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Immune Disorders

Immune Disorders






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    Immune Disorders Immune Disorders Presentation Transcript

    • Immune System Disorders What is an allergy anyway?
      • Response to antigens (allergens) leading to damage
      • Require sensitizing dose(s)
      Hypersensitivity Reactions
      • Involve IgE antibodies
      • Localized: Hives or asthma from contact or inhaled antigens
      • Systemic: Shock from ingested or injected antigens
      Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.1a
      • Skin testing
      • Desensitization
      Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions Figure 19.3
      • Involve IgG or IgM antibodies and complement
      • Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage by macrophages
      Type II (Cytotoxic) Reactions
    • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Figure 19.4
    • Drug-induced Thrombocytopenic Purpura Figure 19.5
      • IgG antibodies and antigens form complexes that lodge in basement membranes .
      Type III (Immune Complex) Reactions Figure 19.6
      • Delayed-type hypersensitivities due to T D cells
      • Cytokines attract macrophages and initiate tissue damage
      Type IV (Cell-Mediated) Reactions Figure 19.8
      • Clonal deletion during fetal development ensures self-tolerance
      • Autoimmunity is loss of self-tolerance
      Autoimmune Diseases
      • Type I — Due to antibodies against pathogens
      • Type II — Antibodies react with cell-surface antigens
      • Type III (Immune Complex) — IgM, IgG, complement immune complexes deposit in tissues
      • Type IV — Mediated by T cells
      Autoimmune Diseases
      • Histocompatibility antigens: Self antigens on cell surfaces
      • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): Genes encoding histocompatibility antigens
      • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex: MHC genes in humans
      Reactions Related to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex
    • Diseases Related to Specific HLAs Table 19.3
    • HLA Typing Figure 19.1
      • Transplants may be attacked by T cells, macrophages, and complement-fixing antibodies.
      • Transplants to privileged sites do not cause an immune response.
      • Stem cells may allow therapeutic cloning to avoid rejection.
      Reactions to Transplantation
      • Autograft: Use of one's own tissue
      • Isograft: Use of identical twin's tissue
      • Allograft: Use of tissue from another person
      • Xenotransplantation product: Use of non-human tissue
      • Graft-versus-host disease can result from transplanted bone marrow that contains immunocompetent cells
      • Cyclosporine suppresses IL-2
      • Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits T cell and B cell reproduction
      • Sirolimus blocks IL-2
      Immunosuppression prevents an immune response to transplanted tissues
      • Congenital: Due to defective or missing genes
        • Selective IgA immunodeficiency
        • Severe combined immunodeficiency
      • Acquired: Develop during an individual's life, due to drugs, cancers, infections
        • Artificial: Immunosuppression drugs
        • Natural: HIV infections
      Immune Deficiencies
      • Cancer cells possess tumor-specific antigens
      • T C cells recognize and lyse cancer cells
      • Cancer cells may lack tumor antigens or kill T C cells
      The Immune System and Cancer Figure 19.11
      • Treatment of cancer using immunologic methods
      • Tumor necrosis factor, IL-2, and interferons may kill cancer cells
      • Immunotoxins link poisons with an monoclonal antibody directed at a tumor antigen
      • Vaccines contain tumor-specific antigens