceptance to first copy) $2,750 subscription 3. Subscription management 7% $1,950 open access Submission fee $175 4. Physical production and distribution 23% publication drops to (including postage) $550 5. Sales and marketing 13% Charges of $10,000++ include contribution of funds 6. Promotion to authors 2% to overheads, surplus or Total 100% profit
  • 20. What will it cost funders? Trust estimates: 1 – 2% of research budget University Press 24% Commercial 33% Journals with > 30 papers Elsevier 10% Portland Press 5% 1995 - 1999* CUP 5% Blackwell 4% OUP 4% Nature 3% Society Total Trust papers 43% n=16,646 *Source: ROD in 1292 journals
  • 21. Funder initiatives  Leadership - demonstrate engagement with issues, join with other research funders, raise awareness in research community  Fund - cost of publication (marginal to research costs)  Copyright - encourage (and eventually enforce) author retention (involve publishers and IPR lawyers)  Repository - establish open access repositories and self- archiving (at what point mandatory?)  Evaluation - recognise intrinsic value of content of paper rather than title of journal  Digitization - of existing titles Greater accessibility = greater impact of research
  • 22. The future?  More of the same? - unlikely  Increased use of repositories and self-archiving - likely  More support from funders? - very likely e.g.Howard Hughes, Max Planck, CNRS, WHO.....NIH(?)  Tipping point?  UK Parliament S&T Committee Inquiry

×