Chapter 43 Internal Defense
<ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of internal defensive responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune response </li...
Human immune response
<ul><li>Nonspecific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide general and immediate protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Specific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include immunological m...
<ul><li>Antigen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule specifically recognized as foreign or dangerous by cells of the immune syst...
<ul><li>Invertebrate immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always nonspecific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical barrier...
<ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble molecule...
Phagocytosis
<ul><li>Vertebrate nonspecific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-line defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Soluble molecules important in immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Cytokines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling proteins that regulate interactions between cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Interleukins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help regulate interactions between lymphocytes and other cells of ...
<ul><ul><li>Chemokines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attract, activate, and direct the movement of certain cells of the i...
<ul><li>Complement proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the inflammatory response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse th...
<ul><li>Phagocytes destroy bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggered when pathogens invade tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vas...
<ul><ul><li>Increased capillary permeability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows fluid and antibodies to leave the circu...
<ul><li>In response to tissue injury, several types of molecules in the plasma that mediate inflammation are activated </l...
<ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific T cells are activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins re...
<ul><li>Antibody-mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific B cells are activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipl...
<ul><li>Immune system cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from stem cells in th...
Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
<ul><li>T cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for cell-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T cytotoxic cells ...
<ul><ul><li>Distinguished by T-cell receptors (TCRs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus gland confers immunocompetence on T...
<ul><li>B cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for antibody-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate ...
<ul><ul><li>Some activated B cells become memory B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to produce antibodies aft...
<ul><li>Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display foreign antigens as well as their own surface protei...
<ul><ul><li>Dendritic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located in tissues that interact with the environment </li></ul...
<ul><li>Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune responses depend on a group of genes that enco...
<ul><ul><li>Class II MHC genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encode glycoproteins expressed on APCs of the immune system ...
<ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific T cells are activated by a foreign antigen–MHC compl...
<ul><ul><li>Clone cells migrate to the site of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogen-infected cells destroyed </li...
<ul><li>Antibody-mediated immunity process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells are activated when they combine with antigen </li...
<ul><ul><li>Activated B cells multiply, giving rise to clones of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloned cells differentia...
<ul><ul><li>An antibody combines with a specific antigen to form an antigenantibody complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Antibody structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Y-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two arms combine with antigen </li></...
Antigen- antibody complex
<ul><li>Antibody molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two identical heavy...
<ul><li>Recombination of DNA segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main factor responsible for antibody diversity </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Immunological memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory B and memory T cells remain in the body after an infection </li>...
Immunological memory
<ul><li>Primary immune response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by the first exposure to an antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Active immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops as a result of exposure to antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May ...
<ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops when an individual ...
<ul><li>Response to cancer cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NK cells, macrophages, and  T cells recognize antigens on cancer ce...
Cancer cell destruction
<ul><li>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrovirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes acquired imm...
HIV-infected T cell
<ul><li>Graft rejection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted tissues have MHC antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune res...
<ul><li>Hypersensitivity reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh incompatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions ...
<ul><li>Rh incompatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh-negative woman gives birth to an Rh-positive baby </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Rh incompatibility
<ul><li>Allergic reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergen stimulates the production of IgE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IgE c...
<ul><ul><li>Mast cells release histamine and other molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes inflammation, other all...
