M. bovis isolation from cattle
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M. bovis isolation from cattle M. bovis isolation from cattle Document Transcript

  • Activities in 2009 Bovine tuberculosis Prof. Glyn Hewinson Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK Tel.: (44.1932) 34 11 11, Fax: (44.1932) 34 70 46. e-mail address: r.g.hewinson@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk., website: www.defra.gov.uk/vla/ Summary of general activities related to the disease 1. Test(s) in use/or available for the specified disease at your laboratory Test For Specificity Total Culture M. bovis isolation from 4,808 cattle (817 pending) Culture M. bovis isolation from 110 animals other than cattle. (97 pending) Spoligotyping M. bovis molecular test from Specific to Direct Repeat 3,885 cattle isolates region of M. bovis genome. Spoligotyping M. bovis molecular test for Specific to Direct Repeat 167 isolates obtained from region of M. bovis animals other than cattle genome. Spoligotyping M. bovis molecular test for Specific to Direct Repeat 0 isolates obtained from region of M. bovis isolates submitted from genome. outside the UK 6-loci VNTR M. bovis molecular typing Alleles specific for the 3,880 test from isolates obtained M. tuberculosis-complex from cattle and wildlife from Great Britain IFNg ELISA – ‘Bovigam M. bovis infection in cattle. Measures comparative 30,624 test’ gamma interferon reponses to bovine and avian tuberculin. Antibody ELISA – ‘Brock M. bovis infection in M. bovis MPB83 antigen 777 test’ Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) Lateral-flow immunoassay M. bovis infection in Cocktail of MTB 1,164 (Chembio Brock (TB) Eurasian badgers complex antigens, Stat-Pak®) (Meles meles) including MPB83 Lateral-flow immunoassay M. bovis infection in animals Cocktail of MTB 121 (Chembio Brock (TB) Stat- other than badgers (alpaca complex antigens, Pak®) and deer). including MPB83 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009 1
  • Bovine tuberculosis 2. Production and distribution of diagnostic reagents NA Activities specifically related to the mandate of OIE Reference Laboratories 3. International harmonisation and standardisation of methods for diagnostic testing or the production and testing of vaccines NA 4. Preparation and supply of international reference standards for diagnostic tests or vaccines NA 5. Research and development of new procedures for diagnosis and control The use of Bactec 960 Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) liquid culture system for routine culturing of animal specimens for the presence of mycobacteria combined with solid culture has achieved UKAS accreditation and is carried out at 2 VLA Regional Laboratories (Starcross in Devon and Sutton Bonington in Leicestershire) as well as at VLA Weybridge. VLA Weybridge completed validation of the Multiplex PCR for differentiation of the TB complex from M. avium, M. intracellulare and other Mycobacterium species. This is currently in use within the TB Diagnosis Unit of VLA Weybridge. Evaluation of the BrockTB stat-pak assay for the detection of tuberculosis in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) of different ages and in animals found dead was conducted and published. Sensitivity of the test was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. The test performed on thoracic blood obtained from 374 badgers found dead (55 infected with Mycobacterium bovis on the basis of culture/spoligotyping/VNTR typing) had a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 99%. Presence of M. bovis infection was 45 times more likely to be confirmed post mortem by culture in BrockTB Stat-Pak reactive animals than in seronegative ones. Using visible carcase lesions as a marker of bTB infection had similar sensitivity (38%) but was significantly less specific (84%) than serology. The overall accuracy of the antibody detection was 93% whereas the accuracy of regarding visible lesions as a marker for bTB infection was 78%. The gamma-interferon assay for tuberculosis in badgers (Meles meles) was also evaluated in badgers of different ages. Sensitivity of the IFNγ EIA was lower in cubs (57%) compared with adults (85%) when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFNγ EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, the specificity of both the BrockTB stat-pak and gamma-interferon assays was higher in cubs. At present there are no plans to make this test available outside of Defra-funded research projects. Further work is on-going at VLA through a number of overseas collaborations to evaluate new immunological tests for the diagnosis of TB in badgers. Further work is on-going at VLA through a number of overseas collaborations to evaluate new