MICR 304 Immunology & Serology Lecture 1 Overview Chapter 1
Immunology <ul><li>Recognition of self and non-self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elimination of n...
Microbial Targets of the Immune System (Pictures from Tortora et al, 2004)
Allergens
Foreign Bodies http://www.mdchoice.com/photo/pto0023.asp
Tumors as Targets Breast cancer Tumor Cell NK-Cell Before After
No response Response Desired response Response associated with disease
The Birth of the Science “Immunology”  <ul><li>Edward Jenner (England, 1796)  </li></ul><ul><li>Cowpox (vaccinia) protects...
Milestones in Immunology <ul><li>Metchnikoff 1884 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pasteur 1885 <...
A Major Principle in Immunology:    Antibody:Antigen Binding <ul><li>Antibody: a host protein that binds specifically to a...
Evolution of Immunity  Adaptive Immunity Innate Immunity Jawed fish
Two Arms of Host Defense <ul><li>Innate immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense...
Key Players in Immunology Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymphocytes (B-Ly, T-Ly) Effector Mol...
Defense Cells Have Specific Tasks <ul><li>Epithelial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes...
Infection Triggers an Innate Inflammatory Response
Dendritic Cells Initiate Adaptive Immune Responses
Adaptive Immune Responses Augment Innate Immune Responses
Immune Cells Interact via Cytokines and Surface Molecules Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymph...
Immune Cells are also Activated by Defense Molecules Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymphocyte...
Time Course of the Immune Response
Most Immune Cells are Found in Blood Granulocytes Monocytes Lymphocytes Natural Killer Cells
Normal Blood Distribution of Leukocytes <ul><li>Neutrophils:  40-75% </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes:  20-50% </li></ul><ul>...
Most Immune Cells Originate in the Bone Marrow <ul><li>Hematopoiesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of blood cells and ...
Hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis by Other Organs <ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen, liver  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condition </li></u...
Immature Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood <ul><li>More acidophil cytoplasma </li></ul><ul><li>Large cells with nuclei </li>...
Lymphatic Tissue <ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Thymus Immature T-Cells Mature naive T-Cells Hassall’s corpuscule (Cell destruction?) Bone marrow precursor Blood stream
Lymph Node
The Spleen
Organization of the Spleen <ul><li>White pulpa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes arranged around the blood vessels and sinu...
Peyer’s Patches
Appendix
References <ul><li>Janeway’s Immunobiology, 7th edition, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook of Hematology, McKenzie, 2 nd  ed...
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MICR 304 S2010 Lecture 1.ppt

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MICR 304 S2010 Lecture 1.ppt

  1. 1. MICR 304 Immunology & Serology Lecture 1 Overview Chapter 1
  2. 2. Immunology <ul><li>Recognition of self and non-self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elimination of non-self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenous targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allergens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenous targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tumors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Microbial Targets of the Immune System (Pictures from Tortora et al, 2004)
  4. 4. Allergens
  5. 5. Foreign Bodies http://www.mdchoice.com/photo/pto0023.asp
  6. 6. Tumors as Targets Breast cancer Tumor Cell NK-Cell Before After
  7. 7. No response Response Desired response Response associated with disease
  8. 8. The Birth of the Science “Immunology” <ul><li>Edward Jenner (England, 1796) </li></ul><ul><li>Cowpox (vaccinia) protects against small pox </li></ul><ul><li>First reported vaccination </li></ul>
  9. 9. Milestones in Immunology <ul><li>Metchnikoff 1884 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pasteur 1885 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic development of a vaccine (rabies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>von Behring and Kitasato 1890 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landsteiner 1902 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wassermann 1906 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement fixation test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fleming 1921 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysozyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacob & Wollmann 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clonal selection theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Porter 1962 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Koehler & Milstein 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoclonal antibodies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A Major Principle in Immunology: Antibody:Antigen Binding <ul><li>Antibody: a host protein that binds specifically to a molecule (soluble or particular) </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen: any molecule that can be recognized by and bound to an antibody; typically induces production of antibodies in the host (“ anti body gen erating”) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evolution of Immunity Adaptive Immunity Innate Immunity Jawed fish
  12. 12. Two Arms of Host Defense <ul><li>Innate immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense system functional at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preformed or available within hours after infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely present in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available within days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In higher vertebrates </li></ul></ul>Innate Adaptive
  13. 13. Key Players in Immunology Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymphocytes (B-Ly, T-Ly) Effector Molecules Complement Antimicrobial (Poly)Peptides Antimicrobial lipids? Antibodies
  14. 14. Defense Cells Have Specific Tasks <ul><li>Epithelial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phagocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NK-cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse infected cells or tumor cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B-lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T-helper lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen defense cells to improve their function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate immune responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T-killer lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse with specificty infected cells or tumor cells </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Infection Triggers an Innate Inflammatory Response
  16. 16. Dendritic Cells Initiate Adaptive Immune Responses
  17. 17. Adaptive Immune Responses Augment Innate Immune Responses
  18. 18. Immune Cells Interact via Cytokines and Surface Molecules Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymphocytes (B-Ly, T-Ly) Effector molecules Complement Antimicrobial (Poly)Peptides Antimicrobial lipids? Antibodies
  19. 19. Immune Cells are also Activated by Defense Molecules Innate Adaptive Cells Phagocytes Epithelial Cells NK Cells Lymphocytes (B-Ly, T-Ly) Effector molecules Complement Antimicrobial (Poly)Peptides Antimicrobial lipids? Antibodies
  20. 20. Time Course of the Immune Response
  21. 21. Most Immune Cells are Found in Blood Granulocytes Monocytes Lymphocytes Natural Killer Cells
  22. 22. Normal Blood Distribution of Leukocytes <ul><li>Neutrophils: 40-75% </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes: 20-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Monocytes: 2-10% </li></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils: 1-6% </li></ul><ul><li>Basophils: <1% </li></ul>
  23. 23. Most Immune Cells Originate in the Bone Marrow <ul><li>Hematopoiesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of blood cells and constituent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All blood cells originate from the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell </li></ul>Bone marrow, low power Bone marrow, higher power
  24. 24. Hematopoiesis
  25. 25. Hematopoiesis by Other Organs <ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen, liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal fetal sites of hematopoiesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malignancies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelofibrosis (bone marrow replaced by fibrotic tissue) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precursor cells are found in blood </li></ul>
  26. 26. Immature Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood <ul><li>More acidophil cytoplasma </li></ul><ul><li>Large cells with nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent nucleoli </li></ul>
  27. 27. Lymphatic Tissue <ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GALT (gut associated lymphatic tissue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peyer’s patches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul></ul>Production Interaction with Ag Maturation
  28. 28. Thymus Immature T-Cells Mature naive T-Cells Hassall’s corpuscule (Cell destruction?) Bone marrow precursor Blood stream
  29. 29. Lymph Node
  30. 30. The Spleen
  31. 31. Organization of the Spleen <ul><li>White pulpa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes arranged around the blood vessels and sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red pulpa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels and sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marginal Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Border between white and red pulpa </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Peyer’s Patches
  33. 33. Appendix
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Janeway’s Immunobiology, 7th edition, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook of Hematology, McKenzie, 2 nd edition, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiology: An Introduction; Tortora et al, 8 th edition, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www-medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/HEMEHTML/HEMEIDX.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.siumed.edu/%7Edking2/erg/smallint.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Primary literature: available per request </li></ul>
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