Allergic reaction
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es/classes/GenBio%20ch43_lecture.ppt" classChapter 43

  1. 1. Chapter 43 Internal Defense
  2. 2. <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of internal defensive responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing foreign or dangerous macromolecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to eliminate them </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Human immune response
  4. 4. <ul><li>Nonspecific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide general and immediate protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some toxins and drugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Specific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include immunological memory </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Antigen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule specifically recognized as foreign or dangerous by cells of the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specific proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Invertebrate immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always nonspecific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membranes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble molecules that destroy pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Phagocytosis
  10. 10. <ul><li>Vertebrate nonspecific immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-line defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical barriers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other nonspecific defenses </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Soluble molecules important in immune responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins that destroy pathogens </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cytokines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling proteins that regulate interactions between cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interferons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit viral replication and activate natural killer cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Interleukins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help regulate interactions between lymphocytes and other cells of the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some have widespread effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Chemokines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attract, activate, and direct the movement of certain cells of the immune system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill tumor cells and stimulate immune cells to initiate an inflammatory response </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Complement proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the inflammatory response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse the cell wall of pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coat pathogens, enhancing phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attract white blood cells to the site of infection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Phagocytes destroy bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural killer cells (NK cells) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy cells infected with viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy foreign or altered cells such as tumor cells </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggered when pathogens invade tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased blood vessel diameter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Increased capillary permeability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows fluid and antibodies to leave the circulation and enter the tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased phagocytosis </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>In response to tissue injury, several types of molecules in the plasma that mediate inflammation are activated </li></ul><ul><li>Mast cells release histamine and other compounds that cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific T cells are activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins released that destroy cells infected with viruses or other intracellular pathogens </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Antibody-mediated immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific B cells are activated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce antibodies </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Immune system cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from stem cells in the bone marrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
  24. 24. <ul><li>T cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for cell-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T cytotoxic cells (TC cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T helper cells (TH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory T cells </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Distinguished by T-cell receptors (TCRs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus gland confers immunocompetence on T cells by making them capable of distinguishing between self and non-self </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>B cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for antibody-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate into plasma cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Some activated B cells become memory B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to produce antibodies after an infection has been overcome </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display foreign antigens as well as their own surface proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Dendritic cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located in tissues that interact with the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized to process, transport, and present antigens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune responses depend on a group of genes that encode MHC proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I MHC genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encode self antigens, glycoproteins expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Class II MHC genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encode glycoproteins expressed on APCs of the immune system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class III MHC genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encode components of the complement system and TNFs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific T cells are activated by a foreign antigen–MHC complex on the surface of an infected cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A co-stimulatory signal and interleukins are also required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activated TC cells multiply, giving rise to a clone </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Clone cells migrate to the site of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogen-infected cells destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activated TH cells give rise to a clone of TH cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clone cells secrete cytokines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells and macrophages activated </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Antibody-mediated immunity process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells are activated when they combine with antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>APC (dendritic cell or macrophage) with a foreign antigen–MHC complex displayed on its surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TH cell that secretes interleukins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Activated B cells multiply, giving rise to clones of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloned cells differentiate, forming plasma cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma cells produce specific antibodies, immunoglobulins (Ig), in response to the specific antigens that activated them </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>An antibody combines with a specific antigen to form an antigenantibody complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May inactivate the pathogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activate the complement system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Antibody structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Y-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two arms combine with antigen </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Antigen- antibody complex
  39. 39. <ul><li>Antibody molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two identical heavy chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two shorter light chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant (C) region and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable (V) region </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Recombination of DNA segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main factor responsible for antibody diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs during the differentiation of B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of different types of B (and T) cells are produced </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Immunological memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory B and memory T cells remain in the body after an infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for long-term immunity </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Immunological memory
  43. 43. <ul><li>Primary immune response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by the first exposure to an antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary immune response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by a second exposure to the same antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More rapid and more intense than the primary response </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Active immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops as a result of exposure to antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May occur naturally after recovery from a disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be artificially induced by immunization with a vaccine </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops when an individual receives antibodies produced by another person or animal </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Response to cancer cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NK cells, macrophages, and T cells recognize antigens on cancer cells and launch an immune response against them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer cells evade the immune system by blocking TC directly or by decreasing their class I MHC molecules </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Cancer cell destruction
  48. 48. <ul><li>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrovirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys T helper cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severely impairs immunity </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. HIV-infected T cell
  50. 50. <ul><li>Graft rejection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transplanted tissues have MHC antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune response stimulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T cells destroy the transplant </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Hypersensitivity reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh incompatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune diseases </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Rh incompatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh-negative woman gives birth to an Rh-positive baby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-D antibodies develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh incompatibility occurs in future pregnancies </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Rh incompatibility
  54. 54. <ul><li>Allergic reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergen stimulates the production of IgE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IgE combines with receptors on mast cells </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><ul><li>Mast cells release histamine and other molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes inflammation, other allergy symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic anaphylaxis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, widespread allergic reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to death </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Allergic reaction
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