Immune System Review
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Immune System Review Document Transcript

  • 1. Name _______________________________________________ _______ Immune System Review 1. There is not a lab component to this worksheet. However, you have already performed an experiment which involved antibody-antigen interactions. What lab was this?_____________________________ 2. Identify whether the following descriptions are a part of the nonspecific (NS) immune response or the specific (S) immune response. _______ Barriers to infections, such as skin and mucous membranes _______ Cytotoxic T-cell touch-kills a cancerous cell _______ Chemotaxic molecules such as interferons and complement _______ Acidic secretions produced in the stomach and vagina _______ Antigen-antibody response _______ Pyrexia _______ Inflammation and phagocytosis _______ Helper-T cell secretes interleukins II, IV and V to stimulate plasma cell production _______ Cytotoxic T-cells examine host cells to determine if they are healthy _______ MHC-II-antigen complex stimulates helper-T cell 3. What facilitates the slow-down of fluid in lymph nodes? Be sure to use the terms afferent, efferent and hilum. Why is this slow-down so important? 4. What does MALT stand for? ________________________________________________________________ Identify at least three areas in the body where MALT is found. 5. Why are Peyer’s patches present in the small intestines?
  • 2. 6. Lymphatic vessels return ________________ to the blood via the ______________________________ duct on the right side of the body and the _________________ duct on the left side of the body. These ducts connect with the right _________________ vein and the left __________________ vein, respectively. The duct on the right side drains the following regions of the body _________________________________________.By comparison, the thoracic duct drains _____________________________________________________.The lymphatic vessels also contain regions of tissue called _____________________________ which serve as sentinel points for monitoring the passing fluid for pathogens. Finally, a special type of lymphatic vessel called a ______________________ serves a very important role in the ____________________________ by collecting large molecules called _____________________ and transporting them eventually into the bloodstream via the ____________________________ trunk, which eventually connects with the ___________________ duct and then the _____________________________________ vein. 7. Identify whether each the following is a characteristic of the cell-mediated (C) immune response, the antibody- mediated (A) immune response or both (B). _______ helper T-cell examines an APC _______ plasma cell readies for high-production protein export _______ B-cells divide to produce both plasma and memory-B cells. _______memory cytotoxic T-cells are stored for later “combat” _______ a macrophage consumes an antigen and presents it in its MHC-II protein _______ helper-T cell secretes interleukin II to stimulate other T-cells _______ perforins assist in touch kill _______ complement is activated after antibodies stick to an antigen _______ an infected host cell secretes interleukin-I _______ a B-cell secretes interleukin-I _______ T-suppressor cells deactivate the _____ immune response after infection is over _______ B-cell clonal selection causes only the right-shaped B-cell to undergo rapid mitosis _______ cancerous host cells are directly killed via perforins and/or apoptosis 8. What is the relationship between the lymphatic capillary epithelium and edema? 9. In the first column list the four signs of inflammation. Then in the second column identify what event or substance induces that particular inflammatory response. Sign of inflammation Cause of sign
  • 3. 10. What four events do leukocytes (such as neutrophils) follow during the inflammation process? Identify the event in the first column, then define the event in the second column. Event Definition 11. Explain what duties each chemical below performs in the inflammation response. a. Bradykinins b. Histamine 12. Helper-T cells are sometimes also called __________ cells because they contain the cell-membrane protein _______. Similarly, cytotoxic T-cells are identified based on the cell-membrane protein called _________. Thus, cytotoxic T-cells are sometimes called _______ cells. 13. Explain why lacteals are the primary means by which the body absorbs lipids. 14. What are antigens? 15. What are epitopes? 16. The Human Genome project has recently identified approximately 30,000 genes total in the Human Genome. Yet, our immune system alone has the ability to produce more than 2 million different antibodies (a type of protein). Explain how somatic recombination allows for this variety.
  • 4. 17. Below are descriptions for the five different types of immunoglobins, which is another name for _____________________. Identify each type of immunoglobin based on its description. Some immunoglobins will appear in the table more than once. Type of Description immunoglobin Found on the surface of immunocompetent B cells. The most common type of immunoglobin in the blood, this immunoglobin is the only type to cross the placenta from mother to fetus. This immunoglobin is involved in allergic reactions and is often found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. Often associated with epithelial tissue membranes, this immunoglobin is also important for removing pathogens from the small intestines and shuttling them back to the stomach for another pass through the digestive system. This immunoglobin is often found as a dimer. Produced as part of the primary immune response. Produced as part of the secondary immune response. This immunoglobin exists as a pentamer. The immunoglobin primarily responsible for anaphylactic shock. Memory-B cells produce this immunoglobin. Plasma cells produce this immunoglobin. 18. Explain why a person with a broken right clavicle might exhibit edema of the neck. 19. On what type of cells are each of the following antigen-presenting proteins found and what other cell(s) interact with that particular protein? Protein Cell(s) on which it is located Cell which interacts with this cell MHC-I MHC-II 20. A. Identify four different ways antibodies interact with antigens and mark them for destruction or clean up and B. define each.
  • 5. 21. Define the four types of hypersensitivity and list an example of each. 22. To help you prepare for your next exam, draw your own version of the cell-mediated response below. It can look similar to but not identical to Kerry’s drawing, or to those in your textbook. Label all cells, chemicals and events.
  • 6. 23. In YOUR opinion (not your book’s, Kerry’s, or your lab partner’s) A) what is the most important event in the cell- mediated immune response and B) WHY?. There is no right or wrong answer here. It’s a matter of well supported opinion! 24. Again, to help you prepare for your next exam, draw your own version of the antibody-mediated response below. It can look similar to but not identical to Kerry’s drawing, or to those in your textbook. Label all cells, chemicals and events.
  • 7. 25. In YOUR opinion (not your book’s, Kerry’s, or your lab partner’s) A) what is the most important event in the cell- mediated immune response and B) WHY?. There is no right or wrong answer here. It’s a matter of well supported opinion! 26. Who is the most essential player for both the antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses and WHY? 27. Explain why a primary immune response is so much slower than a secondary immune response. Be sure to define both of the terms in bold during your explanation. 28. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms. a. active immunity vs. passive immunity b. direct exposure to a pathogen vs. immunoglobins passed to fetus from mother
  • 8. c. vaccination vs. injection of gamma globulins 29. Explain a possible future therapy for avoiding organ transplant rejection, involving FasL proteins. 30. The virus _________, which stands for _______________________________________________________ causes AIDS, which is an abbreviation for ______________________________________________________. The virus which causes AIDS is called a _____________-virus because it contains ________, which it injects primarily (though not only) into host ___________________ (what type?) cells. The virus also injects the enzyme called ______________________ ____________________ (two words). The drug AZT works by inhibiting this enzyme. 31. Identify five symptoms of HIV infection.