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Lecture 23 Slides (Powerpoint version)

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Transcript

  • 1. Lab 23: Identification of Unknowns, Day 4 May 5, 2010
  • 2. Read the results of your tests. For SIM and MR-VP tests, you need to do additional steps; decide at your table who will do the controls. Use the grid to figure out which species you have!
  • 3. Lecture 23: Applications of Immunology May 5, 2010
  • 4. Today we will cover how the principles of specific immunity can help us:
    • Prevent
    • Treat
    • and Diagnose disease
    (Vaccines, passive immunization) (Antivenins, antibody therapy) (Fluorescent cell labeling; many other techniques next week)
  • 5. Edward Jenner rubbing material from a cowpox blister into a boy’s arm
  • 6. Types of vaccines
    • Whole vaccines include
      • live vaccines (also called attenuated)
      • inactivated vaccines
    • Other (non-whole) vaccines include
      • Subunit vaccines
      • Toxoid vaccines
      • DNA vaccine
  • 7. What is a vaccine?
    • A suspension of an organism or virus
    • Or
    • that is used to induce immunity
  • 8. Inactivated vs. live vaccines
  • 9. How can a pathogen be attenuated? Sabin polio vaccine: derived from passaging in monkey cells
  • 10. How can a pathogen be attenuated? Maurice Hilleman collected mumps virus from his daughter (1963) The virus was grown in chick embryos and then in cultured chicken cells Now it’s used in the mumps vaccine!
  • 11. How can a pathogen be attenuated? Manipulation of the pathogen’s genome using recombinant DNA technology
  • 12. Summary—whole vaccines
  • 13. Subunit vaccines Made from parts of the pathogen instead of the whole thing
  • 14. Another way to make a subunit vaccine Genetic engineering – getting yeast, bacteria, or human cells to produce large quantities of antigen Hepatitis B vaccine Example:
  • 15. DNA vaccines
  • 16. Shigella-based Delivery System for DNA vaccines (experimental)
    • Shigella can enter cells without phagocytosis
    • Directs plasmids to cytoplasm (with inserted genes)
    • Provides immunity to expressed antigens
  • 17. Immune responses are faster and stronger the second time around
  • 18. Passive immunity
  • 19. Horse serum: a source of antibodies to treat snake bites, spider bites, botulism, etc.
  • 20. How to make polyclonal antibodies
  • 21. How to make monoclonal antibodies
  • 22. Fluorescent antibody staining
  • 23. Yersinia pestis (plague) Giardia lamblia Orange: fluorescent antibody to Salmonella Green: counterstain
  • 24. Yellow: Pneumocystis carinii Red: counterstain
  • 25.