immunological tests for the diagnosis of TB in badgers. Three Defra-funded projects on badger vaccinations are presently on-going in the following areas: (1) demonstration of the safety of intramuscular BCG Danish vaccine to wild badgers (a field study incorporating evidence of efficacy); (2) development on an oral bait formulation for BCG suitable for delivery to wild badgers; (3) experimental BCG efficacy studies in badgers (using both injected and oral BCG vaccines). Defra-funded projects on cattle vaccines are either ongoing or about to start in the following areas: (1) demonstration of the safety of intramuscular BCG Danish vaccine to cattle (2) experimental BCG efficacy studies in cattle (3) development vaccines that boost the efficacy of BCG in cattle (4) evaluation of diagnostic tests that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA tests). 2 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009
  • Bovine tuberculosis In a paper published in Veterinary Research in October, we demonstrated that in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis repeat short-interval skin-testing can lead to a progressive reduction in skin-test responsiveness which has potential negative consequences for the detection of infected animals with marginal or inconclusive skin-test responses. The desensitizing effect is associated with decreased IL-1beta and elevated IL-10 responses, but importantly, does not influence antigen specific IFN-gamma responses (and hence the performance of the bovine gamma interferon test). In a paper published in October’s edition of Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, we evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of bTB in samples from wild deer species in the United Kingdom. Fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from areas in Wales, the Cotswolds, and southwestern England were necropsied for a bTB survey. Serum samples from individual deer were tested with the CervidTB STAT-PAK, and the results were evaluated against the culture of M. bovis from tissues (n = 432). Sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.1 to 99.6%) and 94.8% (95% CI, 92.3 to 96.7%), respectively, with an odds ratio of 109.9 (95% CI, 12.7 to 953.6%) for a positive STAT-PAK result among culture-positive deer. The low prevalence of infection (3.8%, n = 860) affected the confidence of the sensitivity estimate of the test, but all culture-positive fallow deer (n = 6) were detected by the test. In addition, antibodies to M. bovis could be detected in poor-quality serum samples. The results suggest that the CervidTB STAT-PAK could be deployed as a field test for further evaluation. 6. Collection, analysis and dissemination of epizootiological data relevant to international disease control VLA hosts and runs the international database for M. bovis spoligotyping at www.mbovis.org/. 7. Provision of consultant expertise to OIE or to OIE Members In collaboration with The Food and Environmental Agency, UK, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain, Consejo Superior Investigaciones Cientificas (Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos), Spain, and Statens Veterinarmedicinska Anstalt, Sweden, VLA co-authored a scientific review on Tuberculosis in wildlife in the EU. This was an external report for the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to support its work in accordance with Article 36 of EFSA’s Founding Regulations reference: Question number: EFSA-Q-2008-04992. The report can be found at www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/scdoc/12e.htm. 8. Provision of scientific and technical training to personnel from other OIE Members Scientific and technical training was provided to a researcher from SERIDA, Spain who was trained in the following techniques for work to detect TB infection in badgers including badger handling and sampling and how to perform the interferon gamma ELISA and ELISPOT assays developed for badgers at VLA. Two scientists from The Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI, Northern Ireland, were trained to perform the gamma-interferon assay for the detection of TB in badgers which was developed at VLA. Gobena Ameni, Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, received his PhD from Imperial College, London PhD as result of his PhD training at VLA. During 2009 two people from the Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were trained at the VLA in culturing and molecular characterisation of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex: Yosef Sani Culturing and Molecular typing of mycobacteria Girma Berhanu Culturing and Molecular typing of mycobacteria In addition, VLA trained six staff members at the Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in molecular typing and cultivation of mycobacteria 9. Provision of diagnostic testing facilities to other OIE Members NA Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009 3
