immune system powerpoint

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  • mk: nice chart. could make an animated version of it so that only one part shows up at a time... ? a cool way to do this: make each of the names in your chart above be a LINK. that would take the viewer to a slide that’s just about that cell. then those slides have a “back” button to bring you back to the chart. select the text block, right-click, choose hyperlink, this document, choose slide (note the links only work when you’re viewing it as a SLIDESHOW – they don’t work in “edit” view) also – you have mast cells coming from B cells, which is not correct. they’re more related to basophils – so the other place you have mast cells notes is correct.
  • mk: all these come from white blood cells... all come from bone marrow... good that you mentioned the overall concept of stem cell.
  • mk – good illustration – maybe include idea that eg. “brain” divides out from tissue that provided all the nerves, skin, eyes, sensory organs... maybe look for illustrations from other stem cells... general idea here is that the farther a cell moves “away” from its totipotent stem cell past, the more committed it becomes... slightly longer explanation: the very most “stem” a cell could ever be is the zygote, since from it, every single type of cell originates. then zygote divides and divides and divides and eventually some of those cells “commit” to being ectoderm. then from ectoderm comes skin, sensory stuff, etc – still lots of room to make different things, but NOT anything that is made by the mesoderm or the endoderm. (mesoderm differentiates into muscle, bone, connective tissue; endoderm differentiates into digestive organs and tract)
  • I didn’t think I should define humoral immune response…maybe fit this slide together with humoral immune response? idk mk: right; humoral response would be something under “processes.” note a plasma cell is a “grown up” B cell. it’s when a B cell has been primed and is now seriously pumping out antibodies of its own particular type. – also – this slide has the title hyperlinking back to the pink slide; is that on purpose?
  • mk this is good; somewhere here might be nice to have illustration of plasma cell pumping out antibodies; keep hammering on that simple graphic of the “Y” of antibodies note I put a “home” icon to bring viewer back to the chart slide – you can copy and paste this button onto each slide that should have it. note hyperlinks only work during SLIDESHOW.
  • I didn’t think I should define cell mediated response…same as before basically. Also is says “probably” because scientists are unsure what they do so plz don’t change it. Thanks mk: yes... we can get more into cell-mediated response, and we should do that in conjunction with, say, an influenza strain... and although there are still some parts of the process about which folks are unsure, many of the pieces have indeed been worked out, so we can talk about those. but right, that’s a “process,” so if you’re focusing on “players,” it was proper to skip it. this slide: too many words. could fix by making more as bullet points. would be nice to see picture to remind folks these are all descended from the general T cell. would be nice to find some pictures that help viewer remember the jobs of these three different cells.
  • mk great illustration, and makes for interesting segue: if it’s a cancer cell, most will realize that’s OUR OWN BODY CELL – so how do we tell the difference between a cancerous cell and or normal cells? (starts the discussion about markers on the cell surface) --
  • mk – great illustration, and it would be good to zoom in on the meeting between the cell markers – maybe this illustration gets its own slide with potential to zoom in – see next slide
  • mk – great illustration, and it would be good to zoom in on the meeting between the cell markers – maybe this illustration gets its own slide with potential to zoom in – see next slide
  • mk – good – would be nice to have a little “mini” version of the hematopoiesis map up in the corner -- so that folks can see where each of these fits in – see next slide
  • mk – good – would be nice to have a little “mini” version of the hematopoiesis map up in the corner -- so that folks can see where each of these fits in – see next slide
  • mk – nice pictures – that parasite doesn’t stand a chance... might be cool to show some trypanosomes or some other blood-borne parasite... also cool to see that granulocytes have those really weird nuclei... that’s really different from the “usual” look of a nucleus
  • mk – looks good... is there an animation to go with this? maybe could make the picture bigger... note spelling of “neutrophil”
  • mk: good; would be nice to have definition/description of things like “amoeboid” – maybe there’s an animation somewhere of amoeboid motion
  • mk – might be nice to mention histamine in relation to “antihistamines” which most have heard of – think “runny nose” and that will help folks remember/connect
  • mk – this is a good illustration . also this is a fundamental concept in many of the discussion that follow: CAPILLARIES GET LEAKY. so don’t be afraid to re-use, re-use, re-use this illustration
  • mk: good stuff; might be nice to organize from simplest to more complex. the complement business is really complicated and might be best to mention that it drills a hole in the cell membrane – folks will remember that. lysozyme is easy and non-specific so it’s a good one to start. this also a good place to reinforce idea of nonspecific vs. specific defence mechanisms. “strong but dumb” vs. “surgical strike.” (or some other terminology) (click the mouse before talking about the substance) Lysozyme: Enzyme present in tears, saliva, and mucous secretions . It digests the cell walls of bacteria and destroys microbes entering the upper respiratory system. Complement: Proteins and interferons that are important antimicrobial protiens in the tissues and the blood. Interferon: Substances that virus-infected cells produce, helping other cells interfere with, or resist infection by, the virus.
