Lindsay's PPT.ppt


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Lindsay's PPT.ppt

  1. 1. Resistance of Anemonefish to the Sea Anemone: Innate or Acquired through Acclimation Behavior? Based on the following paper by Elliot and Mariscal: “Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes to Sea Anemones?”
  2. 2. www.
  3. 3. Background: Symbiotic Relationship <ul><li>Sea anemone & anemonefish relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Big Question: How can anemonefish swim freely among the stinging tentacles of the sea anemone? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background: Controversy, Innate or Acquired Resistance? <ul><li>Innate </li></ul><ul><li> versus </li></ul><ul><li>Acclimation behavior </li></ul> OR, could it be a combination???
  5. 5. Methods: Elliott & Mariscal’s Expts <ul><li>Expt 1: Are there variations in protection amongst species and developmental stages of anemonefish? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they test? Forced-contact tests </li></ul><ul><li>*72 different species combinations </li></ul><ul><li>*Fish eggs, larvae and juveniles </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methods: Expts continued <ul><li>Expt 2 : Innate protection from anemones? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they test? Forced-contact tests </li></ul><ul><li>*Tested 3 species of anemones with 3 species of NAÏVE anemonefish </li></ul>A. clarkii
  7. 7. Methods: Expts continued <ul><li>Expt 3: Does mucus coat of associated and naïve anemonefish resemble mucus of anemone? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they test? Immunological techniques </li></ul><ul><li>*ELISA test- compared antigens of anemone mucus with mucus coat of naïve and associated A.clarkii </li></ul>
  8. 8. Results: Experiment 1
  9. 9. Results: Expt 1 continued <ul><li>Clownfish- generalist; protected from wide variety of anemones </li></ul><ul><li>P. Biaculeatus- specialist; resistant only to its host anemone </li></ul>A. Percula (clownfish ) P. Biaculeatus
  10. 10. Results: Experiment 2 Natural host: normally found together in the wild Unnatural : do not normally associate in the wild
  11. 11. Results: Expt 2 continued 13 13 17 30 Total 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 S.Haddoni M.doreensis A.perideraion 5 0 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.ocellaris 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 3 4 3 3 5 H.Crispa S.Haddoni M.Doreensis A.clarkii # fish escaping # fish adhering # fish protected # fish tested Anemone species tested Fish species
  12. 12. Results: Experiment 3 Associated fish have more anemone antigens on their mucus coat relative to naïve fish
  13. 13. Conclusions <ul><li>Expt 1: Variation in protection; generalist versus specialist species of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Expt 2: Naïve individuals of anemonefish were innately protected from natural host </li></ul><ul><li>Expt 3: Associated fish chemically camouflage themselves during acclimation behavior </li></ul>
  14. 14. Discussion <ul><li>Naïve A. clarkii do not produce mucus coat similar to anemone, but after associating/acclimation they have similar antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Innate protection demonstrated in Expt 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations: fish performed acclimation behavior, even when not initially stung (innately protected) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acclimation may provide further protection </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Critiques & Further Studies <ul><li>FURTHER STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecific variation in protection of anemonefish-evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate specific biochemical compounds in mucus that cause protection </li></ul><ul><li>Mutagenesis—innately protected fish </li></ul><ul><li>CRITIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs were in close proximity to anemones before forced-contact tests </li></ul><ul><li>Use larger sample size for Expt 2 </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>1. Elliott J.K., Mariscal R.N., and K.H. Roux. 1994. Do anemonefishes use molecular mimicry to avoid being stung by host anemones? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179: 99-113. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Acclimation or Innate Protection of Anemonefishes. Copeia. 2: 284-289. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Elliott J.K., and R.N. Mariscal. 1997. Ontogenetic and interspecific variation in the protection of anemonefishes from sea anemones. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 208: 57-72 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mebs, D. 1994. Anemonefish symbiosis: vulnerability and resistance of fish to the toxin of the sea anemone. Toxicon. 32: 1059-1068. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures found at and </li></ul>