  • Bovine tuberculosis 10. Organisation of international scientific meetings on behalf of OIE or other international bodies NA 11. Participation in international scientific collaborative studies 1. African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad We recently published an article in the Journal of Bacteriology that summarizes the work of a very large collaboration of African and European scientists working to understand the origin, distribution and evolution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in cattle in Africa. In this article we identified a clonal complex of strains of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub- Saharan, West-Central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African1 (Af1) clonal complex and defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as the same as BCG vaccine strain but with the additional deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria and Chad. Using a combination of VNTR and spoligotyping we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the movement of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1 specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in samples of M= bovis from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine TB from Europe, Iran and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localised, albeit to several African countries. Muller, B., M. Hilty, S. Berg, M. C. Garcia-Pelayo, J. Dale, M. L. Boschiroli, S. Cadmus, B. N. Ngandolo, S. Godreuil, C. Diguimbaye-Djaibe, R. Kazwala, B. Bonfoh, B. M. Njanpop-Lafourcade, N. Sahraoui, D. Guetarni, A. Aseffa, M. H. Mekonnen, V. R. Razanamparany, H. Ramarokoto, B. Djonne, J. Oloya, A. Machado, C. Mucavele, E. Skjerve, F. Portaels, L. Rigouts, A. Michel, A. Muller, G. Kallenius, P. D. van Helden, R. G. Hewinson, J. Zinsstag, S. V. Gordon, and N. H. Smith. (2009). African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. J Bacteriol 191:1951-60. 2. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria Background: Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results: Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion: M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. Sahraoui N., B. Muller, D. Guetarni, F. Boulahbal, D. Yala, R. Ouzrout, S. Berg, N. H Smith and J. Zinsstag. (2009). Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria. BMC Veterinary Research, 5:4 4 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009
  • Bovine tuberculosis 3. The Burden of Mycobacterial Disease in Ethiopian Cattle: Implications for Public Health. As part of a Wellcome Trust Consortia funded under the Animal Health in the Developing World initiative we recently published a paper in PloS ONE describing the burden of mycobacterial disease in Ethiopian cattle. Our analysis revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at low prevalence. We also report 8 cases of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. tuberculosis. Berg S, Firdessa R, Habtamu M, Gadisa E, Mengistu A, Yamuah L, Ameni G, Vordermeier HM, Robertson BD, Smith NH, Engers H, Young D, Hewinson RG, Aseffa A, Gordon SV. 2009. The burden of mycobacterial disease in ethiopian cattle: implications for public health. PloS ONE 4(4):e5068). 4. In collaboration with the Sanger Institute and the Institut Pasteur (Paris, France), we recently published the full range of point mutations that differed between sequenced strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. Only 186 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between virulent M. bovis strains and all BCG strains, with 115 non-synonymous SNPs affecting important functions such as transcriptional regulation and central metabolism, which might impact on virulence. We therefore refined previous genealogies of BCG vaccines and define a minimal set of SNPs between virulent M. bovis and the attenuated BCG strain that will underpin the development of improved BCG-based vaccines and DIVA diagnostic tests (Garcia-Pelayo MC et al Infect Immun 2009). 