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Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
Lindsay's PPT.ppt
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Lindsay's PPT.ppt

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  • 1. Resistance of Anemonefish to the Sea Anemone: Innate or Acquired through Acclimation Behavior? Based on the following paper by Elliot and Mariscal: “Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes to Sea Anemones?”
  • 2. www. touregypt.net
  • 3. Background: Symbiotic Relationship
    • Sea anemone & anemonefish relationship
    • Big Question: How can anemonefish swim freely among the stinging tentacles of the sea anemone?
    www.biodiversity.uno.edu
  • 4. Background: Controversy, Innate or Acquired Resistance?
    • Innate
    • versus
    • Acclimation behavior
    www.biodiversity.uno.edu OR, could it be a combination???
  • 5. Methods: Elliott & Mariscal’s Expts
    • Expt 1: Are there variations in protection amongst species and developmental stages of anemonefish?
    • How did they test? Forced-contact tests
    • *72 different species combinations
    • *Fish eggs, larvae and juveniles
  • 6. Methods: Expts continued
    • Expt 2 : Innate protection from anemones?
    • How did they test? Forced-contact tests
    • *Tested 3 species of anemones with 3 species of NAÏVE anemonefish
    A. clarkii
  • 7. Methods: Expts continued
    • Expt 3: Does mucus coat of associated and naïve anemonefish resemble mucus of anemone?
    • How did they test? Immunological techniques
    • *ELISA test- compared antigens of anemone mucus with mucus coat of naïve and associated A.clarkii
  • 8. Results: Experiment 1
  • 9. Results: Expt 1 continued
    • Clownfish- generalist; protected from wide variety of anemones
    • P. Biaculeatus- specialist; resistant only to its host anemone
    A. Percula (clownfish ) P. Biaculeatus
  • 10. Results: Experiment 2 Natural host: normally found together in the wild Unnatural : do not normally associate in the wild
  • 11. Results: Expt 2 continued 13 13 17 30 Total 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 S.Haddoni M.doreensis A.perideraion 5 0 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.ocellaris 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 3 4 3 3 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.clarkii # fish escaping # fish adhering # fish protected # fish tested Anemone species tested Fish species
  • 12. Results: Experiment 3 Associated fish have more anemone antigens on their mucus coat relative to naïve fish
  • 13. Conclusions
    • Expt 1: Variation in protection; generalist versus specialist species of fish
    • Expt 2: Naïve individuals of anemonefish were innately protected from natural host
    • Expt 3: Associated fish chemically camouflage themselves during acclimation behavior
  • 14. Discussion
    • Naïve A. clarkii do not produce mucus coat similar to anemone, but after associating/acclimation they have similar antigens
    • Innate protection demonstrated in Expt 2:
      • Observations: fish performed acclimation behavior, even when not initially stung (innately protected)
      • Acclimation may provide further protection
  • 15. Critiques & Further Studies
    • FURTHER STUDIES
    • Interspecific variation in protection of anemonefish-evolution
    • Isolate specific biochemical compounds in mucus that cause protection
    • Mutagenesis—innately protected fish
    • CRITIQUES
    • Eggs were in close proximity to anemones before forced-contact tests
    • Use larger sample size for Expt 2
  • 16. References
    • 1. Elliott J.K., Mariscal R.N., and K.H. Roux. 1994. Do anemonefishes use molecular mimicry to avoid being stung by host anemones? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179: 99-113.
    • 2. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes. Copeia. 2: 284-289.
    • 3. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Ontogenetic and interspecific variation in the protection of anemonefishes from sea anemones. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 208: 57-72
    • 4. Mebs, D. 1994. Anemonefish symbiosis: vulnerability and resistance of fish to the toxin of the sea anemone. Toxicon. 32: 1059-1068.
    • Pictures found at www.touregypt.net and www.biodiversity.uno.edu

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