My name's Deborah Bowden. I'm a Psychology PhD student with the research aim of investigating the efficacy of Reiki, and I will be talking about the research that I have thus far conducted. This is an important area of research because only through validation through randomised controlled trials will efficacious alternative therapies be integrated into mainstream medicine, where they will become more readily available to the public.
Optimising Health & Performance: Self-Hypnosis, 'Reiki‘ & EEG-Neurofeedback. FACULTY OF LIFE SCIENCES, LONDON METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY December, 2008 John Gruzelier Professor of Psychology Goldsmiths, University of London [email_address]
Unpublished results have been removed to safeguard their potential publication in journals.
PART I SELF-HYPNOSIS/ VISUALISATION HYPNOSIS & THE BRAIN HYPNOTISABILITY [ INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ] IMMUNE UP-REGULATION & HEALTH
WORKING MODEL OF INDUCING HYPNOSIS Gruzelier, 1988; 1990;1998;2006
Engagement of focused attention, involving inter alia anterior fronto-limbic-thalamic systems (L>R).
Selective inhibition of fronto-limbic systems triggered by eye closure, suggestions of fatigue at fixating and deep relaxation (L>R), while maintaining attention to the hypnotist’s voice.
Orchestration of behaviour given over to hypnotist with instructions to forego reality testing.
There is a reciprocal elevation of posterior brain activity.
Low susceptibility: failure to focus or to let go ( less flexible), but attention may improve with relaxation during hypnosis.
Hypnotic Susceptibility & Conflict Monitoring Baseline: Lows require more metabolism Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J.H. (2005) Neuroimage, 27, 969-978. Baseline Low Susceptibility High Susceptibility Low Conflict High Conflict X = 6 Z = 38
Hypnotic Susceptibility & Conflict Monitoring Hypnosis: Highs require more metabolism Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J.H. (2005) Neuroimage, 27, 969-978. Hypnosis Low Susceptibility High Susceptibility Low Conflict High Conflict X = 6 Z = 38
EXAM STRESS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS Self-Hypnosis Training Design
Both activated personality & immune competence have independently been associated with left hemispheric activation.
Functional lateralisation predicted immune status in HIV, 30 months later.
Gruzelier et al, 1996, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 215-224.
Positive effects of Visualisation on both Health & Immune Function. Visualisation distinguished from Relaxation. Gruzelier, Levy et al (2001) Contemporary Hypnosis
Immune compromise with exams was buffered with visualisation (p<0.04 – 0.008).
Visualisation group reported lower incidence of illness (p<0.001).
Study 3: Chronic Herpes HSV-2 (genital herpes).
Does hypnosis training which benefits well being, health and immunity - also benefit chronic illness?
Fox, P.A., Henderson, P.C., Barton, S.E., Champion, A.J., Rollin, M.S.H., Catalan, J., McCormack, S.M.G. and Gruzelier, J. (1999) Immunological markers of frequently recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and their response to hynotherapy; a pilot study. International Journal of STD & AIDS , 10, 730-734. Gruzelier, J.H., Champion, A., Fox, P., Rollin, M., McCormack, S., Catalan, P., Barton, S., Henderson, D. (2002) Individual differences in personality, immunology and mood in patients undergoing self-hypnosis training for the successful treatment of a chronic viral illness, HSV-2. Contemporary Hypnosis , 19, (4), 149-166.
Positive effects of Visualisation on both Health & Immune Function in a Chronic Viral Illness. Fox et al (1999) Int J STD & AIDS : Gruzelier, et al (2001) Contemporary Hypnosis
Six weeks of self-hypnosis almost halved the recurrence of herpes.
Clinical Responders showed up-regulation of specific functional NK cell activity (specific to the herpes virus) p<0.04).
Benefits were also found with nonspecific NK cells which increased only in responders p<0.03).
Does this imply a direct hypnosis-immune mediation, & not a secondary stress-immune mediation.
A withdrawn personality was associated with immune compromise.
A cognitively activated personality was associated with a positive immune outcome.
Anxiety and depression were reduced by self-hypnosis irrespective of clinical outcome.
Laidlaw, T.M., Naito, A., Dwivedi, P., Enzor, N., Brincat, C.E., Gruzelier, J.H. (2003) Mood changes after self-hypnosis and Johrei prior to exams. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20, (1), 25-40.
Naito, A., Laidlaw, T.M., Henderson, D.C., Farahani, L., Dwivedi, P., Gruzelier, J.H. (2003) The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte sub-population at exam time: a controlled study. Brain Research Bulletin, 62, 241-253.
Laidlaw, T.M., Kerstein, R., Bennett, B.M., Naito, A., Henderson, D.C., Dwivedi, P., Gruzelier, J.H (2004) Hypnotisability and immunological response to psychological intervention in HIV. Contemporary Hypnosis, 21, 126-135.
Laidlaw, T., Bennett, B.M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A., Gruzelier, J. (2005) Quality of life and mood changes in metatstatic breast cancer after training in self-hypnosis or Johrei: a short report. Contemporary Hypnosis, 22, 84-93.
Bennett, B.M., Laidlaw, T.M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A. Gruzelier, J.H. (2006) A qualitative study of the experience of self-hypnosis or Johrei in metastatic breast cancer using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23, 127 – 140.
HIV immune results currently under review.
Research into the Clinical, Psychological and Biological Effects of Reiki Healing
PhD results of Deborah Bowden, Goldsmiths to be written for publication. Reiki reduced illness symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale total score and Anxiety subscale compared with mock Reiki controls
PART III EEG-NEUROFEEDBACK PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT
Egner, T. & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 18, 411-415. Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., Gruzelier, J. (2003) The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-86. Egner, T. Gruzelier, J.H. (2004) EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 131-139.. Egner, T., Zech, T.F., Gruzelier, J.H. (2004) The effects of neurofeedback training on the spectral topography of the healthy electroencephalogram, Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 2452-2460. Gruzelier, J.H., Egner, T., Vernon, D. (2006) Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. In C. Neuper , W. Klimesch, Event-related dynamics of brain oscillations. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 421-431.