Immune System  Disorders What is an allergy anyway?
<ul><li>Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage </li></ul><ul><li>Require sensitizing dose(s) </li></ul>Hyperse...
<ul><li>Involve IgE antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Skin testing </li></ul><ul><li>Desensitization </li></ul>Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.3
<ul><li>Involve IgG or IgM antibodies and complement </li></ul><ul><li>Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage b...
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Figure 19.4
Drug-induced Thrombocytopenic Purpura Figure 19.5
<ul><li>IgG antibodies and antigens form complexes that lodge in basement membranes . </li></ul>Type III (Immune Complex) ...
<ul><li>Delayed-type hypersensitivities due to T D  cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines attract macrophages and initiate tis...
<ul><li>Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmunity is loss of self-tol...
<ul><li>Type I — Due to antibodies against pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Type II — Antibodies react with cell-surface antige...
<ul><li>Histocompatibility antigens: Self antigens on cell surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Major histocompatibility complex (MH...
Diseases Related to Specific HLAs Table 19.3
HLA Typing Figure 19.1
<ul><li>Transplants may be attacked by T cells, macrophages, and complement-fixing antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Transplan...
<ul><li>Autograft: Use of one's own tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Isograft: Use of identical twin's tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Al...
<ul><li>Cyclosporine suppresses IL-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits T cell and B cell reproduction </li>...
<ul><li>Congenital: Due to defective or missing genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective IgA immunodeficiency </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Cancer cells possess tumor-specific antigens </li></ul><ul><li>T C  cells recognize and lyse cancer cells </li></u...
<ul><li>Treatment of cancer using immunologic methods </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor necrosis factor, IL-2, and interferons may k...
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Immune Disorders

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Immune Disorders

  1. 1. Immune System Disorders What is an allergy anyway?
  2. 2. <ul><li>Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage </li></ul><ul><li>Require sensitizing dose(s) </li></ul>Hypersensitivity Reactions
  3. 3. <ul><li>Involve IgE antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic: Shock from ingested or injected antigens </li></ul>Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.1a
  4. 4. <ul><li>Skin testing </li></ul><ul><li>Desensitization </li></ul>Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.3
  5. 5. <ul><li>Involve IgG or IgM antibodies and complement </li></ul><ul><li>Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage by macrophages </li></ul>Type II (Cytotoxic) Reactions
  6. 6. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Figure 19.4
  7. 7. Drug-induced Thrombocytopenic Purpura Figure 19.5
  8. 8. <ul><li>IgG antibodies and antigens form complexes that lodge in basement membranes . </li></ul>Type III (Immune Complex) Reactions Figure 19.6
  9. 9. <ul><li>Delayed-type hypersensitivities due to T D cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokines attract macrophages and initiate tissue damage </li></ul>Type IV (Cell-Mediated) Reactions Figure 19.8
  10. 10. <ul><li>Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmunity is loss of self-tolerance </li></ul>Autoimmune Diseases
  11. 11. <ul><li>Type I — Due to antibodies against pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Type II — Antibodies react with cell-surface antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Type III (Immune Complex) — IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Type IV — Mediated by T cells </li></ul>Autoimmune Diseases
  12. 12. <ul><li>Histocompatibility antigens: Self antigens on cell surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): Genes encoding histocompatibility antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex: MHC genes in humans </li></ul>Reactions Related to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex
  13. 13. Diseases Related to Specific HLAs Table 19.3
  14. 14. HLA Typing Figure 19.1
  15. 15. <ul><li>Transplants may be attacked by T cells, macrophages, and complement-fixing antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Transplants to privileged sites do not cause an immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells may allow therapeutic cloning to avoid rejection. </li></ul>Reactions to Transplantation
  16. 16. <ul><li>Autograft: Use of one's own tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Isograft: Use of identical twin's tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Allograft: Use of tissue from another person </li></ul><ul><li>Xenotransplantation product: Use of non-human tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Graft-versus-host disease can result from transplanted bone marrow that contains immunocompetent cells </li></ul>Grafts
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cyclosporine suppresses IL-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits T cell and B cell reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sirolimus blocks IL-2 </li></ul>Immunosuppression prevents an immune response to transplanted tissues
  18. 18. <ul><li>Congenital: Due to defective or missing genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective IgA immunodeficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe combined immunodeficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired: Develop during an individual's life, due to drugs, cancers, infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial: Immunosuppression drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural: HIV infections </li></ul></ul>Immune Deficiencies
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cancer cells possess tumor-specific antigens </li></ul><ul><li>T C cells recognize and lyse cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer cells may lack tumor antigens or kill T C cells </li></ul>The Immune System and Cancer Figure 19.11
  20. 20. <ul><li>Treatment of cancer using immunologic methods </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor necrosis factor, IL-2, and interferons may kill cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Immunotoxins link poisons with an monoclonal antibody directed at a tumor antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines contain tumor-specific antigens </li></ul>Immunotherapy

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