There are more than 20 new programs offering the new “Professional Science Masters” degree. I think this makes a lot sense as a way to attract more people to science, and a source of desperately needed technical people.
There is essentially no unemployment of biomedical scientists, although many may feel that they are underemployed.
Industry and government are important to immunology. Many cytokines, receptors and concepts were developed in companies. In addition, kits and resources they produce drive discovery in all laboratories. AAI has stressed the importance of an adequate “RM&S” component to the NIH budget. This is because we want talented people managing grants, peer review and resources. There is also a large demand for scientists in the CDC and NIH who can address the challenges of bioterrorism.
I was 27 when I received my Ph.D., but today’s graduates are 4 years older.
This is because they start graduate school somewhat later, and spend 7 rather than 5 years in training. It is important to note that these patterns stabilized about 10 years ago.
Note that our production of Ph.D.s has already stabilized, and the proportion of graduates who are foreign is constant.
However, these are some of the things that I think are important.
This is from our NEW data, I think and a major take home message. I would like to see this figure in the paper.
An increasing fraction of academic appointments are for research-track, or “staff scientist” positions shown here in yellow.
There is some graying of our faculty, with increasing numbers in the 45-64 year range.
On the other hand, it is extremely difficult to land a coveted tenure-track appointment. Not all of todays graduates want this type of work, but only 14% are in such positions 5-6 years after receipt of the Ph.D. This is clearly more difficult than it was for me, and too tough in my opinion. Indeed, a regression analysis of this data would predict no tenure-track positions 20 years from now!
Funding—”independence” occurs at later age.
Some learned people have concluded that we are over-training, and should “raise the bar” on Ph.D.s. The implication is that such degrees should only be awarded by the most prestigious schools. I think that would be wrong for many reasons.
"Pathway to an Independent Academic Research Career"
<ul><li>Career Fair, Feb 9, 2006 </li></ul>James J. Tomasek, Ph.D Dean, Graduate College Presidential Professor of Cell Biology Pathway to an Independent Academic Research Career
In an Era of Scientific Opportunity, Are There Opportunities for Biomedical Scientists? Howard H. Garrison, Susan A. Gerbi and Paul W. Kincade FASEB Journal, 17:2169, 2003 Careers in Immunology: The New Reality Howard H. Garrison and Paul W. Kincade Nature Immunology, 2:5, 2001 AKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr. Paul W. Kincade, Ph.D. Member and Program Head, Immunobiology and Cancer Research Program Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
B.S. Postdoc. M.S. P.I. M.D. Ph.D. Teacher Industry Staff Scientist P.M.S. Administrator Training Pipelines Government
Source: Bridges to Independence, 2005 Some Career Paths
Continued Low Unemployment for Ph.D.s In Biomedical Sciences (US citizens/perm. residents only) Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates Unemployment Rate (%)
Americans Support Medical Research U.S. should be world leader in medical and health research. 60% Medical and health research is important to the economy. 90% Believe government pays for most of the medical research. 59% In favor of doubling national spending on science and engineering. 64% Basic science research is necessary. 80% Congress should encourage industry to conduct more medical research. 73% Source: Research America Poll, 2004
Congressional Appropriations to NIH Millions of Constant 2002 Dollars Average Annual Growth: 7.2% for last 20 years 7.3% for last 10 years 10.8% for last 5 years
Age of Ph.D. Recipients Note: The average age of postdocs is now 35 Median Age
Time to Biomedical Ph.D. (graduate school) Non-US Citizen or Perm. Resident Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates
Biomedical Science Ph.D.s Awarded to Non-US Citizens and Non-Permanent Residents Total Non-US Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates
<ul><li>The appointee was recently awarded a Ph.D. or equivalent doctorate (e.g.,Sc.D., M.D.) in an appropriate field; and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointment is temporary; and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointment involves substantially full-time research or scholarship; and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointment is viewed as preparatory for a full-time academic and/or research career; and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointment is not part of a clinical training program, unless research training under the supervision of a senior mentor is a primary purpose of the appointment; and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointee works under the supervision of a senior scholar or a department in a university or similar research institution (e.g., national laboratory, NIH, etc.); and </li></ul><ul><li>the appointee has the freedom, and is expected, to publish the results of his or her research or scholarship during the period of the appointment. </li></ul>FASEB Postdoc Definition
Some Important Features of the Training Environment <ul><li>Stipends & benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable training period. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent fellowship support. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect from mentors and faculty. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to innovate and grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Chance at an “academic” position. </li></ul><ul><li>STABILITY. </li></ul>
Numbers of US Postdocs in Biological Science Have Been Stable for Some Time Citizens & Perm. Residents Temporary Residents SOURCE: NSF WebCASPAR
Sources of Support for Postdocs Source: Bridges to Independence, 2005
Individual NRSA Application Trends 2419 2153* 1558 442 1131* Fiscal Year 729 1949 972 *As of March 1, 2004 2146 1984 1910 1691 508 503 551 698 Number of Applications Reviewed F31s are predoctoral & F32s are postdoctoral.
NRSA Minimum Stipend Levels for Postdoctoral Research Fellows (0 Years if Experience) 1998 $ 21,000 1999 $ 26,256 2000 $ 26,916 2001 $ 28,260 2002 $ 31,092 2003 $ 34,200 2004 $ 35,568 2005 $ 35,568 2006 $ 35,996
How To Find and Select a Post-Doc <ul><li>Start early in your doctoral program thinking about a post-doc </li></ul><ul><li>Present research at scientific meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Network!! </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be afraid to ask if interested in having a post-doc </li></ul><ul><li>Large versus small lab </li></ul><ul><li>Go to posters at meetings of post-docs/graduate students </li></ul><ul><li>Publications of lab </li></ul>
Individual Development Plans (IDPs) provide a planning process that identifies both professional development needs and career objectives. Furthermore, IDPs serve as a communication tool between individuals and their mentors. While IDPs have been incorporated into performance review processes in many organizations, they have been used much less frequently in the mentoring of postdoctoral fellows. An IDP can be considered one component of a broader mentoring program that needs to be instituted by all types of research institutions. Source: FASEB.org web site. Individual Development Plan for Postdoctoral Fellows
NIH Pathway to Independence Award <ul><li>An award program that provides 2 years of mentored research support (post-doc) </li></ul><ul><li>An additional 3 years of transition support from the mentored phase to the independent phase as part of "an ongoing NIH effort to support new scientists as they transition to research independence" </li></ul><ul><li>NIH plans to issue between 150-200 awards for this program in its initial year </li></ul>
Finding a Tenure-track Academic Research Position
Full & Associate Professors Assist. Professors & Instructors Other Full Time Postdocs Ph.D. Academic Appointments Science & Engineering Indicators - 2002
No Growth in Tenured or Tenure-track Positions Held by U.S. Biomedical Science Ph.D.s
Age Distribution of Full Time Academic Faculty < 35 35-44 45-54 55-64 + 65 Science & Engineering Indicators - 2002 Cumulative %
SOURCE: Survey of Doctorate Recipients A function of: competition from foreign trainees? no growth in tenured faculty? changing employment practices?
What are the prospects of funding for new investigators?
Young Investigators Have the Best Success Rates Source: Bridges to Independence, 2005
Norka Ruiz Bravo, Ph.D., Deputy Director for Extramural Research, NIH
At the Helm. A Laboratory Navigator K. Barker. Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2002. Academic Scientists at Work. Navigating the Biomedical Research Career. J.M. Boss and S.H. Eckert, Plenum Publishers, 2003. Making the Right Moves. A Practical Guide to Scientific Management for Postdocs and New Faculty http://www.hhmi.org Resources for trainees and new investigators
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.