  • mk: good but should mention that MHC is the major thing that allows us to tell “self” from “foreign.” relate to something we’ve all heard of, e.g. foreign tissue graft rejection. how does our body “know” it’s foreign? because of the foreign MHC. when you get a bone marrow transplant, want a donor that’s most like you – identical twin best, since you share MHC... note it’s incredibly specific – unless twins (or clones), 1 in about 10 billion that it’ll match exactly... also note: Interleukins – think of as HORMONES from the WBCs. give some examples of things that other hormones do. difference: interleukins come from cells that might be anywhere in the body. it’s like those endocrine organs are floating around in the body... (click the mouse before talking about the substance) Interleukins: Interleukin-1: a cytokine substance secreted by a macrophage. Interleukin-2: after interleukin-1 is secreted, it signals the T H cell to release interleukin-2. interleukin-2 stimulates TH cells to grow and divide more rapidly, increasing supply of both (TH cells ans interleukin-2). Also help activate B cells. Histamine: One of the chemical signals that initiates the process of the inflammatory response. (contained in basophils and mast cells) MHC: Major histocompatibility Complex – collection of molecules encoded by a family of genes.
  • mk: prostaglandin good, note it’s released with vessel damage; I think we won’t talk too much about the clotting proteins. but we will look more at the complement proteins. (click the mouse before talking about the substance) Prostaglandin: a substance released during the inflammatory response that causes local vessel dilation. Clotting proteins: Help block the spread of infection or disease to other parts of the body and is the beginning of the repair process for an injury.
  • mk: good but we need more description of antibodies particularly. since they are such an important part of the system, I’d recommend expanding this. especially about their incredible specificity. “needle-in-haystack” ability. good to have some illustrations here that show the variable arms of the Ig molecule... show how there are many millions/billions of possible configurations –and how they can grab onto foreign objects and “tag” them as foreign. I took the liberty of adding some slides on the topic of antibodies, specificity, B cells, plasma cells, etc also – for each of the other substances here – should have some more examples and/or how they are important for the immune system. eg. pyrogens – important since they start the fever process, which increases the rate at which we fight infections... (click the mouse before talking about the substance) Pryogens: Molecule that sets the body’s thermostat at a higher temperature . Antibody: specific protein produced by specialized lymphocytes. Antigen: foreign substance that elicits a specific immune response.
  • mk – good, could use some more diagrams – maybe enlarge what’s here; maybe make a diagram; maybe break up word “chemo-” and “kinetic”
  • mk – yes this is good. enlarge the diagrams so it’s clear what you’re talking about. don’t be afraid to use more slides. I’ve fiddled with it a bit on the next couple slides
  • mk: good; suggest pronunciation: DI-uh-puh-DEE-sis; interstitial (in-ter-STISH-ul) – and define – stuff in between the cells trim words down – make bullet-ish
  • mk: good; suggest pronunciation: DI-uh-puh-DEE-sis; interstitial (in-ter-STISH-ul) – and define – stuff in between the cells trim words down – make bullet-ish
  • in this slide I took the pict from previous, broke the process notes down into smaller steps, and placed them on the pict. note that monocytes “grow up” into becoming macrophages somewhere after they heard the chemokine’s call
  • mk: good, and should show animation if you can find one or make a simple one
  • mk: good
  • this is good; would be nice to see bigger pix
  • The clotting cascade is really confusing to explain in words so I thought this video would work instead mk: okay and this is my fault – we probably don’t need to talk about “clotting cascade” in this powerpoint . I meant to put in COMPLEMENT CASCADE instead of clotting cascade. sorry ‘bout that. check this link for “complement cascade” animation: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter22/animation__activation_of_complement.html
  • mk: might be nice to see some other photos of swelling... text is good but too small
  • mk: this is great. useful here to relate oncotic pressure to osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure is a special form of osmotic pressure; recall: osmotic pressure “sucks”
  • mk: great. note spelling of “their”.
