Immunological Accessory                                                                                        Introductor...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

Table 1 Families of accessory molecules based on function
Family                      ...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

various immune cells to specific sites in the body. Factors           T cells and when ...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

   FcgR1 (CD64) is expressed mainly by macrophages                    membrane and the...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

   The Ig superfamily group includes receptors for IL-1a,           These retain cytok...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

Table 2 Chemokine receptors
Receptor                    Synonyms                      ...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

Costimulatory Molecules: Positive                                      costimulatory s...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

functions are essential in inactivating an immune response            Pattern-recognit...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

Table 3 Toll-like receptors
TLR                  Cellular compartment            Examp...
Immunological Accessory Molecules

individually (if they ever do) and how and when they func-              Hemler ME (200...
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  1. 1. Immunological Accessory Introductory article Molecules . Introduction Article Contents Stephen H Benedict, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA . Adhesion Molecules . Fc Receptors Kelli M Cool, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA . Tetraspanins Abby L Dotson, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA . Cytokine Receptors Marcia A Chan, Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA . Chemokine Receptors . Costimulatory Molecules: Positive Signal Transducers Based in part on the previous version of this Encyclopedia of Life Sciences . Inhibitory Molecules: Negative Signal Transducers (ELS) article, Immunological Accessory Molecules by Michael Croft, Irene Gramaglia and David Cooper. . Pattern-recognition Receptors . Concluding Remarks Immunological accessory molecules are proteins expressed on the surface of immune cells that can modulate in a positive or negative manner the ability of the cell to develop doi: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000923.pub2 or to perform one or more of its functions. Thus, accessory molecules are critical to the success or failure of controlling the immune response to foreign antigens such as infectious agents or organ transplants, the aberrant response to self-antigens as in the case of autoimmune disease or the response to tumours. Introduction molecule or LFA for leucocyte function-associated anti- gen) or according to the protein that they recognize as lig- Accessory molecules are cell surface proteins that promote and (e.g. the cytokine receptor, interleukin 2 receptor). This or suppress the response of immune cells. Accessory mol- is gradually being supplemented and in some cases replaced ecules are so named to distinguish them from primary sig- by organized numerical designations. The first numerical nalling proteins that recognize foreign antigen and initiate stratification was the cluster of differentiation (CD) system, immune responses. Primary signalling molecules include which assigns a number to each verified immune cell sur- the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), the B cell antigen re- face molecule. CD numbers consolidated several names for ceptor (integral membrane antibody) and in some cases the same protein under a single rubric. Some proteins con- certain pattern-recognition receptors. Accessory molecules sist of only one polypeptide chain and can be described by include cell surface molecules involved in immune cell ac- one CD number (e.g. ICAM-1 is CD54). Others are formed tivation and differentiation, in inhibition of immune cell by two or more chains and are defined by a CD number for activity and in cell homing and adhesion. Accessory mol- each chain (e.g. LFA-1 is CD11a–CD18). The number of ecules also include cell surface receptors that bind soluble CD proteins identified exceeds 340, and continues to climb proteins such as cytokines or the receptors that bind so the present work will discuss only representative exam- chemokines which are found in both soluble and cell sur- ples. A more recent numerical stratification was applied to face-associated forms. Additional accessory molecules are chemokines and their receptors. As an example, a chemo- tetraspanins, pattern-recognition receptors (including kine originally known as MIP-1a is now referred to as Toll-like receptors, TLR) and the Fc receptors (FcR) that CCL3 and its receptors are CCR1 and CCR5. In most cases capture the heavy chain Fc portion of antibodies and dis- the change to numerical identification has proven helpful play the antibody on the cell surface. Indeed, it is difficult to and simplifying. Occasionally it causes more confusion. identify a protein expressed on an immune cell surface that Sometimes, especially when more than one polypeptide when properly engaged does not modulate in some manner chain forms a receptor and that protein is shared with other the function of that cell. The number of surface molecules receptors, the colloquial name remains more convenient identified has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. As an (e.g. LFA-1 instead of CD11a–CD18). example, a T cell can express well over 200 different surface proteins during its lifetime and each seems to contribute to function. Brief introductions to each class of molecule will Adhesion Molecules be presented here and their distribution and activities will be defined (Table 1). Overview Nomenclature Adhesion molecules are plasma membrane proteins that mediate transient interaction of immune cells with the ex- The nomenclature used for various classes of accessory tracellular matrix (ECM) or with other cells. Immune cells molecules is evolving. Many were named originally ac- migrate in two ways, actively along the ECM using one cording to action (e.g. ICAM for intercellular adhesion type of adhesion molecule and passively through the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES & 2007, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1
