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Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt
 

Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt

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    Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Disease and the Immune System
      • Disease
        • is any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functioning of the body. It is the inability to maintain homeostasis.
    • Causes
      • Inheritance : sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia
      • Toxic Substances : cigarette smoke, alcohol
      • Poor Nutrition : ricketts, anorexia, scurvy
      • Organ Malfunction : heart disease, diabetes
      • Personal Behavior : drug addiction, alcoholism
    • Causes continued
      • Pathogens : organisms that enter the body and cause infectious diseases
      • Antigens
        • Toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism.
        • Virus
          • Protein shell
          • DNA or RNA
    • Examples of Viruses
        • Virus uses the host cell to reproduce
      • Examples of diseases caused by viruses: mono, flu, common cold, chicken pox, small pox, pertussis, AIDS
      AIDS small pox chicken pox
      • Pathogens continued:
        • Bacteria : Tuberculosis, E. coli, cholera, tetanus
      tuberculosis E. coli cholera tetanus
      • c) Fungi : ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch
      ringworm athlete’s foot
        • d) Parasites : lice, malaria, dysentery, tapeworm, schistosomiasis
      lice malaria in red blood cells Amoebic dysentery tapeworm schistosomiasis
    • What is Immunity?
    • Immunity
      • Immunity
        • The ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.
      • Immune System
        • The system in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from nonharmful organisms and produces an appropriate response.
    • Parts of the Immune System
      • Blood - White Blood Cells in particular.
      • Lymph nodes
      • Thymus Gland – Produces T Lymphocytes
      • Bone Marrow – Produces B Lymphocytes
    • How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders?
      • The Body’s THREE lines of Defense
      • First Line of Defense – The Skin
        • Provides Physical and Chemical barriers
          • Physical – hard to penetrate, made of indigestible keratin
          • Chemical – tears, sweat
    • Second Line of Defense – Nonspecific Immune Response
      • These are defenses the body uses no matter what the invader may be. These defenses include:
        • Phagocytosis – done by Macrophages
        • Natural Cell Killers
        • Inflammation - caused by release of Histamine from leukocytes
        • Fever – caused by histamines. The fever (high temp) kills invaders by denaturing their proteins.
      Macrophage : A phagocytic cell found in the liver, spleen, brain and lungs. Travels to all areas of the body to find and eat pathogens.
    •  
      • This is a specific response to a specific pathogen/antigen.
      • The response involves the creation of Antibodies.
      Third Line of Defense – Specific Immune Response
    • Antibodies
      • Y-shaped protein molecule.
      • Made up of variable and constant regions.
      • Made up of Heavy and Light chains.
      • Produced by B-Lymphocytes
      • Function: Recognize antigens, bind to and deactivate them.
        • Note: Variable region recognizes the anitgens.
    • How an antibody operates/works? Deactivation of a bacterium by an antibody.
    • The Pathway of Specific Immune Response Pathogens Pathogens eaten by Macrophage Displays portion of Pathogen on surface Helper-T cell recognizes Pathogen Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
    • Activates B- Cell Activates Cytotoxic T- Cell Memory B-Cell Memory T-Cell Kills Infected Cells Antibodies 
    • Cellular Immunity .vs. Antibody Immunity
      • Carried out by T-Cells
      • Infected cells are killed by Cytotoxic T –Cells.
      • Carried out by B-cells
      • Antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream.
      • Antibodies bind to antigens and deactivate them.
      Cellular Immunity Antibody or Humoral Immunity
    • Immune Response Explained
      • Antigen infects cells.
      • Macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface.
      • Helper T- Cell recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active.
      • Active Helper T-Cell activates Cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells.
      • Cytotoxic T-Cells divide into Active Cytotoxic T-cells and Memory T – Cells.
      • Active Cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells.
      • At the same time, B-Cells divide into Plasma Cells and Memory B- Cells.
      • Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen.
      • Memory T and Memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears.
      • Suppressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed.
    • Immune Response Summary Displays copy of antigen on surface of cell Cellular Immunity Antibody Immunity Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B - Cell Kills Infected Cells Memory T- Cell Plasma Cell Memory B-Cell Antibodies Deactivates Antigens
    • Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response
      • Primary Immune Response
        • This is a response to an invader the First time the invader infects the body.
          • No measurable immune response for first few days.
          • Next 10 – 15 days antibody production grows steadily
      • Secondary Immune Response
        • A more rapid response to an invader the 2 nd time it invades the body.
          • Antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period..
    • Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response
    • Passive .vs. Active Immunity
      • Active Immunity
        • This is immunity where the body is “actively” producing antibodies to fight infection.
        • Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.
        • Vaccination: An injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe (pathogen) that causes the body to undergo active immunity (produce antibodies).
