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Immunology of Infectious Disease
 

Immunology of Infectious Disease

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    Immunology of Infectious Disease Immunology of Infectious Disease Presentation Transcript

    • CLS 1113 Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Practices Unit 7 Serological Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
    • Syphilis
      • Treponema pallidum (Spirochete)
        • Helically coiled - “Cork-screw” motility
        • Have no natural reservoir in the environment
        • Must multiply within a living host
        • Difficult to isolate in the laboratory
      • Transmission: sexual or congenital
      • >50,000 cases per year per your textbook
      • http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/Syphilis_Facts.htm
    •  
    • Spirochete Image
    • Syphilis
      • T. pallidum
        • rapidly destroyed by heat, cold, and drying out.
        • Sexual transmission
        • 1/3 of individuals
    • Syphilis - Staging
      • Primary Stage
        • Initial lesion - chancre, develops from 10 – 90 days post infection. The lesion is painless.
        • The lesions usually occur on the external genitalia, can also appear on the cervix, vagina, inside the mouth and the rectum.
    • Syphilis
      • Secondary Stage
        • If untreated, ¼ of cases will progress to the secondary stage.
        • The is characterized by the systemic dissemination of the organism.
          • Lymphadenopathy, malaise, fever, pharyngitis, skin rash, etc.
        • Skin lesions will last up to 8 weeks, but relapses can occur up to 4 years
    • Syphilis
      • Latent Stage
        • Patients are non-infectious
        • Patients lack clinical symptoms
        • Occurs around 1 year post-infection
    • Syphilis
      • Tertiary Stage
        • Usually occurs 10-30 years after the secondary stage
        • Patients exhibit neurological, cardiac and cutaneous involvement
          • Large skin lesions
          • Degeneration of the spinal cord
          • Mimics meningitis
          • Destruction of elastic tissue of the Aorta
    • Congenital Syphilis
      • Syphilis passes from mother to child
        • Can occur starting at 18 weeks gestation
      • 2800 cases in 1990
        • http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5027a1.htm
      • 40% mortality rate
      • Bone, neural, and cutaneous abnormalities
    • Immune Response
      • Primary Defense
        • Intact skin and mucous membranes
        • What is the primary defense against STD?
      • Secondary Defense
        • T cells, macrophages, and antibody production
    • Testing
      • Direct detection
        • Darkfield microscopy
        • Fluorescent Antibody Testing
    • Testing
      • Non-Treponemal Serological Tests
        • Rapid Plasma Reagin ( RPR ) and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory ( VDRL ) Tests
        • Tests detect the presence of “reagin”, an antibody against cardiolipin (lipid molecule).
        • Reagin antibodies
          • IgG or IgM
          • Also found in other diseases
        • RPR-Antigen Suspension containing charcoal particles