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Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt
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Notes - Disease and the Immune System.ppt


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  • 1. Disease and the Immune System
  • 2.
    • Disease
      • is any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functioning of the body. It is the inability to maintain homeostasis.
  • 3. Causes
    • Inheritance : sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia
    • Toxic Substances : cigarette smoke, alcohol
    • Poor Nutrition : ricketts, anorexia, scurvy
    • Organ Malfunction : heart disease, diabetes
    • Personal Behavior : drug addiction, alcoholism
  • 4. Causes continued
    • Pathogens : organisms that enter the body and cause infectious diseases
    • Antigens
      • Toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism.
      • Virus
        • Protein shell
        • DNA or RNA
  • 5. Examples of Viruses
  • 6.
      • Virus uses the host cell to reproduce
  • 7.
    • Examples of diseases caused by viruses: mono, flu, common cold, chicken pox, small pox, pertussis, AIDS
    AIDS small pox chicken pox
  • 8.
    • Pathogens continued:
      • Bacteria : Tuberculosis, E. coli, cholera, tetanus
    tuberculosis E. coli cholera tetanus
  • 9.
    • c) Fungi : ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch
    ringworm athlete’s foot
  • 10.
      • d) Parasites : lice, malaria, dysentery, tapeworm, schistosomiasis
    lice malaria in red blood cells Amoebic dysentery tapeworm schistosomiasis
  • 11. What is Immunity?
  • 12. Immunity
    • Immunity
      • The ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.
    • Immune System
      • The system in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from nonharmful organisms and produces an appropriate response.
  • 13. Parts of the Immune System
    • Blood - White Blood Cells in particular.
    • Lymph nodes
    • Thymus Gland – Produces T Lymphocytes
    • Bone Marrow – Produces B Lymphocytes
  • 14. How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders?
    • The Body’s THREE lines of Defense
    • First Line of Defense – The Skin
      • Provides Physical and Chemical barriers
        • Physical – hard to penetrate, made of indigestible keratin
        • Chemical – tears, sweat
  • 15. Second Line of Defense – Nonspecific Immune Response
    • These are defenses the body uses no matter what the invader may be. These defenses include:
      • Phagocytosis – done by Macrophages
      • Natural Cell Killers
      • Inflammation - caused by release of Histamine from leukocytes
      • Fever – caused by histamines. The fever (high temp) kills invaders by denaturing their proteins.
    Macrophage : A phagocytic cell found in the liver, spleen, brain and lungs. Travels to all areas of the body to find and eat pathogens.
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • This is a specific response to a specific pathogen/antigen.
    • The response involves the creation of Antibodies.
    Third Line of Defense – Specific Immune Response
  • 18. Antibodies
    • Y-shaped protein molecule.
    • Made up of variable and constant regions.
    • Made up of Heavy and Light chains.
    • Produced by B-Lymphocytes
    • Function: Recognize antigens, bind to and deactivate them.
      • Note: Variable region recognizes the anitgens.
  • 19. How an antibody operates/works? Deactivation of a bacterium by an antibody.
  • 20. The Pathway of Specific Immune Response Pathogens Pathogens eaten by Macrophage Displays portion of Pathogen on surface Helper-T cell recognizes Pathogen Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
  • 21. Activates B- Cell Activates Cytotoxic T- Cell Memory B-Cell Memory T-Cell Kills Infected Cells Antibodies 
  • 22. Cellular Immunity .vs. Antibody Immunity
    • Carried out by T-Cells
    • Infected cells are killed by Cytotoxic T –Cells.
    • Carried out by B-cells
    • Antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream.
    • Antibodies bind to antigens and deactivate them.
    Cellular Immunity Antibody or Humoral Immunity
  • 23. Immune Response Explained
    • Antigen infects cells.
    • Macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface.
    • Helper T- Cell recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active.
    • Active Helper T-Cell activates Cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells.
    • Cytotoxic T-Cells divide into Active Cytotoxic T-cells and Memory T – Cells.
    • Active Cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells.
    • At the same time, B-Cells divide into Plasma Cells and Memory B- Cells.
    • Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen.
    • Memory T and Memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears.
    • Suppressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed.
  • 24. Immune Response Summary Displays copy of antigen on surface of cell Cellular Immunity Antibody Immunity Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B - Cell Kills Infected Cells Memory T- Cell Plasma Cell Memory B-Cell Antibodies Deactivates Antigens
  • 25. Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response
    • Primary Immune Response
      • This is a response to an invader the First time the invader infects the body.
        • No measurable immune response for first few days.
        • Next 10 – 15 days antibody production grows steadily
    • Secondary Immune Response
      • A more rapid response to an invader the 2 nd time it invades the body.
        • Antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period..
  • 26. Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response
  • 27. Passive .vs. Active Immunity
    • Active Immunity
      • This is immunity where the body is “actively” producing antibodies to fight infection.
      • Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.