  • mk: would be nice to have a flow chart here. don’t be afraid to draw stuff. there are lots of tools for simple circles and such. note: the word “plasma” in “plasma cells” is NOT the same as the plasma that is the watery fluid that makes up the blood. the plasma cells were named that before we had a better name for them.
  • mk: info is good but should have some sorta visual; a flow chart would be good; maybe a series of simple diagrams showing the process; could steal one from somewhere (be sure to credit it)
  • mk: this is good; should have some explanation tagged to it so it appears as a process; “step 1, step 2.... “ etc
  • mk: confusing here – you said “antibodies” – what are you referring to? you’re pointing at the picture...
  • mk: okay good info... confusing though; but I think this will get clearer, or could be made clearer, when we go through specific examples of the immune process. humoral immunity refers to the immunity we get from antibodies circulating in the bloodstream. cellular immunity refers to situations where T cells give help to, and control, the reaction. what you said about “memory cells” is true, but this doesn’t really explain the process. it would be great to find a diagram that shows the process of formation of the memory cells.
  • mk: okay could use better graphic; flow chart perhaps to show the process... note spelling of “differentiate.” this illustration better used elsewhere. clonal selection is the idea that one single cell, with its very specific Ab, replicates many times. that means that there are many more cells in the bloodstream with that specific Ab. when you say “differentiate,” what do you mean? should clarify that “differentiate” means diff. into the two types that you list next. there’s probably a good diagram somewhere that you could steal to show this process. or you could easily make one....
  • mk: okay I put in a few slides...
  • mk: this slide makes more sense if you view in slideshow mode – there are animations
  • mk: better to view as slideshow so you can see animation
  • mk – I didn’t get finished with this line of thought for the presentation but I think you get the picture...?
  • mk: good, could link this to the chart that was in an earlier slide (the hematopoiesis slide); also this slide mixes concepts of “lymphocytes” (what they are) with antibodies etc – mention that lymphocytes includes those cells that are going to be the really SPECIFIC cells – they only interact with THEIR SPECIFIC antigen. (as opposed to macrophages, which will engulf just about anything that looks foreign)
  • mk: this is good info. might be nice to have diagrams here... maybe two different text boxes or something to otherwise set off the two different types... yes and note monocytes “grow up” to become macrophages (i.e. they differentiate into macrophages)
  • mk: yes third line of defense is a good example – need shorter descriptions – B cells differentiate into either plasma cells or memory cells... also – important aspect of memory is that it lasts YEARS, maybe lifetime – this is especially cool when there aren’t very many cells that last that long in the body...
  • mk: self/nonself – would be good to have some illustrations here –probably show the MHC “hammock” – sci Am has good pix note that antibodies don’t really “know” if there is something “wrong,” as noted above. more so that the antibodies just know if it’s SELF or NONSELF. diversity: maybe some kind of illustration here. the stuff about how this diversity is generated genetically is interesting but probably beyond the scope of what we want to do here. in a nutshell – those DNA molecules that we usually consider to be the “static blueprint” – well they cut, rearrange, mix’n’match, and reattach, in millions of ways. they’re the only cells in the body that we know of that do this.
  • mk: yes, this is a great graphic. good graphic, but needs some explanation – what does “naïve” mean, for example...
  • mk: this is good, especially if followed through step by step. you could use text boxes instead of handwriting on the slide... better for reading; better for future editing. suggest duplicate the picture, then crop and enlarge the area of interest. see next slide...
  • mk: view this as slideshow...
