Dr Wuding Zhou
Department of Nephrology and Transplantation
MRC Centre for Transplantation
5th Floor, Tower Wing
London SE1 9RT
Tel 0207 1881528
Fax 0207 1885660
Present Post: Reader in Immunology
1990-1995 PhD, United Medical and Dental Schools, Guy’s Hospital,
University of London
1978-1983 MB, Huaxi University of Medicine, China
2009-present Reader in Immunology, King’s College London
2006-2009 Senior Lecturer, King’s College London
2000-2006 Lecturer, King’s College London
1995-1999 Post-doctoral Research Fellow, UMDS, Guy’s Hospital, London
1990-1995 RA, United Medical and Dental Schools, Guy’s Hospital, London
1983-1990 RA, Chengdu Institute of Biological Products, China
Major research activities
• Identified the cells and components involved in intra-renal synthesis of complement and their
association with renal diseases and transplant rejection.
• Demonstrated that inappropriate activation of the complement system is a pathogenic mediator of
renal ischemia/reperfusion I/R injury and proposed an important role for C5b-9 formation and the
alternative pathway of complement cascade in this model.
• Found that complement and P-selectin-mediated pathways of renal reperfusion injury are
mutually independent, suggesting that complement and P-selectin pose two distinct targets for
therapy (at intravascular and extravascular sites, respectively) clarifying future strategies for
preventing transplant injury in clinical translation.
• Demonstrated that local synthesis of complement significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of
proximal tubular epithelial cell damage in renal I/R injury.
• Established a novel strategy of intragraft delivery of membrane-localizing complement regulator
to increase the number of successful transplants in a pre-clinical model.
• Reported that APCs from C3-/- mice have impaired potency to stimulate antigen-specific T cells.
• Described remarkable finding that murine dendritic cells (DCs) are able to synthesise C3 (as well
as other complement components) and how this is critical for DC functional development.
• Explored the mechanisms by which complement regulate DC function. We demonstrated that
local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of DCs
by C3a-C3aR interaction.
• Identified the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway through which
C3a-C3aR interaction modulates DC function by enhancing their antigen uptake and surface
1. Analysis of the role of complement in immune complex glomerulonephritis: a study in C4 deficient
S. H. Sacks, N. Sheerin, W. Zhou
National Kidney Research Fund, 1995-1997
2. The role of complement in renal inflammation
Guy’s Special Trustees, 1997- 1998
3. Urinary C3 as an index of chronic renal transplant rejection in man
S. H. Sacks, W. Zhou and Robert Vaughan
Guy’s & St Thomas’ Charitable Foundation, 2002 –2005
4. Complement activation pathways in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury
W. Zhou and S. H. Sacks
The Wellcome Trust, 2002 –2005
5. The study of anti-C5 mAb for the prevention of mice from renal ischemia reperfusion injury
W. Zhou and S. H. Sacks
Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc, 2004-2005
6. MRC PhD Studentship held by K. Anderson
7. Role of the lectin activation pathway of complement in renal reperfusion injury and transplantation
W. Schwaeble, S. Sacks, R. Sim, W. Zhou
The Wellcome Trust, 2006 –2009
8. Targeting the complement system in transplantation
S. Sacks, W. Zhou, G. Lombardi
10. Prevention of hyperacute rejection by intra-graft delivery of membrane localising complement
S. Sacks and W. Zhou
The Wellcome Trust, 2007-2010
11. Receptors for C3a and C5a modify dendritic cell function in alloreactive T cell responses and allograft
W. Zhou and S. Sacks
• PhD supervision
1999-2005: Tony Farrar
2000-2006: Hetal Patel
2004-2008: Katie Anderson
• PhD examiner
2005: at Cardiff University (Lisa Clayton)
• Being a member of the Divisional Postgraduate Training Committee
• Regularly chairing PhD thesis progress committee meetings for PhD students
2007- present: [BSc] Lectured in Cell & Tissue Pathology- Immunology course: Innate Resistance
Standing in the profession
• Invited talk at Shanghai University of Medical Sciences, (2002): Role of complement in
• Invited talk at Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2002): Complement as a
mediator of inflammatory damage.
• Invited lecture at Royal Society of Medicine, London, March (2005): In programme “Bench-
to-bedside innate immunity in transplantation”, Talk title: Complement and ischemia
reperfusion injury contributes to organ damage.
• Invited lecture at Nephrologist training schemes (UCL 2000).
• XXI International Complement Work Shop (2006)
• Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2002, ref 01225)
• J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002, ref 12-0972)
• Clinical Experimental Immunology (2005, ref 0955)
• International Immunopharmacology (2005)
• United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (2005, ref200521)
• Blood (2006, BLOOD/2006/063636)
• Human immunology (2007, HIM-D-07-00041)
• Molecular Immunology (2007, MIMM-D-07-00266)
• Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology (2009, ref 08A352)
1. Synergy between type 1 fimbriae expression and C3 opsonisation increases internalisation of E.
coli by human tubular epithelial cells. Li K, Zhou W, Hong Y, Sacks SH, Sheerin NS. BMC
Microbiol. 9:64, 2009.
