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    Immunology Immunology Presentation Transcript

    • Immunology
    • Immune System and Response
      • Immune Response
    • Immune systems
      • Parts of the system (systemic)
      • Mucosal immune system
    • Non-specific immune system
      • Very Important in fish
      • Logical, due to aquatic environment
    • Surface Barriers in Fish
      • Fish Skin, and Scales
      • Mucus
      • Lysosymes – act on microorganisms
    • phagosome forming lysosome damage and digestion phagocytosis lysosome fusion Release of microbial products Phagocytosis
    • Body fluid Barriers
      • Complement
      • Transferrin
      • Interferon
    • Signaling (soluble mediators)
      • Complement (innate/adaptive responses): Group of serum proteins that function in the control of inflammation
          • “ Alternative pathway” (innate): Complement molecules coat microorganism
            • Acute phase proteins
            • Spontaneously activated
          • “ Classical pathway” (adaptive): Complement molecules activated by antibodies bound to pathogen (cascade)
      • Cytokines: Group of molecules involved in signalling between cells during immune response
    • Complement functions complement bacteria phagocyte bacteria 1. lysis 2. chemotaxix 3. opsonization
    • Immune System Cells
      • Phagocytes-
        • neutrophils
      • Natural killer cells
    • Immune cells (innate immunity)
      • Phagocytic Leucocytes (also involved in adaptive responses): Function to engulf particles, including infections agents, internalize and destroy them
        • Monocytes: Blood cell lineage found in circulation
        • Macrophages: Monocytes which have migrated into the tissues
        • Neutrophils: Ingest and lyse pathogens (lysozyme, acid hydrolases, etc)
    • Specific Immune System
      • Antigen processing by Immunocompetent cells (APC)
        • Cellular
        • Humoral immunity
          • soluble antibody
        • Lymphocytes “T or B” cells
    • Specific responses (Adaptive immunity)
      • Lymphocytes: Initiate adaptive immune responses (derived from stem cells in anterior kidney of fish)
        • B-cells: Responsible for producing antibody
        • T-cells: Cytotoxic functions as well as helper functions for antibody production
      • Antigen: Any molecule that can be recognized by B and T cells
      • Antibody (Immunoglobulin): Serum proteins that recognize a specific antigen
    • Immune Response IgM IgA IgE IgD IgG Mammals Fish Plasma Cell Spleen Liver Ant. Kidney Thymus T cell B cell Macrophage with antigen Activated T cell Cell mediated Immunity Humoral Immunity stem cell Memory Cell
    • Antigen Presentation Resting T-cell Activated T-cell Accessory cell B-cell Ig synthesis antigen B cell epitope T cell epitope MHC CD4 CD3 TCR Activation IL-1 signal IL-2, IL-4 IL-4, IL-5 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
    • Antibodies (Immunoglobulin) in fish Binding sites Bacteria or virus
    • Clonal Selection Antigen selection B cells Proliferation/ maturation Plasma cells Memory cells Production of antibody 2
    • Memory Antibody Antibody Memory Immune response Primary vaccination Time Natural infection or booster Primary and secondary response
    • Antibodies
      • Protein or Antigen
      • Structure
    • Antibody production
      • T - cells proliferate and release lymphokines, B (memory) cells have different Ig receptors on cell surface that are activated
      • B cells multiply, release immunoglobins in plasma
    • Immune System
      • Mammals vs Fish
      • Mammals
        • Very advanced leading to long term protection
        • Ig isotype heterogeneity
        • Distinct mucosal and systemic (internal) immune systems
      • Fish
        • More primitive – shorter duration and less specific
        • Limited Ig isotype repertoire
        • Importance of specific mucosal responses not well known
    • Antibody heterogeneity between vertebrates Jawless fish Sharks/rays ? Teleost fish Lungfish Salamanders/newts Frogs/toads ? Reptiles Birds Mammals IgE IgD IgA IgG/Y IgM Ab synthesis Vertebrate group
    • Vaccination
      • Many vaccines have non-specific adjuvant that results in release of interleukines/cytokines and stimulatory factors
    • Anamestic Response
      • Primary response
      • Cell mediated immunity
      • Secondary Response
    • Factors Affecting Immune Response
      • Intrinsic Fish
      • Extrinsic factors -