  2. 2. Immunological Accessory Molecules Table 1 Families of accessory molecules based on function Family Function Examples Adhesion molecules Engage counter receptors on other CD4, CD8, CD11a–CD18, CD54, cells or stick to ECM. Stabilize cell– Selectins, CD29, a4b7 cell interactions. Promote migration and homing. Receive signals Fc receptors Bind Ig heavy chain, promote FcgRI, FcgRII, FcgRIII, FcaR, phagocytosis. initiate ADCC, induce FceRI, FceRII cytokine secretion Tetraspanins Assist cell signalling at the cell surface CD81 level Cytokine receptors Bind cytokines, induce positive or IL-1R1, IL-2Rabg, IL-4R, IL-6R, negative actions, promote GM-CSFR proliferation, differentiation and effector function Chemokine receptors Bind chemokines, guide homing and CCR, CXCR, CX3CR, XCR migration, receive signals Costimulatory molecules: positive Bind counter receptors, receive CD28–CD86, CD40–CD154, regulators signals to enhance proliferation, CD54–CD11aCD18 differentiation and effector function, enhance mediator secretion, prevent apoptosis Costimulatory molecules: negative Bind counter receptors, receive CTLA-4, TNFR1–TNF, CD95– regulators signals to suppress cell proliferation, CD95L, KIR differentiation and effector function, induce apoptosis Pattern recognition receptors Bind microbial products, stimulate TLR, mannose-binding protein cells to perform antimicrobial activity circulatory system, which they leave actively (extravasat- Examples of the b1 (CD29) integrins are the very late ac- ion) using different types of adhesion molecules to interact tivation (VLA)-1, -2, -3, -4, -5 and -6 proteins that differ in with endothelial cells. In addition, adhesion molecules al- their a chains and can bind fibronectin, collagen or laminin low immune cells to interact transiently with several other which constitute the ECM. b2 integrins include LFA-1, cell types. In this context, adhesion molecules serve as both Mac-1 and p150/95. These share the b chain (CD18) but an anchoring mechanism and as a sensory array allowing have distinct a chains (CD11a, CD11b and CD11c) and the cell to receive signals from the cell with which it have as their counter receptors the intercellular adhesion interacts. molecules (ICAMs) expressed on cell surfaces. CAMs are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that con- Classification tain a variable number of extracellular Ig domains and in- clude ICAM-1, -2, -3 and VCAM. MAdCAM-1 is an Adhesion molecules most relevant to the immune response example of an adhesion molecule that contains both Ig- and are typically described as falling into four classes: mucins, mucin-like domains and is important in the migration of selectins, integrins and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). leucocytes through the mucosal endothelium. Mucins are serine-/threonine-rich proteins that are heavily glycosylated; examples include CD34, PSGL-1 and MAd- Cell migration CAM-1. Selectins are transmembrane proteins with extra- cellular lectin domains that bind to specific carbohydrates, Cells of the immune system are the most mobile of all cells, especially sialylated versions as are found on mucins. and circulate continually through the blood, lymphatic sys- Integrins are heterodimers expressed by leucocytes that con- tem and tissues. In collaboration with chemokine receptors sist of a and b chains and are categorized by the b subunit. (described later), adhesion molecules mediate the routing of 2 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES & 2007, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  3. 3. Immunological Accessory Molecules various immune cells to specific sites in the body. Factors T cells and when engaged by counter receptors, are capable that regulate expression of adhesion molecules can there- of transmitting classical second signals (discussed later) fore control where and when immune cells travel. Extra- into the T cell. See also: CD Antigens; Major Histo- vasation from the vascular system begins with a process compatibility Complex: Interaction with Peptides; T-cell called rolling in which the cells are induced to move more Receptors; T Lymphocytes: Cytotoxic; T Lymphocytes: slowly than other blood components by the stickiness of Helpers selectins interacting with their counter receptors the mucins. Members of each group are expressed on the leucocyte surface as well as the endothelial cell surface. An activating Fc Receptors event, usually due to chemokines, causes intracellular leu- cocyte signalling proteins to increase the affinity of surface integrins. The interaction of integrins on the leucocyte (e.g. Overview LFA-1), with CAMs on the endothelial cell (e.g. ICAM-1) Fc receptors (FcR) are transmembrane glycoproteins that assists the leucocyte to flatten and also aids in passage of the allow immunoglobulins (Ig, antibodies) to bind to cells. leucocyte between endothelial cell tight junctions. Inflam- FcRs are widely expressed by haematopoietic cells. The mation provides signals that increase leucocyte extravasat- FcR interacts with the Fc (constant) domain formed by the ion at inflamed sites but this transendothelial migration also heavy chains of the antibody molecule. This allows the an- occurs during normal immune surveillance at a less inten- tigen-binding domains (Fab) of the antibody to stand away sive frequency. Once free of the vascular system, leucocytes from the cell and receive antigen. Thus, FcRs