2. Li K., Anderson J.K., Peng Q., Noble A., Lu B., Kelly P.A., Wang N., Sacks S.H. and Zhou
W., Cyclic AMP plays a critical role in C3a-receptor mediated regulation of dendritic cells in
antigen uptake and T cell stimulation. Blood, 112:5084-94, 2008.
3. Peng, Q., K. Li, K. Anderson, C. A. Farrar, B. Lu, R. A. Smith, S. H. Sacks, and W. Zhou.
Local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of
dendritic cells through C3a-C3aR interaction. Blood, 111:2452, 2008.
4. Peng, Q., K. Li, H. Patel, S. H. Sacks, and W. Zhou. Dendritic Cell Synthesis of C3 Is
Required for Full T Cell Activation and Development of a Th1 Phenotype. J. Immunol.
5. Zhou, W., H. Patel, K. Li, Q. Peng, M. B. Villiers, and S. H. Sacks. Macrophages from C3-
deficient mice have impaired potency to stimulate alloreactive T cells. Blood 107:2461, 2006.
6. Patel, H., R. A. Smith, S. H. Sacks, and W. Zhou. Therapeutic strategy with a membrane-
localizing complement regulator to increase the number of usable donor organs after prolonged
cold storage. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17:1102.24, 2006.
7. Brown, K. M., E. Kondeatis, R. W. Vaughan, S. P. Kon, C. K. Farmer, J. D. Taylor, X. He, A.
Johnston, C. Horsfield, B. J. Janssen, P. Gros, W. Zhou, S. H. Sacks, and N. S. Sheerin.
Influence of donor C3 allotype on late renal-transplantation outcome. N. Engl. J. Med.
8. Farrar, C. A., W. Zhou, T. Lin, and S. H. Sacks. Local extravascular pool of C3 is a
determinant of postischemic acute renal failure. FASEB J. 20:217, 2006.
9. Lin, T., W. Zhou, C. A. Farrar, R. E. Hargreaves, N. S. Sheerin, and S. H. Sacks. Deficiency of
c4 from donor or recipient mouse fails to prevent renal allograft rejection. Am. J. Pathol.
10. Turnberg, D., M. Botto, M. Lewis, W. Zhou, S. H. Sacks, B. P. Morgan, M. J. Walport, and H.
T. Cook. CD59a deficiency exacerbates ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Am. J. Pathol.
11. 10. Tang, S., J. C. Leung, L. Y. Chan, A. W. Tsang, C. X. Chen, W. Zhou, K. N. Lai, and S.
H. Sacks. Regulation of complement C3 and C4 synthesis in human peritoneal mesothelial cells
by peritoneal dialysis fluid. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 136:85, 2004.
12. Li, K., H. Patel, C. A. Farrar, R. E. Hargreaves, S. H. Sacks, and W. Zhou. 2004.
Complement activation regulates the capacity of proximal tubular epithelial cell to stimulate
alloreactive T cell response. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 15:2414, 2004.
13. Farrar, C. A., Y. Wang, S. H. Sacks, and W. Zhou. Independent pathways of p-selectin and
complement-mediated renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Am. J. Pathol. 164:133, 2004.
14. Pratt, J. R., M. E. Jones, J. Dong, W. Zhou, P. Chowdhury, R. A. Smith, and S. H. Sacks.
Nontransgenic hyperexpression of a complement regulator in donor kidney modulates transplant
ischemia/reperfusion damage, acute rejection, and chronic nephropathy. Am. J. Pathol.
15. Zhou, W., Y. Hong, K. Li, and S. H. Sacks. Triptolide is a potent suppressant of C3, CD40 and
B7h expression in activated human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Kidney Int. 62:1291, 2002.
16. Zhou W., Sacks S.H., Complement and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (Author reply). Am.
J. Kidney Dis. 38:430-436, 2001.
17. Zhou, W., C. A. Farrar, K. Abe, J. R. Pratt, J. E. Marsh, Y. Wang, G. L. Stahl, and S. H.
Sacks. Predominant role for C5b-9 in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. J. Clin. Invest
18. Pratt, J. R., K. Abe, M. Miyazaki, W. Zhou, and S. H. Sacks. In situ localization of C3
synthesis in experimental acute renal allograft rejection. Am. J. Pathol. 157:825, 2000.
19. Gruden, G., S. Thomas, D. Burt, W. Zhou, G. Chusney, L. Gnudi, and G. Viberti. Interaction
of angiotensin II and mechanical stretch on vascular endothelial growth factor production by
human mesangial cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10:730, 1999.
20. Tang, S., N. S. Sheerin, W. Zhou, Z. Brown, and S. H. Sacks. Apical proteins stimulate
complement synthesis by cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
21. Tang, S., W. Zhou, N. S. Sheerin, R. W. Vaughan, and S. H. Sacks. Contribution of renal
secreted complement C3 to the circulating pool in humans. J. Immunol. 162:4336, 1999.
