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Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
Immune Disorders
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Immune Disorders

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  • 1. Immune System Disorders What is an allergy anyway?
  • 2.
    • Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage
    • Require sensitizing dose(s)
    Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • 3.
    • Involve IgE antibodies
    • Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens
    • Systemic: Shock from ingested or injected antigens
    Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.1a
  • 4.
    • Skin testing
    • Desensitization
    Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.3
  • 5.
    • Involve IgG or IgM antibodies and complement
    • Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage by macrophages
    Type II (Cytotoxic) Reactions
  • 6. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Figure 19.4
  • 7. Drug-induced Thrombocytopenic Purpura Figure 19.5
  • 8.
    • IgG antibodies and antigens form complexes that lodge in basement membranes .
    Type III (Immune Complex) Reactions Figure 19.6
  • 9.
    • Delayed-type hypersensitivities due to T D cells
    • Cytokines attract macrophages and initiate tissue damage
    Type IV (Cell-Mediated) Reactions Figure 19.8
  • 10.
    • Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance
    • Autoimmunity is loss of self-tolerance
    Autoimmune Diseases
  • 11.
    • Type I — Due to antibodies against pathogens
    • Type II — Antibodies react with cell-surface antigens
    • Type III (Immune Complex) — IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissues
    • Type IV — Mediated by T cells
    Autoimmune Diseases
  • 12.
    • Histocompatibility antigens: Self antigens on cell surfaces
    • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): Genes encoding histocompatibility antigens
    • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex: MHC genes in humans
    Reactions Related to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex
  • 13. Diseases Related to Specific HLAs Table 19.3
  • 14. HLA Typing Figure 19.1
  • 15.
    • Transplants may be attacked by T cells, macrophages, and complement-fixing antibodies.
    • Transplants to privileged sites do not cause an immune response.
    • Stem cells may allow therapeutic cloning to avoid rejection.
    Reactions to Transplantation
  • 16.
    • Autograft: Use of one's own tissue
    • Isograft: Use of identical twin's tissue
    • Allograft: Use of tissue from another person
    • Xenotransplantation product: Use of non-human tissue
    • Graft-versus-host disease can result from transplanted bone marrow that contains immunocompetent cells
    Grafts
  • 17.
    • Cyclosporine suppresses IL-2
    • Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits T cell and B cell reproduction
    • Sirolimus blocks IL-2
    Immunosuppression prevents an immune response to transplanted tissues
  • 18.
    • Congenital: Due to defective or missing genes
      • Selective IgA immunodeficiency
      • Severe combined immunodeficiency
    • Acquired: Develop during an individual's life, due to drugs, cancers, infections
      • Artificial: Immunosuppression drugs
      • Natural: HIV infections
    Immune Deficiencies
  • 19.
    • Cancer cells possess tumor-specific antigens
    • T C cells recognize and lyse cancer cells
    • Cancer cells may lack tumor antigens or kill T C cells
    The Immune System and Cancer Figure 19.11
  • 20.
    • Treatment of cancer using immunologic methods
    • Tumor necrosis factor, IL-2, and interferons may kill cancer cells
    • Immunotoxins link poisons with an monoclonal antibody directed at a tumor antigen
    • Vaccines contain tumor-specific antigens
    Immunotherapy

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