do not bind migrate towards sites of injury or to sites targeted for sur- antigen directly but do bind antigen–antibody complexes veillance using the ECM as a highway. Movement within enabling cells to respond to the presence of antigen. Since the tissues is generally controlled by integrins such as those antibodies have different specificities, a cell that expresses involving the b1 subunit. These bind to ECM components FcRs can respond to a wide variety of antigens based on the fibronectin, collagen or laminin depending on the a subunit diverse antibodies the FcRs can capture. When properly that contributes to forming the integrin heterodimer. As engaged, FcRs generate intracellular signals that modulate mentioned, some adhesion molecules participate in selective the biological activity of the cell. Some FcRs activate targeting of leucocyte migration. For example, naive T cells whereas others inhibit cellular responses. See also: Anti- expressing CD62L (L-selectin) target to lymph nodes and body Classes; Antigen–Antibody Binding those expressing integrin a4b7 target to the gut. See also: Immunological Adhesion and Homing Molecules; Integrin Superfamily Function FcRs can be viewed as a link between humoral and cell- Intercellular adhesion and signalling mediated immunity. Binding of antigen to antibodies resting in an FcR can result in such diverse actions as (1) Adhesion molecules anchor the close contact with other triggering a cell to secrete cytokines or other molecules such cells that lymphocytes require for transfer of information as reactive oxygen intermediates involved in inflammatory leading to cell activation, differentiation or function. reactions, (2) promoting a cell to phagocytose microbes, Examples include interaction of T cells with antigen-pre- (3) initiating a cytolytic killing function (antibody-depend- senting cells (APC) to receive signals to activate and differ- ent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ADCC) or (4) when on an entiate and interaction of cytotoxic T cells with target cells APC, can facilitate antigen processing and presentation to to deliver cytotoxic signals. Interaction between the TCR T cells. In these ways, FcRs can direct the uptake and on the T cell and the antigen–MHC complex on the APC is elimination of foreign microbes such as viruses, bacteria stabilized and strengthened by several adhesive counter and parasites, and participate in the destruction of virus- receptor pairs. The CD4 and CD8 molecules bind MHC infected cells. See also: Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated class II and I, respectively, and are the basis for the MHC Cytotoxicity (ADCC) restriction of CD4- and CD8-bearing T cells. LFA-1 (CD11a–CD18) binding to ICAM-1 (CD54), and CD2 FcR types binding to CD58, also stabilize the complex. These inter- actions are not static. Stimulation of T cells through the The distinct classes of antibody are characterized by TCR triggers an increase in the binding affinity of LFA-1 different heavy chains (e.g. IgG=g, IgA=a and for ICAM-1. The dynamic nature of this system allows, for IgE=e), and different FcRs exist for binding to each (e.g. example, a resting T cell to remain relatively noninteractive FcgR, FcaR and FceR, respectively). Subclasses exist until it receives sufficient signals from its environment to within each FcR group and these subclasses serve different enable activation of its adhesion systems. Finally, in recent functions or are differentially expressed on particular cell years it has become apparent that proteins previously types. IgG FcR have four classes, FcgRI (CD64), FcgRII thought to function in adhesion also receive essential sig- (CD32), FcgRIII (CD16) and FcgRIV. Two classes of IgE nals and transmit them into the cell on which they reside. receptors exist, FceRI (high affinity) and FceRII (CD23, For example, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and CD2 all reside on low affinity). ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES & 2007, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 3
  4. 4. Immunological Accessory Molecules FcgR1 (CD64) is expressed mainly by macrophages membrane and the cytoplasmic domains provide linkage and dendritic cells, and promotes phagocytosis of im- to cytoskeletal and signalling molecules. mune complexes, which are antigens or microbes bound by antibody molecules. FcgRII (CD32) is present on mon- ocytes, granulocytes and B cells. CD32 is involved in Function phagocytosis and ADCC, degranulation of neutrophils re- The major role of tetraspanins is to organize other proteins sulting in tissue destruction, and inhibition of the immune into microdomains (tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, response. FcgRIII (CD16) is expressed on macrophages, TEMs) at the cell surface. In B cells, the tetraspanin CD81 natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils. CD16 is also in- seems to reorganize the membrane and stabilize signalling volved in phagocytosis and ADCC. Similarly, FcaR is complexes in response to costimulation. CD81 has been present on neutrophils and macrophages and allows shown to associate directly with the signalling complex phagocytosis of IgA-coated antigens. FceRI and FceRII comprised of CD19, CD21 and Leu-13 that lowers the are thought to have evolved as part of the defence against threshold for cell activation through the B-cell receptor parasites but they are better known for involvement in al- (BCR). In T cells there is evidence that several tetraspanins lergic reactions. Mast cells and basophils express FceRI. function directly as costimulatory molecules. For example, When complexes of IgE and allergen are bound to these in murine T cells co-stimulation through CD3 plus CD81 cells via FceRI, degranulation is initiated resulting in the was comparable to co-stimulation through CD3 plus CD28 release of histamine, serotonin and leucotrienes. These as measured by