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Module Code: IMM I Module Title: Principles of Human ... Module Code: IMM I Module Title: Principles of Human ... Document Transcript

  • Module Code: IMM I Module Title: Principles of Human Immunology Module Convenor: Professor Allan Cripps Pro-Vice Chancellor (Health) Griffith University Gold Coast PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre QLD 9726 Phone +61 7 5678 0711 Fax +61 7 5678 0795 email: Discipline Professor Allan Cripps Committee: Professor Maree Gleeson Associate Professor Jennifer Rolland Dr Andrew Williams Date Module Outline last reviewed: November 14, 2006 Date Module Outline last modified May 5 2007
  • AIMS FELLOWSHIP CURRICULUM – IMM I Module Version 2 A. Objectives This Module is the foundation Module in immunology and is designed to provide the candidate with a working knowledge of human immunology on which further modules examining disease states and diagnostic procedures are based. The Module does not assume any previous formal study of immunology but does assume that a candidate undertaking his Module has a good grounding in biological science. Immunology is often regarded as a complex discipline with boundaries that are poorly defined with other disciplines such as cell and molecular biology, microbiology and biochemistry. Reliance on experimental animal data to illustrate immune mechanisms and support current immunological theory is often distracting to students interested in clinical and diagnostic immunology. This Module is specifically designed to provide a broad working knowledge of human defense mechanisms. On completion of the Module the candidate will be expected to understand the general concepts of immunology in the context of the “normal state”. B. Interrelationship of the Module to Other Modules This Module provides the basic knowledge framework on the “normal” immunological state on which underpins all the Diagnostic Modules Module IMM II Immunodeficiency and Neoplasias of the Lymphoid System Module IMM III Autoimmunity and Principles of Transplantation Immunology Module IMM IV Infectious Diseases and Tumor Immunology C. Brief Description This Module will provide a broad working knowledge of the basic concepts in immunology on which underpin clinical and Diagnostic Modules, which follow. No prior study of immunology is required to undertake this Module. Background studies in biological science would be an advantage. D. Content 1. Components of the Immune System 1.1 Anatomy of the Lymphoid System 1.2 Innate Immunity The barrier cells and soluble factors that comprise the innate immune system How these operate together in protecting the individual against pathogens and other environmental challenges 1.3 Acquired Immunity Cells and soluble mediators that are responsible for the generation of an acquired immune response Lymphocyte surface markers of differentiation and function Ontogeny of acquired immune system 1.4 Anatomy of the Lymphoid System Primary and secondary lymphoid organs Sources of leucocytes and their differentiation from the pluripotent stem cell. An understanding of the factors which regulate the differentiation pathways is required Objective: To understand broadly the respective components of the immune system and how these components develop and work together in providing defence. Page 2 of 5
  • AIMS FELLOWSHIP CURRICULUM – IMM I Module Version 2 2. The generation of specific immune responses 2.1 Antigen Processing and Presentation The role of antigen receptor molecules and molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in the initiation of immune responses Antigen presenting cells and mechanisms of antigen processing and presentation by these cells to induce specific T cell and B cell responses to antigen 2.2 T cell Responses to Antigen T cell activation and maturation and control TH1, TH2 and soluble mediators T cell memory Cytotoxic T cell responses and NK T cells 2.3 B cell Responses to Antigen B cell activation and maturation Antibodies their nature and role Antigen – antibody interaction: affinity, avidity and cross- reactivity B cell memory 2.4 Regulatory Mechanisms of Immunity The genetic basis of immune regulation The role of cytokines and T cells in orchestrating the immune response and control mechanisms must be clearly understood Objective: To understand how specific immune responses are induced and regulated in the “normal” state. 3. Complement Nature and function of complement molecules The classical, alternative and lectin complement pathways – activation and regulation Biological activities of complement: opsonisation and clearance of immuncomplexes, chemotaxis, cytolysis, inflammation and immune-regulation Objective: To understand interaction between the complement system and host defence mechanisms and the importance of precise regulatory mechanisms in preventing tissue damage. 4. Immune Tolerance and Apoptosis The concept of central and peripheral tolerance T cell tolerance B cell tolerance Maintenance of tolerance Oral tolerance Apoptosis Objective: To understand how the distinction is made and maintained between self and non-self by the immune system. It is also important to understand how complex multicellular organisms deal with the constant process of cell death and removal of damaged or infected cells and the role of the immune system in this process. 5. Mucosal Immunity Innate mucosal immune mechanisms (structural, mucous, cilia, peristalsis, enzymes, phagocytes, defensins, Toll-receptors) Page 3 of 5
