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Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM


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  • A peculiar model
  • A peculiar model
  • Only the blue chunks are immediately free online
  • Only the blue chunk is immediately free online
  • Reuse
  • Inforsense pipelines
  • Key to success is to keep it this way, and make sure all authors have this good an experience…
  • We hear from librarians – we desperately want to support open access, but we have to pay $1m to Elsevier this year, so we don't know where the money is going to come from Librarians are on a treadmill which is moving too fast to get off
  • Reuse
  • These figures exclude those articles where fees are waived. High percentage of publications from members reflects success of membership scheme. Supporter's membership is a relatively recent innovation
  • Follow citation trail to see how journals have
  • Noisy and incomplete, but overall coverage is similar in quantity
  • ISI claims decisions about what to track are about improving service. But in fact, purely economic, since it can't use XML feeds, so has to handkle
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)
    • 2. What is Open Access?
    • 3. BioMed Central Open Access Charter
      • All published peer-reviewed research articles in BioMed Central journals are
        • Universally, freely accessible through Internet
        • In readable format
        • Immediately deposited in an international Open Access repository
          • eg PubMed Central
      • Authors/copyright owners must irrevocably grant to anyone the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part in perpetuity provided that
        • No substantive errors are introduced
        • Authorship attribution is correct
        • Citation details are provided
        • Bibliographic details are unchanged
    • 4. Open Access Publishing: Basics
      • No subscription barriers
      • Journal costs covered by
        • Article Processing Charges
          • Typically paid by author's funder /institution
        • and/or
        • Direct Institutional support of Journal
    • 5. Why Open Access?
    • 6. Traditional Scientific Publishing
      • Researchers
        • Conduct research
        • Write up results
        • Submit papers to Journals
      • Other researchers
        • Act as peer reviewers and editorial advisers
      • Publishers sell access to that research back to scientific community
    • 7. Limitations of this Model
      • Contrary to the interests of:
        • Scientists doing research
          • Access, especially across disciplines, and in low income countries, is limited
        • Funders who pay for it
          • Often have no rights to access their own research articles
        • Society as a whole
          • Public has almost no access
    • 8. The UK National Health Service: an example
    • 9. Accessibility of NHS-funded articles to public
    • 10. Accessibility of NHS-funded articles within the NHS
    • 11. BioMed Central
      • Independant publisher of peer-reviewed open access research
        • Launched first open access journals in 2000
        • Now publishing over 150 open access journals
        • Over 12,000 peer-reviewed open access articles published
      • Costs covered by ‘Article Processing Charge’
        • Typically £750/$1300 or
        • Membership
      • All research articles covered by Creative Commons licence
        • Allowing free re-use
    • 12.  
    • 13. BioMed Central Publishing
      • All papers
        • Peer-reviewed in the ‘traditional’ way
        • All papers are permanently archived in PubMed Central, INIST and other international archives
        • Searchable and retrievable
          • All included in PubMed, Scirus, Google, CrossRef, HINARI
      • Some journals
        • Indexed in MEDLINE, Biosis, CAS
        • Tracked by ISI for citations
          • 33 tracked
          • 15 with impact factors
    • 14. BioMed Central Journals
      • 60 BMC series journals
        • run by an in-house editorial team
        • cover all areas of Biology and Medicine
        • e.g. BMC Genetics, BMC Immunology, BMC Cancer
      • 70+ independant journals
        • run by external groups of scientists or societies
        • e.g. Malaria Journal, Respiratory Research, Retrovirology
      • Other titles which publish subscription-only commissioned content in addition to OA research
        • Arthritis Research & Therapy, Genome Biology, Breast Cancer Research, Critical Care
    • 15.  