      • Passive Immunity
      • This is immunity where antibodies are given to a person from the blood of another person or animal.
      • This immunity only lasts for a short period of time.
      • ex: Breastfeeding mothers pass antibodies to their children through the milk.
      • ex: Vaccines against tropical diseases like cholera & typhoid
    • Man-made treatments for diseases
      • Antibiotics
        • Produced by certain organisms that destroy bacteria. Can slow down reproduction
          • Ex. Penicillin, made from a kind of mold, interferes with the production of the cell walls of the bacteria
        • Cannot be used against viruses . Some drugs can be used that interrupt the viruses life cycle, so prevents virus from entering the host cells.
    • Autoimmune Disease
      • Autoimmune diseases are diseases where the immune system begins to attack itself.
        • Ex:
          • Rheumatoid Arthritis – crippling disease of the joints.
          • Lupus – disease of blood and organs.
          • Multiple Sclerosis – disease of nervous system
      • Cause(s): unknown
      • Cures/Treatments: No known cures. Usually treated with drugs.
    • Allergies
      • Allergy
      • - An exaggerated response by the immune system to an allergen.
      • Allergen: a normally harmless substance that causes an allergic reaction.
      • ex: dust, pollen, mould, food, insect stings
      • Types of Allergic reactions
      • There are two types of allergic reactions.
      • a. Immediate – occurs within seconds and normally lasts for about 30 mins.
      • b. Delayed – takes longer to react and can last for a much longer time.
    • What happens during an allergic reaction?
      • During an allergic reaction antibodies cause histamines to be released from certain cells.
      • Histamines cause:
      • a. Swelling of tissues
      • b. Release of fluids (runny noses and eyes)
      • c. muscle spasms (some cases)
      • Anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock:
      • This is the sudden and severe allergic reaction to a substance that can cause death.
      • Treatments for Allergies
      • Avoidance of material – especially food.
      • Epinephrine – “epi – pen”
      • Antihistamines -- benadryl
    • HIV and AIDS HIV particles (grey) covering a white blood cell. This Powerpoint is hosted on www.worldofteaching.com Please visit for 100’s more free powerpoints
    • HIV History
      • HIV is thought to have entered into humans somewhere between 1914 and 1940.
      • In 1983, a retrovirus, now called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), had been identified as the cause of AIDS.
      • The HIV antibody test has be used to screen all blood supplies in the U.S. since 1985.
      • People receiving blood or blood products before 1985 may have been infected.
    •  
    • HIV H uman I mmunodeficiency V irus
      • HIV infects the immune system cell called the Helper T cells (-most important white blood cell involved in identifying infections.)
    • AIDS A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome
      • The immune crippling disease caused by the HIV virus in which the body becomes unable to protect itself against any secondary infections.
    • Body Fluids with High Concentrations of HIV
      • Blood
      • Semen/Vaginal fluids (as high as blood)
      • Breast milk
      • Pus from sores
    • Low concentrations of HIV
      • It is highly unlikely you will be infected if you come into contact with:
      • Sweat
      • Tears
      • Urine
      • Saliva (-highly possible if blood from mouth sores is present)
    • How is HIV Spread?
      • ANY type of sexual activity (highest risk)
      • Sharing used drug needles
      • Pregnancy-from mother to child
      • Sharing razors- if blood is present
      • Kissing- if even the smallest amount of blood is present. (-membranes of mouth are thin enough for HIV to enter straight into the body.)
      • Tattoos/body piercing if equipment is not clean.
    • How is HIV not spread?
      • Shaking hands
      • Hugging
      • Swimming pools
      • Toilet seats
      • Insect bites
      • Donating blood
    • Can HIV be cured?
      • NO! Drugs are available to manage the disease, but HIV stays in the body forever!
      • PROBLEM : RNA viruses mutate at a very high rate. A person with HIV under control can evolve resistance to the drug treatments.
      • Some infected persons have several strains of HIV in their bodies.
    • What does HIV look like?
      • Initial infection- flu like symptoms a few weeks after infection.
      • Stage 1-HIV positive with no symptoms- can stay at this stage for up to 10 years, but still can pass on the virus.
      • Stage 2-HIV positive with symptoms- at this point the person is said to have AIDS . Symptoms include:
        • swollen glands, chronic diarrhea, loss of weight and appetite, fever, fatigue, skin rashes (lesions), night sweats, oral thrush. Life expectancy: 2 to 5 years.
    • Death and AIDS
      • Stage III-Full blown AIDS-
        • Person dies of rare opportunistic infections that take advantage the weakened immune system:
        • Person dies in a matter of months.
        • AIDS related illnesses include rare cancers and Pneumonia.
    • Stages of HIV Infection