22. Song, D., W. Zhou, S. H. Sheerin, and S. H. Sacks. Compartmental localization of complement
component transcripts in the normal human kidney. Nephron 78:15, 1998.
23. Zhou, W., O. Sasaki, M. Miyazaki, K. Abe, T. Koji, P. Verroust, S. Tsukasaki, Y. Ozono, T.
Harada, P. K. Nakane, S. Kohno, and S. H. Sacks. Intraglomerular C3 synthesis in rats with
passive Heymann nephritis. Am. J. Pathol. 151:1249, 1997.
24. Zhou, W., P. A. Andrews, Y. Wang, J. Wolff, J. Pratt, B. R. Hartley, P. Verroust, and S. H.
Sacks. Evidence for increased synthesis of complement C4 in the renal epithelium of rats with
passive Heymann nephritis. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8:214, 1997.
25. Sheerin, N. S., W. Zhou, S. Adler, and S. H. Sacks. TNF-alpha regulation of C3 gene
expression and protein biosynthesis in rat glomerular endothelial cells. Kidney Int. 51:703,
26. Andrews, P. A., J. E. Finn, C. M. Lloyd, W. Zhou, P. W. Mathieson, and S. H. Sacks.
Expression and tissue localization of donor-specific complement C3 synthesized in human renal
allografts. Eur. J. Immunol. 25:1087, 1995.
27. Andrews, P. A., A. Pani, W. Zhou, and S. H. Sacks. Local transcription of complement C3 in
human allograft rejection. Evidence for a pathogenic role and correlation to histology and
outcome. Transplantation 58:637, 1994.
28. Sacks, S. H., W. Zhou, P. A. Andrews, and B. Hartley. Endogenous complement C3 synthesis
in immune complex nephritis. Lancet 342:1273, 1993.
29. Sacks, S., W. Zhou, R. D. Campbell, and J. Martin. C3 and C4 gene expression and interferon-
gamma-mediated regulation in human glomerular mesangial cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 93:411,
30. Sacks, S. H., W. Zhou, A. Pani, R. D. Campbell, and J. Martin. Complement C3 gene
expression and regulation in human glomerular epithelial cells. Immunology 79:348, 1993.
31. Zhou, W., R. D. Campbell, J. Martin, and S. H. Sacks. Interferon-gamma regulation of C4
gene expression in cultured human glomerular epithelial cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 23:2477, 1993.
32. Peng Q., Li K., Sacks S.H., Zhou W. The role of anaphylatoxins C3 and C5a in regulating
innate and adaptive immune responses. Inflammation and Allergy-Drug Target. 8:236-462009,
33. Zhou W., Lalli P.N., Sacks S., Medof M. E. and Heeger P.S., Locally produced and activated
complement as a mediator of alloreactive T cell immunity. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 1:117-24,
34. Sacks, S., Lee Q., Wong W., Zhou W., The role of complement in regulating the alloresponse.
Curr. Opin. Organ Transplant. 14:10, 2009.
35. Sacks S.H., Zhou W., New Boundaries for Complement in Renal Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol
36. Zhou,W., Peng,Q., Li,K., and Sacks,S.H. Role of dendritic cell synthesis of complement in the
allospecific T cell response. Mol. Immunol. 44:57-63, 2007.
37. Zhou W., Medof M.E., Heeger P.S., Sacks S., Graft-derived complement as a mediator of
transplant injury. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 19:569-576, 2007.
38. Zhou W., Sacks S.H., Complement in renal transplantation. Chapter in Complement and
Kidney Diseases. Publisher: Birkhäuser. Editor: Peter F. Zipfel, 19-35, 2005.
39. Sacks S.H., Zhou W., Allograft rejection: effect of local synthesis of complement. Springer
Semin Immunopathol. 27: 332-344, 2005.
40. Chowdhury P., Zhou W., Sacks S.H., Complement in renal transplantation. Nephron Clin
Pract. 95(1):C3-8, 2003.
41. Sacks S.H., Chowdhury P., Zhou W., Role of the complement system in rejection. Current
Opinion in Immunol. 15:487-492, 2003.
42. Sacks S.H., Zhou W., Locally produced complement and its role in renal allograft rejection.
Am. J. Transplantation 3:927-932, 2003.
43. Sacks S.H., Zhou W., The effect of locally synthesised complement on acute renal allograft
rejection. J. Molecular Medicine 81:404-410, 2003.
44. Zhou W., Marsh J., Sacks S.H., Intrarenal synthesis of complement. Kidney Int. 59:1227-1235,
45. Marsh J.E., Zhou W., Sacks S.H., Local tissue complement synthesis-fine tuning a blunt
instrument. Archivum Immunologiae et Trerapiae Experimentalis 49:S41-S46, 2001.
46. Sacks S.H., Zhou W., Sherrin N.S. Local complement biosynthesis: Does in have a role in
glomerulonephritis? J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 7:2314-2319, 1996.
47. Andrew P.A., Zhou W., Sacks S.H., Tissue synthesis of complement as an immune regulator.
Molecular Medicine Today. 4:202-207, 1995.