5. Studies on the identification of factors involved in the interaction of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis with the hosts were carried out in collaboration with the research group lead by Drs. Angel Cataldi and Fabiana Bigi in INTA’s Biotechnology Institute (Buenos Aires, Argentina). We defined the regulon of Mce3R, a transcriptional regulator which controls the expression of mce3, one of the four homologous operons involved in the invasion of host cells in M. tuberculosis. The comparison of the expression profiles of an mce3R knock-out mutant with the wild–type strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv revealed two additional operons, both of them involved in lipid metabolism, are also under the control of Mce3R (De la Paz Santangelo M et al Microbiology 2009). Additionally, results were published on the differential gene expression between Argentinean virulent and attenuated M. bovis isolates to elucidate the molecular basis for their differential phenotype. The divergence in gene expression between virulent and attenuated strains was also observed during the replication of bacteria inside host macrophages (Blanco FC et al Microbes Infect 2009). 7. A collaborative study between VLA and researchers at University College Dublin has led to a recent publication that demonstrated the induction of protective immunity against M. bovis infection in badgers by either subcutaneous or mucosal vaccination with BCG. In these studies the immunological responses were associated with the levels of protective immunity observed post mortem and could be used as markers to monitor control of disease in badgers following vaccination. (Lesellier S et al. 2009 Vaccine 27:402-9.). 12. Publication and dissemination of information relevant to the work of OIE (including list of scientific publications, internet publishing activities, presentations at international conferences)  Presentations at international conferences and meetings Only oral presentations are listed: Berg S. The Burden of Mycobacterial Disease in Ethiopian Cattle. Acid Fast Club meeting, London, January 2009. Brewer J I: TB Diagnostics at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency. Community Reference Laboratory, Madrid. November 2009. Chambers MA 1st International VLA Conference on Animal Diseases (2-4 September 2009).Badger TB Vaccine Development in the UK – Progress. Hewinson RG. VENoMYC Final Meeting, (Turino, 17-20 June, 2009). Functional Genomics of Mycobacterium bovis. Hewinson RG Society for Applied Microbiology (sFam) Summer Conference (6-9 July 2009). Controlling wildlife reservoirs for bovine TB. Hewinson RG. M bovis V Conference, Wellington, NZ, 25th-28th August 2009. Cracking the Genomic Code of Mycobacterium bovis: Advances in Our Understanding of the Pathogen. Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009 5
  • Bovine tuberculosis Hewinson RG 49th ICAAC, San Francisco (12-15 September 2009). Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and cattle. Hewinson RG. 1st International VLA Conference on Animal Diseases (2-4 September 2009). Cattle TB Vaccine Development. Hewinson RG. British Veterinary Association Congress 25-26 September 2009. TB Vaccines for Cattle and Badgers. Rogers FA, Chambers MA, Hewinson RG. 1st International VLA Conference on Animal Diseases (2-4 September 2009). Towards licensing for use in wildlife: Field trial. Upadhyay, B, Wheeler, PR. Metabolomics of slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis strains using high throughput screening: phenotype microarray technology. In Keystone Conference on tuberculosis, Keystone, January 2009. Vordermeier HM 4. Arbeitstagung the nationalen Referenzlabors fuer Tuberkulose und des nationalen Referenzlabors fuer Paratuberkulose. Jena (Germany) 13/14th May 2009. Der Bovigam Interferon-gamma test als ante-mortem Test zur Diagnose von Rindertuberkulose Vordermeier HM M bovis V Conference, Wellington, NZ, 25th-28th August 2009. Advances in immunological diagnosis: Antigen mining to define M. bovis antigens for the differential diagnosis of vaccinated and infected animals. Vordermeier HM M bovis V Conference, Wellington, NZ, 25th-28th August 2009. Higher prevalence and increased severity of pathology of bivne tuberculosis in Holstein cattle compared to zebu breeds in Central Ethiopia. Vordermeier HM M bovis V Conference, Wellington, NZ, 25th-28th August 2009. Advances in immunological diagnosis: Definition of immunological predictors of vaccine efficacy in cattle. Vordermeier HM, Hewinson RG, Gordon SV. 1st International VLA Conference on Animal Diseases (2-4 September 2009). DIVA tests for TB Vaccines in Cattle. Vordermeier HM M bovis 3rd European Veterinary Immunology Workshop. Berlin 10th-13th September 2009Immunological predictors and correlates of immunity to aid the development of cattle TB vaccines.  Scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals Ameni G, Aseffa A, Hewinson G, Vordermeier M. Comparison of different testing schemes to increase the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in Ethiopian cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009. Sep 13 [Epub ahead of print]. Berg S, Firdessa R, Habtamu M, Gadisa E, Mengistu A, Yamuah L, Ameni G, Vordermeier M, Robertson BD, Smith NH, Engers H, Young D, Hewinson RG, Aseffa A, Gordon SV. (2009) The burden of mycobacterial disease in Ethiopian cattle: Implications for public health. PLoS ONE, April 2009 Vol 4, Issue 4, e5068 Blanco FC, Nunez-García J, García-Pelayo C, Soria M, Bianco MV, Zumárraga M, Golby P, Cataldi AA, Gordon SV, Bigi F. Differential transcriptome profiles of attenuated and hypervirulent strains of Mycobacterium bovis. Microbes Infect. 