proliferation and upregulation of CD25 molecules contribute to the swelling (oedema) and redness and CD69. In the human Jurkat T-cell line IL-2 production (erythema) associated with allergies. FceRII (CD23) is pri- was induced after co-stimulation with immobilized anti- marily involved in the regulation of IgE production by B CD81 and anti-CD3. cells. CD23 is expressed on B cells, monocytes and dendri- tic cells. See also: Antigen–Antibody Complexes; Den- dritic Cells (T-lymphocyte Stimulating); Histamine Biosynthesis and Function; Natural Killer (NK) Cells; Cytokine Receptors Neutrophils Two other classes of FcRs exist which are not involved in Overview effector functions of cells but are responsible for the move- Interactions between cytokines and their specific recep- ment of antibodies across cell membranes. The poly IgR tors are important mechanisms of immunoregulation. transports polymeric antibodies (polymeric IgA and to some Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins that influ- extent pentameric IgM) across epithelial surfaces (e.g. into ence leucocyte haematopoiesis, proliferation, differentia- the gut lumen). In humans FcRn (neonatal) transports IgGs tion, survival, effector function and homing. Cytokine from mother to fetus during gestation. See also: Fc receptors bind to cytokines produced by the same cell Receptors (autocrine), by nearby cells (paracrine), or by distant cells (endocrine) leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects depending upon the cytokine and the cell type on Tetraspanins which the receptor is expressed. A particular cytokine can have diverse functions (pleiotropy) when the same Overview receptor is expressed on different cells, and different cytokine receptors can share similar functions (redun- Tetraspanins comprise a large superfamily of membrane dancy) on the same cell. Receptors are named for their proteins that pass four times across the cell membrane. cognate cytokines, which are named according to func- Tetraspanins range in mass from 25 to 50 kDa, and leuco- tion (e.g. GM-CSF for granulocyte macrophage colony cytes are capable of expressing 20 tetraspanins. Tetra- stimulating factor) or are given more general designa- spanins chiefly assist cell surface signalling. tions as ‘interleukins’ (e.g. IL-2). See also: Cytokines; Cytokine Receptors; Interleukins Structure Classification Tetraspanins possess four transmembrane domains and each domain contains conserved polar and nonpolar Cytokines and their receptors can be classified by structural amino acid residues. Transmembrane domains 1 and 2 attributes or functional activities. Most cytokine receptors flank a small extracellular loop (SEL) whereas transmem- are homodimers, heterodimers or trimers of membrane- brane domains 3 and 4 flank a large extracellular loop spanning proteins given a, b and g designations and some (LEL). A conserved CCG motif along with other cysteine receptors share subunits. Based upon structural similari- residues contribute to disulfide bonds present in the LEL. ties, cytokine receptors are grouped into five categories: Ig The structural domains appear to be associated with spe- superfamily, Type I, Type II, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cific functions. The LEL mediates specific protein–protein receptor family and chemokine receptor family (discussed interactions with laterally associated proteins in the later). 4 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
  5. 5. Immunological Accessory Molecules The Ig superfamily group includes receptors for IL-1a, These retain cytokine-binding activity and they can be de- IL-1b, M-CSF, SCF and IL-18, which contain extracel- tected in blood and urine. The precise role of soluble cyto- lular Ig-like domains. Type I cytokine receptors share kine receptors is not known, although they may inhibit structural similarities, including four conserved cysteines, cytokine signalling. Immune disorders can be related to and a WSXWS motif in the extracellular domain. They cytokine receptors. X-linked severe combined immunode- include receptors for leucocyte growth factors IL-2, -4, ficiency (XSCID) is caused by mutations in the common -7, -9, -15 and -21, which share CD132, the common cytokine receptor gc gene and results in drastically reduced cytokine receptor gamma chain (gc). A common receptor numbers of T cells and NK cells. See also: Signal Trans- beta chain (bc) is shared by the receptors for IL-3, IL-5 duction Pathways in Development: the JAK/STAT and GM-CSF. Receptors for IL-6, IL-11, oncostatin M Pathway and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) share the signal transducing protein gp130. Common receptor chains al- ter the binding affinity of the receptors for the cytokines. Chemokine Receptors For example, the IL-2 receptor has three affinities for IL-2. The low affinity receptor is IL-2Ra, the intermediate Overview affinity receptor contains the IL-2Rb and -2Rg subunits, and the high affinity receptor contains IL-2Ra, -2Rb and Chemokine receptors in combination with certain adhe- -2Rg. The Type II cytokine receptors also contain four sion molecules form the guidance system by which leuco- conserved cysteines in the extracellular domains and are cytes are targeted to specific areas of the body. As such they receptors for the interferon (IFN) and the IL-10 families. participate in cell migration and adhesion to specific sites IFNa, -b and -o are somewhat confusingly called Type I and migration within specific areas such as the thymus and IFNs, whereas IFNg is a Type II IFN but all use Type II lymph nodes. In addition, engagement of chemokine re- cytokine receptors. The IL-10 family includes IL-10, -19, ceptors activates signalling pathways resulting in changes -20, -22, -24, -26, -28 and -29 and each uses a different in gene expression and cell phenotype. receptor. The TNF receptors bind TNFa, -b (lympho- toxin) and BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator) as well as Classification apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. Fas) and some cost- Chemokines, named because they are chemotactic cyto- imulatory molecules. TNF receptors include TNF-RI kines, range in mass from 6 to 14 kDa. Greater than 50 and -RII and are characterized by cysteine-rich domains chemokines have been partitioned into four classifications in extracellular regions. The chemokine receptor family based on position of conserved cysteines near the N-ter- is described in a separate section in this article. minus. CC chemokines have two adjacent cysteines. CXC and CX3C chemokines have two cysteines separated by Function one or three nonconserved amino acids, respectively. C chemokines have only one cysteine near the N-terminus. Cytokines have diverse roles in the immune response. Some Chemokines function in soluble form and also are found are proinflammatory (e.g. IL-1, -6 and TNFa), some in- decorating the surface of destination cells as a guide to duce cell proliferation (e.g. IL-2 with T and B cells), and chemotaxis by immune cells. Chemokine receptors (R) others induce differentiation. IL-2, IFNg and TNFb gen- have been classified according to the chemokine class to erate cell-mediated (TH1) responses, while IL-4, -5, -6, -9, which they bind, and thus are the CCR, CXCR, CX3CR -10 and -13 produce primarily humoral (TH2) responses. and XCR receptors (Table 2). Chemokine receptors are IL-3, -5, GM-CSF, G-CSF, EPO and SCF control ha- seven transmembrane domain proteins and members of the ematopoietic differentiation to produce new cell types. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Nineteen Suppressive cytokines such as TGFb and IL-10 are asso- chemokine receptors have been identified, and range be- ciated with regulatory T-cell function and inhibit immune tween 340 and 370 amino acids. In each, the N-terminus is responses. See also: Haematopoiesis; Myeloid Cell Differ- extracellular and the C-terminus is intracellular. Each entiation; Tumour Necrosis Factors chemokine binds a unique receptor or set of receptors and each receptor binds one chemokine or a unique set of Signalling chemokines. In general, cytokine binding occurs through the receptor Function a subunit and signal transduction is facilitated by the b or g subunit. Cytokine receptor signalling cascades Chemokine receptor engagement modulates signal trans- often utilize the Jak-STAT and Ras/MAP kinase path- duction pathways and can initiate either an agonistic or ways. Most cytokines are secreted, but some can also be antagonistic response. Chemokines induce cell adhesion membrane-bound (e.g. IL-1a, TNFa and TGFb). Most and migration when chemokines on the surface of end- cytokine receptors are membrane-bound, but some can othelial cells interact with receptors of migrating leucocytes become soluble receptors due to alternative mRNA splic- to activate and upregulate integrins. High concentrations ing or proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound forms. of CXCL12 repel some T cells to focus an inflammatory ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd. 5
  6. 6. Immunological Accessory Molecules Table 2 Chemokine receptors Receptor Synonyms Ligand CCR CCR1 CKR1, CC CKR1, CMKBR1 CCL3,5,7,8,13,14,15,16,23 CCR2 CKR2, CC CKR2, CMKBR2 CCL2,7,8,12,13 CCR3 CKR3, CC CKR3, Eot R, CMKBR3 CCL5,7,8,11,13,14,15,24,26 CCR4 CKR4, CC CKR4, CMKBR4, K5-5 CCL17,22 CCR5 CKR5, CC CKR5, ChemR13, CMKBR5 CCL3,4,5,8,11,13,14,20 CCR6 GPR-CY4, CKR-L3, STRL22, CRY-6, DCR2, CMKBR6 CCL20 CCR7 BLR-2, CMKBR7 CCL19,21 CCR8 TER1, CKR-L1, GPR-CY6, ChemR1, CMKBR8 CCL1,4,16 CCR9 GPR9-6 CCL25 CCR10 GPR2 CCL27,28 CCR11 PPR1 CCL2,8,13,19,21,25 CXCR CXCR1 IL-8RA, IL-8R-I, IL-8R CXCL2,3,5,6,7,8 CXCR2 IL-8RB, IL-8R-II, IL-8R CXCL1,2,3,5,6,7,8 CXCR3 IP10/MigR, GPR9 CXCL9,10,11 CXCR4 HUMSTSR fusin, LESTR, HM89 CXCL12 CXCR5 BLR-I, MDRI5 CXCL13 CXCR6 Bonzo, STRL33, TYMSTR CXCL16 XCR XCR1 GPR5 XCL1,2 CX3CR CX3CR1 GPR13, V28, CMKBRL1 CX3CL1 Duffy DARC CXCL1,7,8, CCL1,5 D6 CCR9, 10, JAB61 CCL2,4,5,8,13,14,15 response in an area. Some chemokines induce a cytotoxic During leucocyte migration chemokines on vascular cell response: e.g. CXCL8 interacting with its receptor on endothelial cells bind to receptors on the leucocyte in- neutrophils induces release of defensins, and other specific ducing activation of b2 integrins prior to extravasation CC, CXC and CX3C chemokines can promote NK cell of the cell into tissue. In microbial infections, monocytes degranulation. CCL2 and CCL3 promote T-cell prolifer- produce CXCL8, CXCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 to recruit ation. CCL1 protects T cells from apoptosis while CXCL12 leucocytes to the infected site. Chronic inflammatory may induce CD4+ T-cell apoptosis via the Fas pathway. diseases are also mediated by chemokine–chemokine re- It is important to note that chemokines do not exert the ceptor interactions. Autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis same effect on all cell types. For example, CCL3 causes involves chronic inflammation of the joints where leu- different effects in T as compared with B cells. cocyte infiltration is directed by chemokines. CXCL8, Chemokine receptors have roles in biological proc- CXCL5, CXCL1, CCL2, CCL3 and CXC12 are pro- esses. Pro-thymocytes use CCL25 produced by thymic duced in the synovial tissues and attract neutrophils, dendritic cells to move into the thymus and begin de- monocytes and CD4 memory T cells to the synovial velopment. Chemokines produced within the thymus and spaces. Chemokine receptors are sometimes co-opted by dynamically expressed patterns of chemokine receptors tumours and viruses. During some breast cancer met- on the surface of developing T cells direct T cells to astases tumour cells express CXCR4 and CCR7 while specific sites within the thymus for successive stages of their ligands are expressed in organs to which the