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  • Granulocytes: Basophil, Neutrophil, eosinophil contain substances and histamine. True phagocytes monocytes, macrophage Lymphocyte. Antibody production. And Cell mediated immunity
  • Fig 17.15
  • Same as 17.10
  • Transcript

    • 1. Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the host Ch 17
    • 2.
      • Innate resistance
      • Immunity: ability of the body to resist pathogens
        • Due to production of specific lymphocytes and antibodies
      • Acquired immunity
        • Naturally – active immunity – get it, get over it
        • Passive immunity – Mother to child, AB from mother (short term)
    • 3. Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity Figure 17.8
    • 4. Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity
      • T and B cells develop from stem cells in red bone marrow
      • Humoral immunity
        • B cells mature in the bone marrow
          • Chickens: Bursa of Fabricius
        • Due to antibodies
      • Cellular immunity
        • Due to T cells
        • T cells mature in the thymus
      ANIMATION Humoral Immunity: Overview
    • 5. Artificially acquired immunity
      • Vaccination
      • Antiserum
      • Gamma globulin (IgG purified)
    • 6.  
    • 7.
      • Antigen, anything that can cause an immunological response
        • Examples
    • 8. Humoral vs.. cell mediated immunity
      • Humoral is serum immunity
      • Cell mediated depends on T cells
    • 9. Antibody Structure
      • The monomer is bivalent
      • 4 ppt chains, 2 light and 2 heavy
      • All contain a V region where antibody binding occurs
      • Y or T shaped know where ab binds, know constant region.
      • Fc or constant region binds to host cell or complement.
    • 10.  
    • 11.  
    • 12. Haptens Figure 17.2
    • 13. Classes of Immunoglobulin
      • IgG serum, passive immunity, neutralize, precipitate, opsonize
      • IgM 5monomers on a chain, agglutination and complement
      • IgA monomer in serum, dimmers in mucus, protects outer surfaces.
      • IgD antigen receptors on B cells
      • IgE antigen receptors on mast cells and basophiles.
    • 14.
      • Apoptosis : programmed cell death, Lymphocytes that are no longer needed destroy themselves.
      • Clonal selection: during fetal development, self reacting AB is destroyed. During sickness more AB is produced (will review later)
    • 15. Types of WBC
    • 16. Clonal Selection and differentiation of B cells
    • 17. Results of antigen binding
      • Neutralize
      • Opsonizaiton
      • Agglutination
      • Fixing complement
      • Precipitation
    • 18.  
    • 19. Immunological memory
      • AB titer
      • Plasma cells
      • Memory cells
    • 20.  
    • 21.  
    • 22. Monoclonal Antibodies
      • Immortal cells that produce an antibody that binds to one haptin.
    • 23. Production of Monoclonal AB (fig 18.2)
    • 24.  
    • 25. Antibodies can now be manufactured
      • Used to tread diseases like cancer
      • How are antibodies treated so that they do not produce an immune response?
    • 26. All of the previous activities are due to B cells.
    • 27. T cells and cell mediated Immunity
      • Differentiate in the thymus gland (and others)
      • Classified by cell surface receptors (CD4)
      • Binds to antigen and APC by MHC
    • 28. Practical applications of Immunology (ch 19)
      • Vaccines
        • Heard immunity: if > 85% are immune to a disease, the pathogen has difficulty spreading
      • Types
        • Attenuated whole agent – non pathogenic
        • Inactivated whole agent – dead
        • Toxoids – inactivated toxin
        • Subunit vaccine –purified protein
        • Conjugated vaccine
        • DNA vaccine – MHC1 associated responses
    • 29. How to make vaccines
      • Animals
      • Cell culture
      • Chick embryos
      • Recombinant vaccines are much safer
    • 30. Disorders of the Human immune system
    • 31. Defects
      • Hay fever
      • Transplant rejection
      • Autoimmunity
      • Infection
      • carriers
    • 32. Hypersensitivity
      • Rx that lead to tissue damage
      • Occur when person is sensitized
      • 4 types
    • 33. Autoimmune disease
      • From loss of self tolerance
      • Self tolerance occurs during fetal development
        • Clonal deletion
        • Clonal anergy
      • Graves disease
      • Myasthenia gravis
      • Systemic lupus
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Hashimotas disease
      • Insulin dependent diabetes
    • 34. Types of T cells
      • Classified by certain glycoproteins on surface (clusters of differentiation (CD))
      • Th –T helper-CD4
        • Recognise an antigen presented on the surface of a macrophage and activate it.
      • Tc – Cytotoxic T cells –CD8
        • When activated by cytokines from the Th cell will change to kill self altered cells
    • 35.
      • Tr – Regulatory T cells – (turn down immune response)
    • 36. Cytotoxic T cells are transformed into CTL’s by a cell with markers on it.
    • 37. The MHC antigen complex induces a toll-like receptor
    • 38. Organisms like large paracites that are too large for ingestion by phagocytic cells must be attacked externally