2009 Oct; 11(12):956-63. Epub 2009 Jul 8. Chambers MA, Lyashchenko KP, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, James E, Barker L,Jones J, Watkins G, Rolfe S. Evaluation of a rapid serological test for the determination of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers (Meles meles) found dead. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print] Chambers MA, Waterhouse S, Lyashchenko K, Delahay R, Sayers R, Hewinson RG. Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity. BMC Vet Res. 2009 Nov 17;5:42. Chambers MA. Review of the diagnosis and study of tuberculosis in non-bovine wildlife species using immunological methods. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009 Aug;56(6-7):215-27. Epub 2009 May 26. 6 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009
  • Bovine tuberculosis Chavadi S, Wooff E, Coldham NG, Sritharan M, Hewinson RG, Gordon SV, Wheeler PR. Global effects of inactivation of the pyruvate kinase gene in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J. Bacteriology 191, 7545-53 (2009). Coad M, Clifford D, Rhodes SG, Hewinson RG, Vordermeier HM, Whelan AO. 2009 Repeat tuberculin skin testing leads to desensitisation in naturally infected tuberculous cattle which is associated with elevated interleukin-10 and decreased interleukin-1 beta responses. Vet Res. 2010 Mar-Apr;41(2):14. Epub 2009 Oct 20. Daniel R, Evans H, Rolfe S, de la Rua-Domenech R, Crawshaw T, Higgins RJ, Schock A, Clifton-Hadley R. Outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in golden Guernsey goats in Great Britain. Vet Rec. 2009 165(12): 335-42. de la Paz Santangelo M, Klepp L, Nuñez-García J, Blanco FC, Soria M, del Carmen García-Pelayo M, Bianco MV, Cataldi AA, Golby P, Jackson M, Gordon SV, Bigi F. Mce3R, a TetR-type transcriptional repressor, controls the expression of a regulon involved in lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiology. 2009 Jul; 155(Pt 7):2245-55. Epub 2009 Apr 23. Garcia Pelayo MC, Garcia JN, Golby P, Pirson C, Ewer K, Vordermeier M, Hewinson RG, Gordon SV. 2009. Gene expression profiling and antigen mining of the tuberculin production strain Mycobacterium bovis AN5. Vet Microbiol. 133: 272–277. Garcia-Pelayo MC, Uplekar S, Keniry A, Mendoza Lopez P, Garnier T, Nunez Garcia J, Boschiroli L, Zhou X, Parkhill J, Smith N, Hewinson RG, Cole ST, Gordon SV. A comprehensive survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across Mycobacterium bovis strains and M. bovis BCG vaccine strains refines the genealogy and defines a minimal set of SNPs that separate virulent M. bovis strains and M. bovis BCG strains. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):2230-8. Epub 2009 Mar 16. Gavier-Widén D, Cooke MM, Gallagher J, Chambers MA, Gortázar C. A review of infection of wildlife hosts with Mycobacterium bovis and the diagnostic difficulties of the 'no visible lesion' presentation. N Z Vet J. 2009 Jun;57(3):122-31. Gowtage-Sequeira S, Paterson A, Lyashchenko KP, Lesellier S, Chambers MA. Evaluation of the Cervid TB STAT-PAK for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild deer in Great Britain. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009Oct;16(10):1449-52. Epub 2009 Aug 5. Lesellier S, Corner L, Costello E, Sleeman P, Lyashchenko KP, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, Glyn Hewinson R, Chambers M, Gormley E. Immunological responses following experimental endobronchial infection of badgers (Meles meles) with different doses of Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009 Jan 15;127(1-2):174-80. Lesellier S, Corner L, Costello E, Lyashchenko K, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, Singh M, Hewinson RG, Chambers M, Gormley E. Immunological responses and protective immunity in BCG vaccinated badgers following endobronchial infection with Mycobacterium bovis. Vaccine. 