tu- the developmental process. Chemokines and their recep- mour cells metastasize suggesting a role for chemokines tors are essential in maintaining cell homoeostasis, organ during metastasis. Chemokine receptors are used by vi- development and secondary lymphoid tissue develop- ruses as entry sites into the host cell. Human immuno- ment and organization. CCR7 on naı¨ ve T cells allows deficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) uses CCR5 and CXCR4 to migration into lymph nodes and also helps direct naı¨ ve enter macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells. cells to specific sites within lymph nodes. Dendritic cells Thus, chemokine receptors are accessory molecules to use CCR7 to migrate through the lymphatic vessels to activation, proliferation, migration and adhesion of im- become APCs for naı¨ ve T cells in the lymph nodes. mune cells. Their function is redirected in virus infection Activated T cells expressing CXCR5 can enter lymph and in some tumour metastases. These receptors represent node follicles and participate in T cell–B cell interactions a relatively new and potentially fruitful set of targets for to generate germinal centres. developing therapeutic approaches. 6 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
  7. 7. Immunological Accessory Molecules Costimulatory Molecules: Positive costimulatory status when they are observed (a) to be res- ident on a T cell and (b) to induce proliferation when stim- Signal Transducers ulated in conjunction with stimulation through the TCR (Signal 1). Examples of these proteins include (but are not Overview limited to): CD2, CD5, CD9, CD27, CD28, CD44, CD46, Costimulatory molecules are those accessory proteins that CD81, LFA-1, ICAM-1, VLA-4, ICOS, 4-1BB, OX40, transmit signals to a cell to enhance the response of that cell LIGHT and SLAM. in a positive manner. Although this concept may apply to many cell surface proteins, the term most generally refers to Classification proteins expressed on T cells with counter receptors on the Costimulatory molecules for T cells fall into several cate- cells that present antigen to them, and this system provides gories. The CD28 family includes ICOS and two inhibitory the most instructive example. T cells leave the thymus in proteins described later, CTLA-4 and PD-1. The integrin immature form with the ability to cycle between the blood family is represented by LFA-1 and VLA-4. The Ig super- and the lymphatic system and with no ability to enter other family includes the ICAMs and the TNF receptor family tissue types. Absent interaction with their cognate antigen includes 4-1BB, OX40 and LIGHT. Additional categories these cells will die. Interaction with their specific antigen, are numerous as the group of proteins capable of delivering properly presented in the context of MHC on the surface of costimulatory signals is quite large. an APC induces naı¨ ve T cells to activate, expand in number by proliferation and differentiate into effector cells capable Additional cell types of carrying out functions in response to the foreign antigen. After time, the population of effector cells contracts leaving Other cell types utilize costimulation to modulate function. memory cells capable of more rapid and vigorous response B cells experience modulation of function and differenti- should the same antigen be encountered again. To activate ation when antigen receptor (BCR) signalling is augmented a naı¨ ve T cell, two signals are required. First (Signal 1) is the by costimulation (e.g. by the tetraspanin CD81 complex cognate antigen, properly presented by MHC. A second or mentioned earlier). B cells proliferate, increase antibody costimulatory signal (Signal 2) is delivered by any of a production and undergo Ig heavy chain class switching in number of counter receptor pairs. This signal is a fail-safe response to costimulation. As mentioned, counter receptor signal and if it is not received by the naı¨ ve T cell, the cell is engagement on APCs increases their ability to function. induced to die or become anergic in the presence of only Macrophages and dendritic cells, serving as APCs can re- Signal 1. Responses by memory cells to the same antigen ceive signals that enhance antimicrobial and antiviral can be induced by the first signal alone, but second signals activities. have strong modulatory effects on these cells as well. Sig- nalling into the T cell is likely to be accompanied by counter Implications signalling into the APC when the costimulatory counter Costimulatory signals synergize with signals delivered receptor proteins engage. This activity has additional through the antigen receptor and induce T-cell activation, effects on the immune response. See also: Antigen Pre- proliferation and acquisition of effector functions while sentation to Lymphocytes protecting the cell from apoptosis induced by the antigen signal alone. An increasing number of proteins qualify for Costimulatory proteins some form of costimulatory status. Basic questions revolve The best-studied T-cell costimulatory protein is CD28, around the circumstances under which each comes into which interacts with its counter receptors CD80 and CD86 play, where in the body each has its primary function and on the APC. The combination of Signals 1 and 2 induces exactly how many outcomes are available when each acts signalling events not induced by Signals 1 or 2 delivered alone or acts in concert with one or more additional alone and the outcome for the cell is rescue from the cell costimulators. death induced by Signal 1, followed by clonal expansion and change in cell phenotype. Costimulatory proteins can be partitioned into two classes, those present on resting naı¨ ve T cells and those that are induced by the initial Signal Inhibitory Molecules: Negative Signal 1–Signal 2 combination. Examples of the first group are Transducers CD28, LFA-1 and ICAM-1. All three are expressed on both naı¨ ve and memory T cells and are available to receive Overview second signals from APCs. Examples of proteins from the second group that are induced during T-cell activation Inhibitory molecules are transmembrane proteins that re- include ICOS, 4-1BB, OX40 and LIGHT. It is most ceive signals which instruct the cell on which they are res- likely that this class of proteins potentiates the activation– ident to downregulate specific functions and reduce the differentiation process should they be engaged by their participation of the cell in the immune response. Thus, counter receptors. Proteins are traditionally assigned to these proteins function in a negative manner. Such negative ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd. 7