  • immune system powerpoint

    1. 1. By: Alisa Fay, Rachel Robert, Lindsay Kilday & Kirsten Meisterling
    2. 3. Stem Cell Lymphoid Stem Cell Myeloid Progenitor B Cell T Cell Natural Killer Neutrophil Eosinophil Monocytes Basophil Mast Cell Plasma Cell Mast Cell Cytotoxic Helper Suppressor
    3. 4. Immune System “Players”: Major Cells <ul><li>Stem Cell: an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into two different cells </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid Stem Cell: white blood cell (WBC) of the immune system that is part of the lymph system </li></ul><ul><li>Myeloid Progenitor: makes platelets, red blood cells and some WBCs </li></ul>
    4. 6. Immune System “Players”: Lymphoid Cells <ul><li>B Cells: A lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and carries out humoral immune response. B Cells have membrane bound antigen receptors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma Cell: (Activated by B Cells) Secrete antibodies to eliminate certain antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Cell: (Activated by B Cells) Remember antigen that caused its formation </li></ul></ul>
    5. 7. Plasma Cell <ul><li>The orange part is the endoplasmic reticulum that manufactures, modifies and transports proteins, or antibodies. The cells nucleus is redish-brown and the dark brown dots are mitochondria which provide the cell with energy. </li></ul>
    6. 8. Immune System “Players”: Lymphoid Cells <ul><li>T Cells: A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and functions in cell mediated response. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T C (Cytotoxic) Cells: Kill infected cells and cancer cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T H (Helper) Cells: Secrete Cytokines, molecules that are released by one cell as a regulator of a neighboring cell ( B and T cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T S (Suppressor) Cells: Probably turn off immune system when antigen is gone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory T Cells: Cells that fight certain previously exposed infections faster and stronger than the first time. </li></ul>
    7. 9. T Cell in Action <ul><li>Cytotoxic T Cell (orange) killing a cancer cell (purple). </li></ul>
    8. 10. Immune System “Players”: Lymphoid Cells <ul><li>Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells): Cells that destroy a body’s infected cells, especially the ones that harbor viruses, and aberrant cells, which can form tumors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shake hands” with cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If cell has no recognizable MHC (identification), then the NK kills it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack the membrane of target cell causing it to lysis </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. Immune System “Players”: Myeloid Progenitor Cells <ul><li>Phagocyte Cells: WBCs that ingest invading particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5% WBCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited phagocytic activity, but contain enzymes within cytoplasmic granules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy parasites by positioning themselves on walls and releasing enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neotrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60-70% of WBCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can leave blood and enter infected tissues to destroy microbes, then self destruct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live only a few days </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Immune System “Players”: Myeloid Progenitor Cells <ul><li>Phagocyte Cells: WBCs that ingest invading particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5% WBCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited phagocytic activity, but contain enzymes within cytoplasmic granules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy parasites by positioning themselves on walls and releasing enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neotrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60-70% of WBCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can leave blood and enter infected tissues to destroy microbes, then self destruct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live only a few days </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 14. Eosinophil: Above showing the granules which release enzymes and the size. To the right showing a eosinophil attacking a parasite. Parasite
    12. 15. Neutophil: Leaving the blood to migrate into a tissue and a Neutrophil animation
    13. 16. Immune System “Players”: Myeloid Progenitor Cells <ul><li>Monocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% WBCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very effective phagocytic defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes develop into macrophages (big eaters) after migrating into a tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have amoeboid cells that pull in microbes which are then destroyed (by enzymes and reactive oxygen) with macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some macrophages reside permanently in organs and connective tissue (many reside in lymph nodes and the spleen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages secrete hormones called cytokines that call for immune system cells and activate cells involved in tissue repair </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. Immune System “Players”: Myeloid Progenitor Cells <ul><li>Basophils and Mast Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain the chemical histamine which aids in the inflammatory response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When these cells are injured in connective tissue, histamine is released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This triggers vasodilation and makes the capillaries “leaky” </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Vasodilation by histamines released by basophils and mast cells Monocyte ready to defend against antigens
    16. 19. Substances Body tissue Alfha, beta, gamma
    17. 20. Substances contained in basophils and mast cells Chemical signal This can be used as a biochemical fingerprint to each individual.
    18. 21. Substances Helps cause local vessel dilation. Blood clotting 
    19. 22. Substances Molecule that sets the body’s thermostat at a higher temperature. Specific protein produced by specialized lymphocytes.