  • AIMS FELLOWSHIP CURRICULUM – IMM I Module Version 2 Mucosal immune induction sites (Peyer’s patches, NALT, BALT) Lymphocyte migration and homing to mucosal effecter sites The secretion of IgA at mucosal surfaces and the role of secretary IgA in mucosal defense Objective: Most infectious diseases enter the host through mucosal sites. Hence, the objective of this topic is to understand how the innate mucosal immune mechanisms provide a barrier against foreign insult and how acquired immune responses are induced and focused to mucosal sites. E. Rationale for Content The concepts of innate and acquired immunity and the respective regulation mechanisms enable and facilitate an understanding of diagnostic techniques and interpretation of diagnostic data in the clinical setting. F. Examination Under the Fellowship Regulations, a 3-hour written examination will be held at the completion of each Module. Each examination will contain a mixture of short answer questions and essay style questions. In some examinations, clinical and laboratory management case based scenarios will be include in the question mix. Examination for this Module will focus on an overall understanding of the principal concepts and regulatory mechanisms across the five major topic themes: Components of the Immune System The Generation of Specific Immune Responses Complement Immune Tolerance Mucosal Immunity Questions will be evenly divided across the 5 topic themes. The examination will consist of: Two essay questions, each with a total value of 35 marks; suggested time allocation 30 minutes per essay – total 60 minutes. Twenty short answer questions, each worth five marks – total value for the short answer questions 100 marks; suggested time allocation five minutes per question – total 100 minutes. Twenty minutes for re-reading and review There will be an initial reading time of fifteen minutes, during which no writing will be permitted. G. Texts and Supporting Material The following texts all provide an excellent resource for this module. It is suggested that you glance through the texts and select one that appeals to you and you purchase that text. You should, from time to time, consult the other texts in the library to broaden your reading. Roitt, Janeway and to a lesser extent Tizard, are good resource books for the diagnostic Modules. 1. Abbas A and Lichtman AH Cellular and Molecular Immunology (5th Edn) WB Saunders Company, 2003 ISBN - 0721600085 2. Ezekowitz RAB and Hoffman JA Innate Immunity (1st Edn) Humana Press, 2003 Page 4 of 5
  • AIMS FELLOWSHIP CURRICULUM – IMM I Module Version 2 ISBN: 1588290468 3. Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M and Shlomchik M Immunobiology (5th Edn) Churchill Livingstone, 2001 4. Male D, Cooke A, Owen M, Trowsdale J and Champion B Advanced Immunology (3rd Edn) Mosby, 1996 5. Roitt IM and Delves PJ Roitt’s Essential Immunology (10th Edn) Blackwell Publishers, 2001 6. Roitt I, Brostoff J and Male D Immunology (7th Edn) Mosley, 2006 7. Tizard I Immunology, An Introduction (4th Edn) Saunders College Publishing Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995 H. Appointment of a Mentor Each candidate is required to nominate a mentor for the Module at the time of application for entry and into the Fellowship Program. If a candidate is unable to nominate a mentor then the candidate should contact the Module Convenor for assistance. The appointment of a mentor is made by the Examinations Council. I. Module Communications Module Convenor: Professor Allan Cripps Pro-Vice Chancellor (Health) Griffith University Gold Coast PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre QLD 9726 Phone +61 7 5678 0711 Fax +61 7 5678 0795 email: Discipline Committee: Professor Allan Cripps Professor Maree Gleeson Associate Professor Jennifer Rolland Dr Andrew Williams J. Candidate Feedback Immediately following notification of the examination result each candidate will be asked to complete a feedback questionnaire on the Module. However, feedback at anytime during the study of the Module is encouraged through the mentor or directly to the Module Convenor. Page 5 of 5