    • 16. Journals with Impact Factors BMC Cancer impact factor: 2.29 BMC Infectious Diseases impact factor: 2.07 BMC Public Health impact factor: 1.55 BMC Health Services Research impact factor: 1.23 BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders impact factor: 1.00 BMC Genetics impact factor: 0.92 Trials impact factor: 1.70 BMC Bioinformatics impact factor: 5.42 Respiratory Research impact factor: 4.03 Arthritis Research & Therapy impact factor: 4.55 BMC Genomics impact factor: 3.25 Critical Care impact factor: 3.21 BMC Molecular Biology impact factor: 3.12 Breast Cancer Research impact factor: 2.98 BMC Cell Biology impact factor: 2.62
    • 17. Journals awaiting Impact Factors Malaria Journal impact factor due June 2006 Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology impact factor due June 2008 Genome Biology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Developmental Biology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Immunology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Neurology impact factor due June 2008 BMC Structural Biology impact factor due June 2008 Microbial Cell Factories impact factor due June 2008 BMC Biotechnology impact factor due June 2007 BMC Evolutionary Biology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Gastroenterology impact factor due June 2006 BMC Medical Genetics impact factor due June 2008 BMC Microbiology impact factor due June 2007 BMC Neuroscience impact factor due June 2006 Journal of Translational Medicine impact factor due June 2008 BMC Plant Biology impact factor due June 2008 Retrovirology impact factor due June 2009
    • 18. Citation and Downloads
      • “ Open access articles receive 50% more full-text accesses and PDF downloads than subscription-access articles.”
        • Kenneth R. Fulton, PNAS Publisher
      • Independant study by CIBER found
        • “ Senior authors believe downloads to be more credible measure of the usefulness of research then traditional citations.”
        • http://www. ucl .ac. uk / ciber / ciber _2005_survey_final. pdf
    • 19. 3.5 million page views a month
    • 20.  
    • 21. Metrics: Trend in Submissions
    • 22. Most Viewed Articles
    • 23. Visibility on BioMed Central
      • 500,000 registrants
      • 450,000 unique users per month
      • 280,000+ BioMed Central email update recipients
      • 5 million page views per month
      • 2 million article downloads per month
      • Average article downloaded >1100 times in first 3 months
    • 24. Growth in Article Accesses
    • 25.  
    • 26.  
    • 27. Authors
    • 28. Authors Embracing OA
      • Research community is now much aware of open access
        • Up 10 percentage points from 2004
        • Fall in authors knowing nothing at all about open access (down 25 percentage points)
      • Authors publishing in OA up from 11% (2004) to 29% (2005)
        • Independant study by CIBER:
      • http://www. ucl .ac. uk / ciber / ciber _2005_survey_final. pdf
    • 29. What do Authors like about BioMed Central?
      • Speed with which article is included in PubMed/other abstracting/indexing services
      • Final appearance of article
      • Helpfulness of editorial staff
      • Speed of online manuscript submission system
      • Over 90% of authors would recommend to a colleague
    • 30. Quotes from Author Survey “ You have the best online submission system I have used until now.” BMC Bioinformatics author, Germany “ The submission process is the simplest to navigate through. Congratulations!” BMC Pharmacology author, Canada   “ The submission process is extremely user friendly and excellent.” Mohamed Mitwally , USA   “ Submission on line was excellent and easy to do. Congratulations on getting this right. Good work!” Arthritis Research & Therapy author, New Zealand “ I hugely appreciate the ability to use powerpoint files for submission! Generally an extremely easy system to use.” BMC Cancer author, UK “I could not be more pleased with the process. I look forward to publishing in open access journals in the future.” BMC Evolutionary Biology author, USA “ I am very pleased with the ease of submission. I love that the copyright remains in my hands so that I can use my figures etc as I wish.” Journal of Translational Medicine author, Germany
    • 31.  
    • 32. Making it Pay: the Economics of Open Access Publishing
    • 33. Macro-economics
      • Open access publishing involves no new costs
      • From the perspective of the research community as a whole, switching to an Open Access publishing model is affordable and desirable, as it
        • Costs no more than the current model
        • Delivers more (universal access and reuse)
    • 34. Micro-economics
      • Library budgets already stretched, paying the costs of the current publishing model through subscriptions
      • Costs of traditional system are mostly invisible to authors, whereas article processing charges are an obstacle for authors
      • During a transitional period, moves towards open access may involve additional costs
    • 35. Paying for Open Access: examples
    • 36. Who Pays the Cost of Publication?
