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  1. 1. Biology 11112, final exam, version B Name ____________ This exam has 47 multiple choice questions and 6 short answer questions. Please make sure that you answer all of the questions. SHORT ANSWER (5 POINTS EACH) Answer 6 out of the following 9 questions. If you answer more than 6, I will take points off. 1. Draw the structure of an antibody. Label heavy and light chains, constant and variable regions and the site where the antigen binds. 2. Briefly define a biological species. a group of populations/animals whose members can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 3. What are the three different domains of organisms? bacteria, archae and eukarya Which are prokaryotes and which are eukaryotes? Bacteria and archae = prokaryotes eukarya = eukaryotes 4. What is the difference between macro and microevolution? Microevolution is the change of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population. Macroevolution describes forces that result in the evolution of new species. 5. Name four nutrients/minerals that are important to the health of the plant. State why these minerals are important. Sulfur - makeup amino acids Phosphorous - nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP Nitrogen - nucleic acids, proteins, ATP Potassium - cofactor for various enzymes, regulate the opening and closing of stomata Calcium - involved in nerve responses, holds plant cells together, helps maintain the structure of cell membranes Magnesium - a component of chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis 6. What are the four main parts of a flower? sepals, petals, stamen and carpels
  2. 2. 7. What is one advantage and one disadvantage of genetically engineering plants? It makes plants grow better but may release unwanted materials into the environment or limit the amount of genetic diversity of plants. 8. Give an example of how one animal or plant acts as a parasite? Malaria live inside of human red blood cells. Trypanosomes also live inside the blood of humans. 9. Discuss three different diseases that affect three different systems in the body. Many examples Multiple Sclerosis – nervous or immune system AIDs – nervous or immune system Emphysema – respiratory system Sickle cell anemia – respiratory system Cancer – immune system Huntington’s disease – immune system Diabetes – endocrine system MULTIPLE CHOICE (1.5 POINTS EACH) 1. B cells mature in the ________ while T cells mature in the __________. a. bone marrow, thymus b. thymus, bone marrow c. thyroid, bone marrow d. bone marrow, thyroid e. lymph nodes, thymus answer a 2. Neurotransmitters move from the pre to the post synaptic cells across a region known as a a. cell body b. synapse c. sodium gate d. potassium gate e. Schwann cell Answer b 3. An action potential is brought about by a. a local change in membrane permeability caused by a greater-than-threshold stimulus
  3. 3. b. the movement of lipoproteins to the outer membrane c. a sudden membrane impermeability d. the movement of negatively charged proteins through the neuronal membrane e. all of these answer a 4. Which of the following diseases affects BOTH the nervous system and the immune system? a. Sickle cell anemia and emphysema b. AIDS and multiple sclerosis c. Antrax and Lupus d. Huntington’s disease and Alzheimers disease Answer b 5. At rest, a nerve cell has a high concentration of __________ inside and a high concentration of _____________ outside. a. acetylcholine; chlorine b. sodium; potassium c. potassium; sodium d. calcium; phosphorous e. phosphorous; calcium answer C 6. What is the name of the condition is which there is a deterioration of the myelin sheaths of neurons? a. sickle cell anemia b. multiple sclerosis c. lupus d. Alzheimer’s disease e. Huntington’s disease answer b 7. Helper T cells a. scavenge and phagocytose dead cells b. produce antibody c. directly destroy cells infected by viruses d. recognize cell surface antigens and initiate the proliferation of lymphocytes answer d 8. The nucleus of a neuron is located in the a. cell body
  4. 4. b. dendrites c. axons d. synapse answer a 9. In the Sodium/potassium pump, a. 3 Na+ ions are pumped out and 2 K+ ions are pumped in b. 3 Na+ ions are pumped in and 2 K+ ions are pumped out c. 2 Na+ ions are pumped out and 3 K+ ions are pumped in d. 2 Na+ ions are pumped in and 3 K+ ions are pumped out answer a 10. Which gland is involved in the maturation of T cells? a. parathyroid b. adrenal c. thyroid d. kidney e. thymus answer e 11. In the process of maintaining homeostasis, a. insulin breaks down glucose while glucagon increases glucose levels b. insulin increases glucose levels while glucagon decreases glucose levels c. both insulin and glucagon increase glucose levels d. both insulin and glucagon decrease glucose levels answer a 12. What name is given to the surface appendages that allow a prokaryotic cell to stick to a surface? a. flagella b. ribosomes c. nucleoid region d. plasma membrane e. pili Answer E 13. What is a mutation? a. the immigration of alleles into a gene pool b. a chance change in the gene pool of a small population c. a gene that causes a disease
  5. 5. d. the emigration of alleles out of a gene pool e. a random change in an organism's DNA Answer: E 14. The first forms of life were a. prokaryotes b. eukaryotes answer a 15. In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, heterozygous individuals in a population are represented by a. q or p. b. p2. c. 2pq. d. q2. Answer C 16. If p = 0.6 and q = 0.4, then what is the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals in the next generation? a. 0.48 B 0.24 c. 0.36 d. 0.16 p2 = (.6)(.6) = .36, answer c 17. If an individual is homozygous dominant, then a. he/she has two identical copies of a gene and needs both copies for the trait to be expressed. b. he/she has two identical copies of a gene and the needs only one copy for the trait to be expressed. d. he/she has two different copies of the gene and needs only one copy for the trait to be expressed. Answer: B 18. Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning protists? a Most protists are aquatic. b. Protists are eukaryotes. c. Most protists are unicellular. d. they are prokaryotes