2009 Jan 14;27(3):402-9. Muller, B., M. Hilty, S. Berg, M. C. Garcia-Pelayo, J. Dale, M. L. Boschiroli, S. Cadmus, B. N. Ngandolo, S. Godreuil, C. Diguimbaye-Djaibe, R. Kazwala, B. Bonfoh, B. M. Njanpop-Lafourcade, N. Sahraoui, D. Guetarni, A. Aseffa, M. H. Mekonnen, V. R. Razanamparany, H. Ramarokoto, B. Djonne, J. Oloya, A. Machado, C. Mucavele, E. Skjerve, F. Portaels, L. Rigouts, A. Michel, A. Muller, G. Kallenius, P. D. van Helden, R. G. Hewinson, J. Zinsstag, S. V. Gordon, and N. H. Smith. (2009). African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad. J Bacteriol 191:1951-60. More SJ, Cameron AR, Greiner M, Clifton-Hadley RS, Rodeia SC, Bakker D, Salman MD, Sharp JM, De Massis F, Aranaz A, Boniotti mB, Gaffuri A, Have P, Verloo D, Woodford M, Wierup M. Defining output-based standards to achieve and maintain tuberculosis freedom in farmed deer, with reference to member states of the European Union. Prev Vet Med. 2009 254-67. Epub May 23. Sahraoui N, Müller B, Guetarni D, Boulahbal F, Yala D, Ouzrout R, Berg S, Smith NH, Zinsstag J (2009) Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria. BMC Veterinay Research January, 5:4 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009 7
  • Bovine tuberculosis Schiller I, Waters WR, Vordermeier HM, Nonnecke B, Welsh M, Keck N, Whelan A, Sigafoose T, Stamm C, Palmer M, Thacker T, Hardegger R, Marg-Haufe B, Raeber A, Oesch B. 2009. Optimization of a whole blood interferon-{gamma} assay for detection of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 16(8):1196-202. Schiller I, Vordermeier HM, Waters WR, Palmer M, Thacker T, Whelan A, Hardegger R, Marg-Haufe B, Raeber A, Oesch B. 2009. Assessment of OmpATb as a novel antigen for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]. Shrikrishna D, de la Rua-Domenech R, Smith NH, Colloff A, Coutts I. Human and canine pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in the same household: re-emergence of an old zoonotic threat? Thorax 2009 64(1):89-91. Smith NH, Hewinson RG, Kremer K, Brosch R, Gordon SV. Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nature Rev Microbiol 2009 7: 537-44. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Smith NH Crawshaw T, Parry J, Birtles RJ. Mycobacterium microti: More diverse than previously thought. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 47(8): 2551-9. Spooner AD, Bessant C, Turner C, Knobloch H, Chambers M. Evaluation of a combination of SIFT-MS and multivariate data analysis for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in wild badgers. Analyst. 2009 Sep;134(9):1922-7. Epub 2009 Jul 17. Twomey DF, Crawshaw TR, Foster AP, Higgins RJ, Smith NH, Wilson L, McDean K, Adams JL, de la Rua- Domenech R. Suspected transmission of Mycobacterium bovis between alpacas. Vet Rec. 2009 165(4): 121-2. Vordermeier M, Gordon SV, Hewinson AR. Antigen Mining to Define Mycobacterium bovis Antigens for the Differential Diagnosis of Vaccinated and Infected Animals: A VLA Perspective. 2009.Transbound Emerg Dis. 56:240-7. Vordermeier HM, Villarreal-Ramos B, Cockle PJ, Macaulay M, Rhodes SG, Thacker T, Gilbert SC, McShane H, Hill AV, Xing RZ, Hewinson RG. 2009. Viral booster vaccines improve BCG-induced protection Against bovine Tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 77: 3364- 3373. Vordermeier HM, Dean GS, Rosenkrands I, Agger EM, Andersen P, Kaveh DA, Hewinson RG, Hogarth PJ. 2009. Adjuvants induce distinct immunological phenotypes in a cattle tuberculosis vaccine model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 16: 1443-1448. Waters WR, Palmer MV, Nonnecke BJ, Thacker TC, Scherer CF, Estes DM, Hewinson RG, Vordermeier HM, Barnes SW, Federe GC, Walker JR, Glynne RJ, Hsu T, Weinrick B, Biermann K, Larsen MH, Jacobs WR Jr. 2009. Efficacy and immunogenicity of Mycobacterium bovis DeltaRD1 against aerosol M. bovis infection in neonatal calves. Vaccine. 27:1201-9. Waters WR, Palmer MV, Nonnecke BJ, Thacker TC, Estes DM, Larsen MH, Jacobs WR Jr, Andersen P, McNair J, F C Minion, Lyashchenko KP, Hewinson RG, Vordermeier HM, Sacco RE. 2009. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) cells in the adaptive response to ESAT-6/CFP-10 protein of tuberculous mycobacteria. PLoS One. 4(7):e6414. Whelan AO, Coad M, Cockle PJ, Hewinson G, Vordermeier M, Gordon SV. Revisiting host preference in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex:Experimental infection shows M. tuberculosis H37Rv to be avirulent in cattle. 2010. PLoS ONE 5: e8527. Woodroffe R, Donnelly CA, Cox DR, Gilks P, Jenkins HE, Johnston WT, Le Fevre AM, Bourne FJ, Cheeseman CL, Clifton-Hadley RS, Gettinby G, Hewinson RG, McInerney JP, Mitchell AP, Morrison WI, Watkins GH. Bovine tuberculosis in cattle and badgers in localized culling areas. J Wildl Dis. 2009 45: 128-43. 13. Inscription of diagnostic kits on the OIE Register i) Did you participate in expert panels for the validation of candidate kits for inscription on the OIE Register? If yes, for which kits? 8 Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009
  • Bovine tuberculosis No ii) Did you submit to the OIE candidate kits for inscription on the OIE Register? If yes, for which kits? No _______________ Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009 9