  8. 8. Immunological Accessory Molecules functions are essential in inactivating an immune response Pattern-recognition Receptors once the crisis has been averted. These negative functions sometimes also prevent inappropriate activation of the im- Overview mune response to self-antigens. Some accessory molecules recognize and respond directly to invading microorganisms. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa Lymphocyte inhibition and viruses possess structural and genomic components In the context established with the previous section, some that are essential for their survival but are not produced T-cell surface proteins receive negative signals that inacti- by mammalian hosts. These microbial components vate the cells. Examples are CTLA-4 expressed mostly on are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns T-cells, and PD-1 expressed on T cells, B cells and mon- (PAMPs). PAMPs are detected by pattern-recognition ocytes. When engaged by their counter receptors, both receptors (PRRs) on host leucocytes and other cell types. send signals into the cell to blunt activation and prolifer- Some PRRs are localized to the cell surface, while others ation, effectively serving as immune attenuators. Receptors are found in intracellular compartments or are secreted for IL-10 and TGFb also serve as immune attenuators. molecules. Cell surface PRRs include scavenger recep- When they receive signals in the form of these cytokines tors, the macrophage mannose receptor, the b-glucan re- sent by regulatory T cells, these receptors exert negative ceptor and the CD14 LPS receptor. A newly identified effects on the activated cells on which they reside. class of PRRs is the TLR family (TLR, Table 3). TLRs are Type I integral membrane glycoproteins that share some sequence homology with members of the IL-1 R Induction of cell death family. The TLR cytoplasmic domain contains a Toll/IL- Members of the TNF–TNFR families transmit signals 1R (TIR) domain with three conserved sequence boxes. leading to cell death by apoptosis. Examples of these in- However, the TLR extracellular region contains between clude CD95 (Fas) and its counter receptor CD95L (Fas 19 and 25 copies of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs not ligand), TRAIL and its counter receptors DR4 and DR5, found in the IL-1Rs. Each of the 12 TLRs identified in and TNF and its counter receptor TNFRI. The proteins mammals recognizes a unique set of microbial compo- resident on the target cell (CD95, DR4, DR5 and TNFRI) nents. See also: Innate Immune Mechanisms: Nonself signal the cell to initiate apoptosis when they are engaged Recognition by their counter receptors. Each such protein contains a ‘death domain’ in its cytoplasmic region. These types of proteins are used to induce death in lymphocytes after they Binding partners have effected resolution of an infection. Such activated cells must be eliminated before they continue to cause damage to The cellular localization of TLRs is related to their spe- healthy tissue. These mechanisms are also used by cyto- cialized functions. Cell-surface TLRs recognize structural toxic cells to eliminate other unwanted cells such as tumour components of bacteria, fungi and protozoan parasites cells. while intracellular TLRs detect viral and bacterial nucleic acids that have been trafficked to endosomes. Prevention of killing Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria possess distinct structural components, Another class of inhibitory molecules, the MHC-class I but are each recognized by TLRs. Bacterial PAMPs inhibitory receptors, also called inhibitory NK receptors that are detected by TLRs include lipopolysaccharide (iNKR) are primarily expressed on NK cells and represent (LPS), peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, lipoproteins, lip- sensory detectors for expression of MHC class I molecules oglycans, flagellin, porins and unmethylated CpG motifs (human leucocyte antigen (HLA) in humans) on the sur- known as CpG-DNA. Zymosan and mannan molecules face of potential target cells. NK cells are responsible for are fungal cell-wall moieties recognized by certain TLRs. killing tumour cells and virus-infected cells. MHC I is ex- Antiviral immunity is enhanced by TLRs that recognize pressed on most cells and as long as iNKRs sense sufficient viral single-stranded RNA, double-stranded RNA, CpG- MHC, the cell remains safe from NK attack because en- DNA and some viral envelope proteins. Different pro- gagement of iNKRs sends an inhibitory signal into the NK tozoan parasite species contain TLR ligands including cell. If virus infection or tumours cause decrease in MHC I glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mucin (GPI-mucin), glycoi- expression, the NK cell uses iNKRs to sense this and at- nositolphospholipids, haemozoin and profilin-like tacks the cell. Some T cells express iNKRs and this may molecules. In addition, host proteins such as heat-shock represent a mechanism to suppress certain kinds of T-cell protein 60, 70 and fibrinogen can be detected by TLR4, response. In humans, iNKRs are members of the KIR perhaps as indicators of cellular damage. Although hu- family (killer Ig-like receptor); in mice they are members of man TLR11 is nonfunctional, murine TLR11 recognizes the Ly49 family. It should be noted that these families also components of uropathogenic bacteria and profilin-like include activating receptors that respond to specific ligands molecules. The functions of TLRs 10 and 12 are still and directly activate the NK cell to kill. being studied. 8 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