  6. 6. answer d 19. Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called a. nonrandom mating. b. the bottleneck effect. c. gene flow. d. natural selection. e. the founder effect. Answer: B 20. Speciation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation can occur when individuals in two populations of organisms a. mate with each other but produce offspring that are nonviable. b. have anatomical features that make it difficult for organisms from the different populations to mate and transfer sex cells c. can't mate with each other because mating occurs at different times. d. use different types of behaviors to attract mates. e. All of the choices are correct. Answer e 21. Which of the following is NOT a function of prokaryotic cell walls? a. prevent the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment b. a site of target of antibiotics c. involved in attachment d. maintain cell shape e. provide physical protection Answer C 22. The term for a close association between two or more species is in which both benefit is called a. commensalism b. interdependence. c. associative living. d. colonialism. e. mutualism. Answer E 23. All of the following statements concerning natural selection are true EXCEPT, a. natural selection is more of an editing process than a creative mechanism b. populations produce more offspring than their environment can support c. organisms compete for limited resources d. natural selection involves inheritance of acquired characteristics
  7. 7. Answer d 24.Green plants need which of the following? a. sunlight energy b. water c. carbon dioxide d. minerals e. all of these answer e 25. Three of the four answers listed below are characteristics of dicots. Select the exception. a. flower parts in fours or fives b. veins in leaf are parallel c. vascular tissue arranged in a ring d. two seed leafs answer b 26. In a plant, xylem a. transports water and minerals b. transports sugars upwards c. provides nourishment to the developing embryo in the seed. d. haploid form of a plant e. diploid form of a plant answer a 27. In a plant, phloem a. is involved with gas exchange b. is the structure of the plant responsible for the retention of water c. transports sugars upwards d. diploid form of a plant e. transports water and minerals answer c 28. Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which: a. neither organism benefits b. one organism benefits and one is harmed c. one organism benefits and the other is unaffected d. both organisms benefit answer b
  8. 8. 29. Pollination is a. the delivery by wind or animals of pollen to the stigma of the carpel of the female b. provides nourishment to the developing embryo in the seed. c. the channels that exist in plant cells that allows communication between different cells d. the source of male sperm-producing pollen e. plants that contain flowers answer a 30. Transpiration is a. the formation of both a zygote and a cell with a triploid nucleus b. the delivery by wind or animals of pollen to the stigma of the carpel of the female c. the process by which water is lost from the leaves and other parts of the plant d. the union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell e. condition in which growth and development are suspended temporarily answer c 31. Photosynthesis takes place in the a. Mesophyll tissue b. Cuticle c. Vascular bundles d. Epidermis e. Stomata Answer a 32. Annual growth rings are formed in woody stems principally through the activities of the a. endodermis b. mesophyll c. pith d. vascular cambium answer d For questions 33 – 35, match the stem, root and leaves with their appropriate function from the choices below. 33. Stem _______ a 34. Leaves ______ c 35. Root _______ b a. support b. anchorage, absorbs and transports minerals and water, stores food
  9. 9. c. photosynthesis For questions, 36-38, match the different tissue systems of plants with their function from the choices below. 36. Vascular _______ C 37. Ground ________ B 38. Epidermal _______ A a. covers and protects the plant b. performs photosynthesis and storage c. transports water and sugars and provides support 39. The function of macrophages is a. to carry oxygen b. to carry carbon dioxide c. to perform phagocytosis d. inactivate neurotransmitters e. to inhibit allergic reactions answer c 40. Primary immune responses are: a. initiated by memory cells b. initiated by first encounters with pathogens c. far fast and stronger than primary immune responses d. characterized by not having a lag for the antibody response to occur answer b 41. Multiple sclerosis is an example of an immune system failure known as: a. Autoimmune response b. Severe combined immunodeficiency c. Immunological memory d. Anaphylactic shock Answer a 42. The two MAJOR divisions of the central nervous system are the a. peripheral and central systems b. somatic and autonomic nervous systems c. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems d. afferent and autonomic systems
  10. 10. e. brain and spinal cord answer e 43. The two MAJOR divisions of the vertebrate nervous system are the a. central and peripheral nervous systems b. cranial and spinal nerves c. autonomic and peripheral nervous systems d. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems e. brain and spinal cord answer a 44. The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems make up the a. central nervous system b. autonomic system c. somatic system d. brain and spinal cord e. spinal and cranial nerves answer b 45. Specific immune responses are characterized by a. basophils and eosinophils activity b. fever production c. inflammation d. specificity of antibodies for antigens or pathogens answer d 46. Which cells are held in reserve to be used for a rapid response to subsequent intruders of the same type? a. helper T cells b. B cells c. suppressor T cells d. cytotoxic T cells e. memory cells Answer e 47. Which of the following cells is involved in phagocytosis? a. red blood cells b. lymphocytes c. macrophages
  11. 11. d. eosinophils answer c Extra credit Give THREE examples of how different systems in the body interact with each other. You must give three examples to get credit. Deoxygenated blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. Oxygenated blood then returns to the heart. Breathing control centers in the brain signals contraction of muscles in the respiratory system (muscles in the diaphragm and ribs) Medullas control center monitors the carbon dioxide level in the blood. Stress, controlled by the endocrine system can cause immune system dysfunctions or cause a person to become immune compromised.