      • Vaccination: An injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe (pathogen) that causes the body to undergo active immunity (produce antibodies).
    • Passive Immunity
    • This is immunity where antibodies are given to a person from the blood of another person or animal.
    • This immunity only lasts for a short period of time.
    • ex: Breastfeeding mothers pass antibodies to their children through the milk.
    • ex: Vaccines against tropical diseases like cholera & typhoid
  • 28. Man-made treatments for diseases
    • Antibiotics
      • Produced by certain organisms that destroy bacteria. Can slow down reproduction
        • Ex. Penicillin, made from a kind of mold, interferes with the production of the cell walls of the bacteria
      • Cannot be used against viruses . Some drugs can be used that interrupt the viruses life cycle, so prevents virus from entering the host cells.
  • 29. Autoimmune Disease
    • Autoimmune diseases are diseases where the immune system begins to attack itself.
      • Ex:
        • Rheumatoid Arthritis – crippling disease of the joints.
        • Lupus – disease of blood and organs.
        • Multiple Sclerosis – disease of nervous system
    • Cause(s): unknown
    • Cures/Treatments: No known cures. Usually treated with drugs.
  • 30. Allergies
    • Allergy
    • - An exaggerated response by the immune system to an allergen.
    • Allergen: a normally harmless substance that causes an allergic reaction.
    • ex: dust, pollen, mould, food, insect stings
    • Types of Allergic reactions
    • There are two types of allergic reactions.
    • a. Immediate – occurs within seconds and normally lasts for about 30 mins.
    • b. Delayed – takes longer to react and can last for a much longer time.
  • 31. What happens during an allergic reaction?
    • During an allergic reaction antibodies cause histamines to be released from certain cells.
    • Histamines cause:
    • a. Swelling of tissues
    • b. Release of fluids (runny noses and eyes)
    • c. muscle spasms (some cases)
    • Anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock:
    • This is the sudden and severe allergic reaction to a substance that can cause death.
    • Treatments for Allergies
    • Avoidance of material – especially food.
    • Epinephrine – “epi – pen”
    • Antihistamines -- benadryl
  • 32. HIV and AIDS HIV particles (grey) covering a white blood cell. This Powerpoint is hosted on Please visit for 100’s more free powerpoints
  • 33. HIV History
    • HIV is thought to have entered into humans somewhere between 1914 and 1940.
    • In 1983, a retrovirus, now called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), had been identified as the cause of AIDS.
    • The HIV antibody test has be used to screen all blood supplies in the U.S. since 1985.
    • People receiving blood or blood products before 1985 may have been infected.
  • 34.  
  • 35. HIV H uman I mmunodeficiency V irus
    • HIV infects the immune system cell called the Helper T cells (-most important white blood cell involved in identifying infections.)
  • 36. AIDS A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome
    • The immune crippling disease caused by the HIV virus in which the body becomes unable to protect itself against any secondary infections.
  • 37. Body Fluids with High Concentrations of HIV
    • Blood
    • Semen/Vaginal fluids (as high as blood)
    • Breast milk
    • Pus from sores
  • 38. Low concentrations of HIV
    • It is highly unlikely you will be infected if you come into contact with:
    • Sweat
    • Tears
    • Urine
    • Saliva (-highly possible if blood from mouth sores is present)
  • 39. How is HIV Spread?
    • ANY type of sexual activity (highest risk)
    • Sharing used drug needles
    • Pregnancy-from mother to child
    • Sharing razors- if blood is present
    • Kissing- if even the smallest amount of blood is present. (-membranes of mouth are thin enough for HIV to enter straight into the body.)
    • Tattoos/body piercing if equipment is not clean.
  • 40. How is HIV not spread?
    • Shaking hands
    • Hugging
    • Swimming pools
    • Toilet seats
    • Insect bites
    • Donating blood
  • 41. Can HIV be cured?
    • NO! Drugs are available to manage the disease, but HIV stays in the body forever!
    • PROBLEM : RNA viruses mutate at a very high rate. A person with HIV under control can evolve resistance to the drug treatments.
    • Some infected persons have several strains of HIV in their bodies.
  • 42. What does HIV look like?
    • Initial infection- flu like symptoms a few weeks after infection.
    • Stage 1-HIV positive with no symptoms- can stay at this stage for up to 10 years, but still can pass on the virus.
    • Stage 2-HIV positive with symptoms- at this point the person is said to have AIDS . Symptoms include:
      • swollen glands, chronic diarrhea, loss of weight and appetite, fever, fatigue, skin rashes (lesions), night sweats, oral thrush. Life expectancy: 2 to 5 years.
  • 43. Death and AIDS
    • Stage III-Full blown AIDS-
      • Person dies of rare opportunistic infections that take advantage the weakened immune system:
      • Person dies in a matter of months.
      • AIDS related illnesses include rare cancers and Pneumonia.
  • 44. Stages of HIV Infection