    20. 23. Process: Fighting an Infection
    21. 24. 1. Chemotaxis <ul><li>When the epithelium of the skin is damaged, chemicals are sent into the bloodstream by the invading bacteria and tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These molecules, called chemokines, attract phagocytic cells to the infected area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemotaxis is the process of phagocytic cells migrating to the source of the chemical attractant </li></ul>
    22. 25. 2. Vasodilation <ul><li>When the chemokines are released, vasodilation, the widening of the arteries, also occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the blood flow to the infected area, carrying the needed white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes the redness and heat as the white blood cells work to cure the infection </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. Inflammation : <ul><li>redness </li></ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul><ul><li>swelling </li></ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul>
    24. 28. 3. Diapedesis <ul><li>When the white blood cells get to the infected area in the bloodstream, they undergo the process of diapedesis </li></ul><ul><li>The cells move through the epithelium of the capillaries and into the surrounding interstitial fluid to destroy the invaders </li></ul>
    25. 29. 3. Diapedesis <ul><li>When the white blood cells get to the infected area in the bloodstream, they undergo the process of diapedesis </li></ul><ul><li>The cells move through the epithelium of the capillaries and into the surrounding interstitial fluid to destroy the invaders </li></ul>
    26. 30. 1. damaged cell releases chemokines 2. chemokines sensed by neutrophils/monocytes 3. monocytes squeeze out of capillaries (diapedesis) 4. monocytes (and/or macrophages) start to engulf pathogen (phagocytosis)
    27. 31. 4. Phagocytosis <ul><li>When the phagocytic cells get to the invaders, they go through the process of phagocytosis to finally eliminate the bacteria </li></ul>
    28. 32. 4. Phagocytosis <ul><li>When the phagocytic cells get to the invaders, they go through the process of phagocytosis to finally eliminate the bacteria </li></ul>
    29. 33. <ul><li>The Pseudopodia on the macrophages attach to polysaccharides on the microbes surface to pull it in. </li></ul>
    30. 34. <ul><li>Once the microbe is in the cell, the lysosome comes to destroy it </li></ul><ul><li>The lysosome in the cell can kill the microbe in one of two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating toxic forms of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releasing enzymes that digest microbial components </li></ul></ul>
    31. 35. Clotting Cascade <ul><li>When the skin’s epithelium is damaged, a series of reactions occur to stop the bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>The cascade follows two pathways: extrinsic and intrinsic and then finishes in the final common pathway </li></ul>http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/hematology/Coagulation.swf
    32. 36. Edema -Definition: large amount of fluid beneath the skin; swelling -Homeostasis maintains the amount of interstitial fluid around the body - Too much fluid causes swelling as well as poor removal of fluid
    33. 37. How it starts-- Leaky Capillaries <ul><li>Two types of pressure measured in the capillaries: </li></ul><ul><li>- hydrostatic pressure : causes water to filter into surrounding tissues </li></ul><ul><li>- oncotic pressure : pulls water back into the vessel from the tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Together the two pressures maintain homeostasis of fluid levels in the body </li></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><li>Most leakage occurs in the capillaries due to there semi-permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that increase leakage of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>1. increase of hydrostatic pressure in vessel </li></ul><ul><li>2. decrease of oncotic pressure in vessel </li></ul><ul><li>3. increase in vessel wall permeability </li></ul>
    35. 39. Humoral Immunity What is it? Transformation of B-cells into plasma cells that can then produce and secrete antibodies B-cells = -created in the bone marrow -circulate through blood and lymph -changes into a clone of plasma cells to secret a specific antibody -also can change into a clone of memory cells to make antibodies after first encounters
    36. 40. 1st Antigen Exposure <ul><li>Antigen is engulfed by macrophage </li></ul><ul><li>-Macrophage stimulates Helper T-Cell </li></ul><ul><li>-Helper T-Cells stimulate B-Cells and Cytotoxic T-Cells </li></ul><ul><li>-B-Cells turn into plasma and memory cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Plasma cells secret antibodies into blood; memory b-cells are “stored” until their specific antigen shows up again (2nd exposure) </li></ul><ul><li>-Cytotoxic t-cells turn into active cytotoxic t-cells and memory t-cells </li></ul><ul><li>- Cytotoxic t-cells go and kill the antigen; memory t-cells are also stored until their specific antigen shows up again (2nd exposure) </li></ul>
    37. 42. Cellular Immunity What is it? Ability for antibodies to recognize a foreign organism, known as antigens, and destroy it Advantage Allows for a person’s body to destroy of antigen faster before the antigen, which could be harmful to a person, causes damage Types of WBC’s (antibodies) 
    38. 43. Cellular vs. Humoral Immunity <ul><li>-Humoral immunity is the first stage the builds the memory b-cells for cellular immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>-Cellular immunity depends on the cells that are made during b-cell and cytotoxic t-cell transformation into memory cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Memory cells are formed with specific antibody receptors that bind to a specific antigen </li></ul>
    39. 44. Clonal Selection <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>-The selection of a lymphocyte by an antigen which activates the lymphocyte stimulating it to divide and diferentiate. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Effector cells </li></ul><ul><li>--plasma cells--make antibodies--short lived </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cells </li></ul><ul><li>--long lived </li></ul>White blood cells fighting a antigen 
    40. 45. the antibody (Ab) protein hypervariable region (hundreds of billions of possible shapes) constant region (same for all antibody molecules) (aka F c region)
    41. 46. a simpler way to show the antibody molecule hypervariable region (hundreds of billions of possible shapes) constant region (same for all antibody molecules) (also called F c region)
    42. 47. <ul><li>Ab are incredibly SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>each one will bind ONLY to its matching antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>this shows 14 different antibody molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>in reality there would be MANY BILLIONS of different antibodies. </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>antigens (Ag) </li></ul><ul><li>any foreign object that our immune system can react with </li></ul><ul><li>protein, virus, bacterial cell, toxic molecule, pollen grain, polysaccharide, etc </li></ul><ul><li>here, there are 8 shown </li></ul><ul><li>in reality there are hundreds of billions </li></ul><ul><li>any ONE bacterial cell might have hundreds or thousands of antigenic proteins on its surface </li></ul>
    44. 49. <ul><li>Antigens and Antibodies must make an EXACT MATCH </li></ul><ul><li>if they don’t match – no triggering, no sticking </li></ul><ul><li>if they DO match – they stick together strongly </li></ul><ul><li>if they DO match – triggers something to happen </li></ul><ul><li>what DOES happen when they match? </li></ul>
    45. 50. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/hab/habs_toxins/marine_biotoxins/detection/elisa.html another way to show the antibody molecule...
