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    Powerpoint Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 18 Practical Applications of Immunology
      • Variolation : Inoculation of smallpox (18th century)
      • Vaccination : Inoculation of cowpox
      • Herd immunity - when most of population is immune to a disease
      • Actively acquired artificial immunity
      • Works because of the anamnestic (remembering or secondary) response…memory cells!!
      Vaccine History
    • Principal Vaccine Types
      • Living, attenuated (weakened)
      • Killed or Inactivated
        • Whole MO
        • Part only, often conjugated
        • Toxoid
      • New technologies
      • DtaP
        • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid
        • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis
        • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid
      • Meningococcal meningitis: Purified polysaccharide from N. meningitidis
      • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein
      • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein
      Principal Vaccines Used in the United States to Prevent Bacterial Diseases in Humans
    • Principal Bacterial Vaccines
      • DaPT
        • Diphtheria: Purified diphtheria toxoid
        • Pertussis: Acellular fragments of B. pertussis
        • Tetanus: Purified tetanus toxoid
      • Meningococcal meningitis : Purified polysaccharide (capsular Ag) from N. meningitidis
      • Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis: Polysaccharides conjugated with protein
      • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: S. pneumoniae antigens conjugated with protein
    • Principal Viral Vaccines
      • Smallpox : Live vaccinia virus
      • Poliomyelitis : Inactivated virus (Older OPV)
      • Rabies : Inactivated virus
      • Hepatitis A : Inactivated virus
      • Influenza : Inactivated or attenuated (nasal) virus
      • Measles : Attenuated virus
      • Mumps : Attenuated virus
      • Rubella : Attenuated virus
      • Chickenpox : Attenuated virus
      • Hepatitis B : Antigenic fragments (recombinant vaccine)
    • Monoclonal Antibodies - Mabs Figure 18.2
    • Monoclonal Antibodies
      • Immunotoxins : Mabs conjugated with toxin to target cancer cells
      • Chimeric mabs : Genetically modified mice that produce Ab with a human constant region
      • Humanized mabs : Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding
      • Fully human antibodies : Mabs produced from a human gene on a mouse
    • Monoclonal Antibodies
      • Alemtuzu mab : For leukemia
      • Inflixi mab : For Crohn’s disease
      • Rituxi mab : For non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
      • Trastuzu mab : Herceptin for breast cancer
      • Basilixi mab and daclizu mab : Block IL–2, immunosuppresives for transplants
      • Palivizu mab : Treatment of RSV
    • Serology
      • Study of Ag-Ab reactions
        • Finding Ag or Ab by various reactions
      • Paired sera – acute and convalescent
      • Direct tests detect antigens (from patient sample)
      • Indirect tests detect antibodies (in patient serum)
    • Precipitation Reactions
      • Involve soluble antigens with antibodies
      Figure 18.3
    • Agglutination Reactions
      • Involve particulate antigens and antibodies
      • Antigens may be:
      • On a cell (direct agglutination)
      • Attached to latex spheres (indirect or passive agglutination)
      Figure 18.4
    • Antibody Titer
      • Is the concentration of antibodies against a particular antigen
      Figure 18.5
    • Hemagglutination
      • Hemagglutination involves agglutination of RBCs.
      • Viral hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies by the antibodies' ability to prevent viruses from agglutinating RBCs.
      Figure 18.7
    • Neutralization Reactions
      • Eliminate the harmful effect of a virus or exotoxin
      Figure 18.8b
    • Complement Fixation Figure 18.9.1
    • Complement Fixation Figure 18.9.2
    • Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Direct) Figure 18.10a
    • Fluorescent Antibody Techniques (Indirect) Figure 18.10b
    • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Direct ELISA) Figure 18.12a
    • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Indirect ELISA) Figure 18.12b
    • Serological Tests Figure 18.13
    • Serological Tests
      • Direct tests detect antigens (from patient sample)
      • Indirect tests detect antibodies (in patient's serum)
    • Serological Tests
      • Agglutination: Particulate antigens (Indirect and direct)
      • Hemagglutination: Agglutination of RBCs
      • Precipitation: Soluble antigens
      • Fluorescent-antibody technique: Antibodies linked to fluorescent dye (direct and indirect)
      • Complement fixation: RBCs are indicator
      • Neutralization: Inactivates toxin or virus
      • ELISA: Peroxidase enzyme is the indicator (direct and indirect)
    • Question 1
      • Patient’s serum, influenza virus, sheep RBCs, and anti-sheep RBCs are mixed in a tube.
      • Influenza virus agglutinates RBCs.
      • What happens if the patient has antibodies against influenza virus?
    • Question 2
      • Patient’s serum, Chlamydia , guinea pig complement, sheep RBCs, and anti-sheep RBCs are mixed in a tube.
      • What happens if the patient has antibodies against Chlamydia ?