  9. 9. Immunological Accessory Molecules Table 3 Toll-like receptors TLR Cellular compartment Example ligands Microbes recognized TLR1 Cell membrane Triacyl lipopeptides Bacteria TLR2 Cell membrane Peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, Bacteria, fungi, measles virus, porins, lipopeptides, lipoglycans, Trypanosoma sp. zymosan TLR3 Endosomal membrane Double-stranded RNA Viruses TLR4 Cell membrane Lipopolysaccharide, glycans, Bacteria, fungi, respiratory envelope proteins, syncytial virus, Trypanosoma sp. glycoinositolphospholipids TLR5 Cell membrane Flagellin Bacteria TLR6 Cell membrane Lipoteichoic acid, lipopeptides, Bacteria, fungi zymosan TLR7 Endosomal membrane Single-stranded RNA Viruses TLR8 Endosomal membrane Single-stranded RNA Viruses TLR9 Endosomal membrane CpG DNA, haemozoin Bacteria and viruses, Plasmodium TLR10 Cell membrane Not known Not known Location and signalling induction of costimulatory molecules that propagate adap- tive immune responses. Most TLR signals preferentially TLRs are found on all leucocyte subsets (macrophages, induce cell-mediated T helper 1 (TH1) responses, however, dendritic cells, granulocytes, T cells and B cells). Conven- TLR2 signals can favour antibody-mediated TH2 re- tional T cells can express TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9. Ligand sponses. TLRs have been shown to be essential compo- binding to some TLRs increases T-cell proliferation in a nents of antimicrobial defence mechanisms. For example, manner similar to a costimulatory signal. Regulatory mutations in the human TLR2 gene are associated with T-cells (Treg) express TLR2, 5 and 8, which influence Treg diminished response to bacterial lipoproteins and greater suppressive activity. Other cell types such as fibroblasts and susceptibility to Staphylococcal septic shock, while muta- epithelial cells also express some TLRs. TLR expression tions in human TLR4 are associated with a reduced can be upregulated or downregulated depending upon the response to LPS and a greater susceptibility to Gram- cytokine environment or activation state of the cell. Upon negative bacterial infections. TLRs are important acces- ligand binding, the TLRs dimerize and conformational sory molecules tasked to directly detect pathogens and changes occur. Next, the adaptor proteins MyD88, direct the immune responses against those pathogens. TIRAP, TRIF or TRAM selectively bind to TLR TIR do- mains and signal transduction cascades occur through sev- eral proteins including IRAK-1, IRAK-4, TRAF6, TAK1, TAB1, TAB2, TAB3, NF-kB and MAP kinases. Depend- Concluding Remarks ing upon the signalling pathway utilized, the transcription factors AP-1, NF-kB, IRF-3, IRF-5 or IRF-7 are acti- Immunological accessory molecules are crucial in all facets vated. Transcription factor activation leads to the expres- of the immune response. Signals delivered into the cells on sion of proinflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and which they are resident play significant roles in cell acti- chemokines and the upregulation of MHC class II and vation, differentiation, proliferation, function and entry costimulatory molecules. into or avoidance of cell death by apoptosis. These mol- ecules are increasingly numerous, occupy diverse classes of Function and implications proteins and serve a great complexity of functions in the immune response. Questions that will be addressed in TLRs are important regulators of both innate and adaptive coming years will certainly deal with the varied and over- immunity. TLRs are found on all leucocyte subsets, and lapping nature of their functions. Important consideration TLR triggering leads to the production of cytokines and will accrue to questions of how and when they function ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd. 9
  10. 10. Immunological Accessory Molecules individually (if they ever do) and how and when they func- Hemler ME (2005) Tetraspanin functions and associated tion in combination. microdomains. National Review of Molecular Cell Biology 6: 801–811. Levy S and Shoham T (2005) The tetraspanin web modulates Further Reading immune-signaling complexes. Nature Reviews Immunology 5: 136–148. Akira S, Uematsu S and Takeuchi O (2006) Pathogen recognition Leonard W (2003) Type I cytokines and interferons and and innate immunity. Cell 124: 783–801. their receptors. In: Paul WE (ed.) Fundamental Im- Kabelitz D (2007) Expression and function of Toll-like receptors munology, pp. 497–517. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams in T lymphocytes. Current Opinion in Immunology 19: 1–7. Wilkins. Kohlmeier J and Benedict S (2003) Alternate costimulatory mole- Le Y, Zhou Y, Iribarren P and Ming Wang J (2004) Chemokines cules in T cell activation: Differential mechanisms for directing the and chemokine receptors: their manifold roles in homeostasis immune response. Histology and Histopathology 18: 1195–1204. and disease. Cellular and Molecular Immunology 1(2): 95–104. Kuby J, Kindt T, Goldsby R and Osborne B (2006) (eds) Immu- Sharpe A, Latchman Y and Greenwald R (2003) Accessory mol- nology, pp. 338–359. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ecules and costimulation. In: Paul WE (ed.) Fundamental Im- Daeron M and Lesourne R (2006) Negative signaling in Fc re- ¨ munology, pp. 393–417. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams ceptor complexes. Advances in Immunology 89: 39–86. Wilkins. 10 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2007, John Wiley Sons, Ltd.