    46. 51. B cell <ul><li>B cells make antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>each B cell makes ONE type of antibody </li></ul><ul><li>but it makes a lot of them </li></ul><ul><li>it sticks those Ab on its surface, with the “red” end facing out </li></ul><ul><li>if any “red” antigen comes around, it will be “caught” by the surface Ab </li></ul>
    47. 52. B cell <ul><li>if any “red” antigen comes around, it will be “caught” by the surface Ab </li></ul><ul><li>NO OTHER antigen will be caught </li></ul><ul><li>this “primes” the B cell </li></ul>
    48. 53. <ul><li>B cell matures into plasma cell </li></ul><ul><li>plasma cell pumps out its specific antibody </li></ul><ul><li>plasma cell also replicates </li></ul><ul><li>all daughter cells also pump out “red” antibody </li></ul>
    49. 54. <ul><li>plasma cell also replicates </li></ul><ul><li>all daughter cells also pump out “red” antibody </li></ul>
    50. 55. B cell this is a B cell which produces “red” Ab here’s an even simpler diagram showing a B cell with “red” antibodies
    51. 56. recall there would be millions of different B cells circulating each would have its own Ab projecting from its surface
    52. 57. Lymphocytes <ul><li>-White blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Built with specific, unique antibodies on their surface </li></ul><ul><li>-Antibodies are proteins that bind with antigens to neutralize it </li></ul><ul><li>Because of cellular immunity, the body knows which white blood cell carries the specific antibody to “battle” the antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul><ul><li>having the specific antibody that neutralizes the antigen is helpful because the antibody can “battle” and destroy antigens quickly and easily </li></ul>WBC vs. RBC 
    53. 58. In the first line of Defense the immune system remains non-specific. Elements of the immune system active at this point: <ul><li>Mucous </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions (skin & mucous membranes) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Lind of Defense- </li></ul><ul><li>It still remains non-specific, as the natural response occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory Response (w/histamine) </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytic WBC’s (ingestion of invading cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils are attracted to damaged cells </li></ul><ul><li>Monocytes release macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells are released </li></ul><ul><li>Antomicrobial Proteins complement the system and directly attack microbes or impede reproduction </li></ul>
    54. 59. Third Line of Defense is where the immune system is specific. Lymphocytes come into play: B Lympho’s T Lympho’s __ membrane bound antigen receptors Also Antigens, which are antibody generator At this point there is clonol selection where the selection of a lymphocyte by an antigen activates the lymphocyte stimulating it to divide and differentiate. There are memory cells, which are created after antigen receptors and antigen molecules (B cells) and this end up being antibody molecules. These consist of memory cells and plasma cells. The memory cells make it possible for the body to recognize viruses that have already entered the body once before.
    55. 60. The main function of the immune system is distinguishing self from non-self. The essence of immunological response is a two part system: recognition and destruction. The pathogens or foreign bodies that trigger the immune system are called antigens. Antibodies is the structure which mostly recognizes foreign bodies. They go throughout the body “shaking hands” with the other cells to make sure they know each other and to see if anything is wrong with the cells of the body. In the immune system there must be a diverse amount of lymphocyte receptors to ensure that at least a few lymphocytes can bind to any given pathogen. This diversity is created from inherited gene segments or libraries.
    56. 61. Memory cell
    57. 62. The subjects in the box are what occurs as a second sighting of the antigen.
    58. 63. The subjects in the box are what occurs as a second sighting of the antigen.

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