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Immune system

Immune system






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    Immune system Immune system Document Transcript

    • Aims • Lymphatic organs Immune system • Inflammation • Natural immune system • Adaptive immune system • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) • Disorders of the immune system 1 2 Immune system What is the immune system? Lymphoid organs The immune system is a complex of organs, cells, and circulating protein Immune cells Lymphoid organs thymus Immune proteins spleen Lymph node mucosa-associated 3 lymphoid organ (MALT) 4 Immune cells Lymphocyte Leukocytes or White blood cells B cells: antibody Neutrophil Lymphocyte T cells: phagocytosis Cytotoxic T cells Eosinophil Basophil Helper T cells Suppressor T cells Monocyte NK cells 5 6
    • Immune proteins Inflammation Body’s local response to infection or injury Antibodies 1. Injury or bacteria entry into tissue 2. Vasodilatation of the surrounding vessels Complements blood flow (hot and redness) 7 8 3. Filtration of protein and fluid into interstitial fluid (swelling) 4. Neutrophils and monocyte from capillaries into infected area 5. Destruction of bacteria in the tissue (pus) 6. Tissue repair 9 10 Natural immune system Natural immune system Immune system • Innate defense mechanism Non specific to any antigen Natural immune system Natural immune system Adaptive immune system Adaptive immune system (nonspecific) (nonspecific) (specific) (specific) genetic Surface barrier and mucosal immunity - Humoral immunity • skin - Cell mediated immunity • coughing, sneezing, ciliary action: lung • sticky mucous 11 12
    • • skin secretion: acid pH phagocytes phagocytes • neutrophil • saliva, tear, nasal secretion: lysozyme • stomach: hydrochloric acid and protein digesting • macrophages: enzyme spleen Cells of natural immune are: Cells of natural immune are: monocytes medullary sinus of lymph node • phagocytes • mast cells Liver: kuffer’s cell • natural killer cells • eosinophil (NK cells) 13 14 Natural killer Natural killer • Large granule lymphocyte • precise mechanism by which they recognized their target cells is not clear • Target cells: tumor cell or virus-infected body cells • kill on contact • can be stimulated by interferon 15 16 Eosinophil Eosinophil • cell can release killing enzyme called peroxidase and • The least numerous of WBC in blood Phospholipase D • granule contain a protein rich in arginine residues called major basic protein • Important in killing helminth (worm) infections • Cell can secrete membrane penetrating protein • Involve in hypersensitive reaction called perforins 17 18
    • Complement Complement • A major trigger enzyme plasma system • Important in killing bacteria and fungi Phagocytosis Making pore in bacterial cell membrane Help to get rid of Ag-Ab complex Ag- • Important in initiaion of the inflammatory response 19 20 Adaptive immune system Adaptive immune system How antigen meet T& B lymphocyte Humoral immunity Cell mediated immunity B lymphocytes T lymphocytes and antibodies • acquired immunity • Specific and memory 21 22 Adaptive immune system Adaptive immune system Humoral immunity Pathogens Humoral immunity B lymphocytes Antibodies B cell • produce from bone marrow and thymus Cellular immunity • can transform to plasma cell by antigens B cell T cell Plasma cell Antibodies 23 24
    • Antibodies • There are 5 main classes: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, • Immnunoglobulin • IgG • Y shape: heavy and light polypeptide chains Most abundant cross from mother to baby and protect baby for 2-3 months 2- • IgA common in secretion eg saliva, gastric juice found in milk 25 26 • IgM primary immune response activate complement • IgD act as surface receptor on B cells • IgE bound to mast cells involve in pathogenesis of allergic and helminth disease 27 28 Antibody diversity Clonal selection • human makes 10,000,000 different kinds of antibodies too much for genome to encode • Each antibody composed of identical light and identical heavy chains • Each B cell makes 1 kind of antibody • Clonal selection 29 30
    • Self and non-self Self and non-self Cell mediated immunity T cell How immune system recognize body cell? Originate in thymus of infants Produced in bone marrow of adults T cell function Do not secrete antibodies Some attack other cells (T cytotoxic; TC) Specific recognition molecules: Major Some produce lymphokines -- molecules that regulate other white blood cell responses histocompatibilty complex (MHC) 31 32 MHC (HLA) - MHC I : present endogenously synthesized • Set of molecule making up tissue type antigen • There are three types of MHC - MHC II : present exogenously derived protein eg bacterial products - MHC III : complement 33 34 How immunity is not destroy themselves MHC Thymus mechanism T & B lymphocyte that react to body cells Will be destroyed 35 36
    • Disorders of the immune system Graft Rejection Donor APC Recipient APC - MHC on the graft cell differ from MHC of recipient. - Cytotoxic T cells are mainly responsible for Recipient T cell Recipient T cell graft rejection. - Immunosuppressive drug prevent graft rejection. 37 38 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Transfusion reaction - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a - ABO is the most important for transfusion retrovirus. reactions. - Integrated the virus RNA into Host DNA. - ABO blood group mismatch results in hemolysis. 39 40 Allergy - HIV enter and live in helper T cell. - infected T cells are destroyed by normal T cells, therefore T cell reduce in amount. - Immune defense of host can not function properly. - AIDS patient dies from infections or cancers. 41 42
    • Autoimmune disease - Immune attack the body’s own cells and tissues which results is being damage and/or alteration function of organs For examples Multiple sclerosis – myelin Myasthenia gravis – acetylcholine receptor on skeletal muscle Grave’s disease – Thyroid stimulating hormone 43 receptor 44 Autoantibody to receptor 45