      • Some BioMed Central journals cover the cost of publication themselves
        • Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
        • Chinese Medicine
        • Chiropractic & Osteopathy
      • For other BioMed Central journals, payment typically comes from the authors funder or institution
    • 37. Government
      • EC Report calls for change in science publishing
        • Set up EU policy mandating EC-funded research to be made open access
        • Aim at a level playing field
        • Allocate money to libraries for subscription journals and for author pays journals
      • House of Commons(UK) Inquiry into Scientific Publishing
        • UK research funding bodies mandate free access to all their research findings
        • Research Councils each establish a fund to which their funded researchers can apply should they wish to publish their articles using the author-pays model
    • 38. Institutional Membership
      • Two basic models for institutions
        • Full membership
          • Institution agrees to pay for every article published by one of their authors, at a discounted rate
        • Supporters' membership
          • Institution pays a flat rate, and in return, authors get a discount, but must still organize payment of their own APCs
    • 39. Funding Agencies
    • 40. Funding Agencies (Cont)
    • 41. Institutional membership
      • CalTech
      • Cancer Research UK
      • Columbia University
      • Cornell University
      • University of California
      • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Harvard University
      • INSERM
      • Imperial College
      • Institut Pasteur
      • John Innes Centre
      • Johns Hopkins University
      • Kyoto University
      • Max Planck Institutes
      • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      More than 400 institutions are members of BioMed Central, including, to name just a few:
      • MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
      • National Institutes of Health
      • National Institute for Medical Research
      • NHS England
      • Princeton University
      • Rockefeller University
      • TIGR
      • TSRI
      • Tufts University
      • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      • University of Wisconsin
      • World Health Organization
      • Yale University
    • 42. Societies
      • Launching open access journals with BioMed Central:
      • Geochemical Transactions - Geochemistry Division of the American Chemical Society
      • Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - Veterinary Associations of the Nordic Countries
      • Chiropractic & Osteopathy - Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia
      • Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - subunit of INSERM
      • Chinese Medicine - International Society of Chinese Medicine
      • Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research - Chinese Speaking Orthopaedic Society
      • BioPsychoSocial Medicine - Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine
    • 43. Funders that Explicitly Allow APCs to be Paid from Grants
      • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Canada)
      • Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France)
      • Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain)
      • Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)
      • Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (Denmark)
      • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany)
      • Fondazione Telethon (Italy)
      • Fonds zur Forderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria)
      • Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Belgium)
      • Health Research Board (Ireland)
      • Howard Hughes Medical Institute (US)
      • International Human Frontier Science Program Organization (International)
      • Israel Science Foundation (Israel)
      • National Health Service (UK)
      • National Institutes of Health (US)
      • National Science Foundation (US)
      • Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Netherlands)
      • Rockefeller Foundation (US)
      • South African Medical Research Council (South Africa)
      • Suomen Akatemia (Finland)
      • Swiss National Science Foundation (Switzerland)
      • Vetenskapsrådet (Sweden)
      • Wellcome Trust (UK)
    • 44. Traditional Publishers
    • 45. BioMed Central's Article Processing Charges
    • 46. Open Access and Indexing
    • 47. Indexing and Citation Tracking Services
      • Find research on a given topic
      • Identify the most important research on a given topic
      • Follow citations backward and forward in time
      • Identify the best journals (as a shortcut/filter)
    • 48. Strengths and Weaknesses of ISI Web of Science
      • Strengths
      • Well established
      • Broad coverage
      • Exposes which articles are most cited
      • Impact factors proxy for relative importance of journals
      • Weaknesses
      • Expensive
      • Incomplete coverage
      • Citation takes 2 or 3 years for ISI to generate an impact factor
      • months/years, not immediate
      • Journal-level citation information conceals within journal problems
    • 49. Other Citation Tracking Systems
      • Services
        • Scopus
        • Google Scholar
        • Citebase
        • Crossref
      • Archives
        • PubMed Central
        • HighWire
      • Publishers
        • Science Direct
        • BioMed Central
    • 50. Other Citation Tracking Systems
      • All allow following of 'cited by' links
      • Some allow searching to find most cited research
      • None generate journal metrics
    • 51. http://www. ias currsci /nov102005/1531. pdf CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2005
    • 52. PLOS
    • 53.  
    • 54.  
    • 55.  
    • 56.  
    • 57.  
    • 58.  
    • 59.  
    • 60. Google scholar is better than you might expect
    • 61. Citation Tracking Summary
      • Citation tracking used to be
        • A mammoth task
        • Undertaken at great expense
      • Now
        • It comes for free as a result of analysing the XML
        • Produced by all major publishers
    • 62. Access-based Metrics
    • 63.  
    • 64.  
    • 65. Opinion-based Metrics
    • 66. Faculty of 1000
    • 67. CiteULike
    • 68. Postgenomic
    • 69. Open Access Professor Deborah C Saltman AM MB BS MD FRACGP FAFPHM Editorial Director (Medicine)