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M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   1 
 




    Multiple Sclerosis: The Causes and Treatments.


                     K...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   2 
 
Abstract


       My paper is about the causes and treatments for a chronic ner...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   3 
 




Background


            According to the National MS Society, Multiple Scl...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   4 
 
    Over the decades they have studied soil and water to see if the disease mig...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   5 
 
    It has been long established that Ms is more prominent in colder regions an...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   6 
 

FDA-Approved Disease-Modifying Agents
Avonex (interferon beta-1a)
Betaseron (i...
M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   7 
 
                                           References


Halper, J., & Holland, ...
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Multiple Sclerosis: The Causes and Treatments. Kelli Tipton ...

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Transcript of "Multiple Sclerosis: The Causes and Treatments. Kelli Tipton ..."

  1. 1. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   1    Multiple Sclerosis: The Causes and Treatments. Kelli Tipton Topics in Biology Joshua Cannon and Cherry Townson
  2. 2. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   2    Abstract My paper is about the causes and treatments for a chronic nervous system disease called Multiple Sclerosis. Although the exact causes are unknown, as you will see they have their theories, and they do make sense. The treatments however cannot be exact treatments till they know the exact cause of this disease.
  3. 3. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   3    Background According to the National MS Society, Multiple Sclerosis (or MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system, and it is thought to be an Autoimmune Disease. The body’s own defense system attacks myelin, the fatty substance that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers in the central nervous system. The damaged myelin forms scar tissue (sclerosis), which give the disease its name. When any part of the myelin sheath or nerve fiber is damaged or destroyed, nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and spinal cord are distorted or interrupted, producing the variety of symptoms that can occur (2007). Cause At this moment scientist do not know the exact cause of MS, but they do have their theories. Some theories are toxins, genes, infections, the environment, and your immune system.
  4. 4. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   4    Over the decades they have studied soil and water to see if the disease might be related to an excessive content of such minerals as aluminum, copper, manganese, and other. But the enormous variety of toxic element across latitudes spanning four continents led scientists to rule out a geological factor. To date, all toxic elements that have been studied, including cosmic rays in the atmosphere, have been ruled out as the cause of MS (Rosner and Ross, pg 12, 1987). According to the National MS Society, while MS is not hereditary in a strict sense, having a first- degree relative such as a parent or sibling with MS increase an individual’s risk of developing the disease several- fold above the risk for the general population. Some researchers theorize that MS develops because a person is born with a genetic predisposition to react to some environmental agent that, upon exposure, triggers an autoimmune response (2007). Today one of the most popular scientific theories is that MS is caused by viral infection. Actually, for the past one hundred years, scientists have suspected that MS is caused by a virus attack. Charcot’s student and successor, Pierre Marie, first raised the possibility in 1884, and today many researchers still believe that a viral hypothesis can best explain the results of many MS studies (Rosner and Ross, pg 17, 1987). More than a dozen viruses and bacteria, including measles, canine distemper, human herpes virus- 6, Epstein- Barr, and Chlamydia pneumonia have been or are being investigated to determine if they are involved in the development of MS, but none have been definitively proven to trigger MS (National MS Society, What Causes MS, 2007). Viruses are known to cause demyelization diseases in animal and humans (National MS Society, Viruses, 2007).
  5. 5. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   5    It has been long established that Ms is more prominent in colder regions and very rare in subtropical and tropical areas- the farther away from the equator, the higher the incidence of MS. In fact, if a line were drawn straight along the thirty- seventh parallel, the incidence above the line would be almost twice that below it (Rosner and Ross, pg 7, 1987). According to the National MS Society, some scientists think the reason may have something to do with vitamin D, which the human body produces naturally when the skin is exposed to sunlight. People who live closer to the equator are exposed to greater amounts of sunlight year- round. As a result, they tend to have higher levels of naturally- produced vitamin D, which is thought to have a beneficial impact on immune function and may help protect against autoimmune diseases like MS (2007). It is now generally accepted that MS involves an autoimmune process- an abnormal response of the body’s immune system that is directed against the myelin. They exact antigen, or target that the immune cells are sensitized to attack, remains unknown. In recent years, however researchers have been able to identify which immune cells are mounting the attack, some of the factors that cause them to attack, and some of the sites, or receptors, on the attacking cells that appear to be attracted to the myelin to begin the destructive process (National MS Society, What Causes MS, 2007). Treatment There is no cure for MS, although we are coming up with new ways to manage symptoms, and modify the disease course. According to the National MS Society, the following agents can reduce disease activity and disease progression.
  6. 6. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   6    FDA-Approved Disease-Modifying Agents Avonex (interferon beta-1a) Betaseron (interferon beta-1b) Copaxone (glatiramer acetate) Novantrone (mitoxantrone) Rebif (interferon beta-1a) Tysabri (natalizumab) These drugs reduce the frequency and severity of clinical attacks(also called relapses or exacerbations), which are defined as the sudden or worsening of an MS symptom or symptoms, or the appearance of new symptoms, which lasts at least 24 hours and is separate for a pervious exacerbation by at least one month (2007). Each of these regimes involves injectable medications and thus requires extensive patient and family education about drug reconstitution, self- injection (or with family assistance) with site rotation, and the need for regular laboratory testing to monitor for side effects (Halper and Holland, 1997). While symptoms can range from mild to severe, most can be successfully managed with strategies that include medication, self- care techniques, rehabilitation (with a physical or occupation therapist, speech/ language pathologist, cognitive remediation specialist, among others), and the use of assistive devices (National MS Society, treatments, 2007). Conclusion Although this disease affects people differently there are many different ways to treat them even though they may not have to same strain, or course of the disease. Multiple Sclerosis is a complicated disease that is being researched very well and we are trying to find what the exact cause and the best treatments for this complicated disease.
  7. 7. M u l t i p l e   S c l e r o s i s   7    References Halper, J., & Holland, N. (1997). Comprehensive Nursing Care in Multiple Sclerosis.New York: Demos Vermande. Rosner, L. J., & Ross, S. (1987). Multiple Sclerosis.New York : Prentice Hall Press. National MS Society. Treatments. Retrieved July 4, 2008, from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/treatments/index.aspx National MS Society. Viruses. Retrieved July 4, 2008, from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-causes- ms/viruses/index.aspx National MS Society. What is Multiple Sclerosis?. Retrieved July 4, 2008,from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-is-ms/index.aspx National MS Society. What Causes MS?. Retrieved July 4, 2008, from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-causes-ms/index.aspx

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