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  • My name's Deborah Bowden. I'm a Psychology PhD student with the research aim of investigating the efficacy of Reiki, and I will be talking about the research that I have thus far conducted. This is an important area of research because only through validation through randomised controlled trials will efficacious alternative therapies be integrated into mainstream medicine, where they will become more readily available to the public.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Optimising Health & Performance: Self-Hypnosis, 'Reiki‘ & EEG-Neurofeedback. FACULTY OF LIFE SCIENCES, LONDON METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY December, 2008 John Gruzelier Professor of Psychology Goldsmiths, University of London [email_address]
    • 2. Unpublished results have been removed to safeguard their potential publication in journals.
    • 4. WORKING MODEL OF INDUCING HYPNOSIS Gruzelier, 1988; 1990;1998;2006
      • Engagement of focused attention, involving inter alia anterior fronto-limbic-thalamic systems (L>R).
      • Selective inhibition of fronto-limbic systems triggered by eye closure, suggestions of fatigue at fixating and deep relaxation (L>R), while maintaining attention to the hypnotist’s voice.
      • Orchestration of behaviour given over to hypnotist with instructions to forego reality testing.
      • There is a reciprocal elevation of posterior brain activity.
      • Low susceptibility: failure to focus or to let go ( less flexible), but attention may improve with relaxation during hypnosis.
    • 5. Hypnotic Susceptibility & Conflict Monitoring Baseline: Lows require more metabolism Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J.H. (2005) Neuroimage, 27, 969-978. Baseline Low Susceptibility High Susceptibility Low Conflict High Conflict X = 6 Z = 38
    • 6. Hypnotic Susceptibility & Conflict Monitoring Hypnosis: Highs require more metabolism Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J.H. (2005) Neuroimage, 27, 969-978. Hypnosis Low Susceptibility High Susceptibility Low Conflict High Conflict X = 6 Z = 38
    • 7. EXAM STRESS IN MEDICAL STUDENTS Self-Hypnosis Training Design
      • 10, 20 minute sessions: Session 1 live, Sessions 2-10 tape-recorded.
      • Standard induction followed by:-
      • deepening exercises,
      • guided imagery of the increased immune function,
      • ego strengthening,
      • feelings of happiness and improved concentration.
      • Hypnosis screening with Harvard Group Scale: N=8 Highs, N=8 Lows, N=12 controls of mixed susceptibility.
      • 1 st blood draw (immune assays: NKC, T-lymphocytes, cortisol).
      • Personality, Mood, Life-style questionnaires.
      • 2 nd blood draw (immune assays) after 10 sessions of hypnosis.
      • Mood, Life-style questionnaires.
    • 8.
      • CD8 and Natural Killer Cells held up in visualisation groups, but not
      • in controls.
      • Correlating with increase in
      • cortisol, as for preparedness
      • (cortisol increases with waking/ not simply a stress hormone).
      • Higher self-rated energy following self-hypnosis (p<.01)
      Positive effects of visualisation on immune function and mood, a statistically interrelated pattern Gruzelier, Smith et al (2001); Int J Psychophysiology
    • 9. Can personality predict individual differences in immune response?
      • Outgoing, cognitively activated personality (left anterior activation).
      • Both activated personality & immune competence have independently been associated with left hemispheric activation.
      • Functional lateralisation predicted immune status in HIV, 30 months later.
      • Gruzelier et al, 1996, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 215-224.
    • 10. Positive effects of Visualisation on both Health & Immune Function. Visualisation distinguished from Relaxation. Gruzelier, Levy et al (2001) Contemporary Hypnosis
      • Immune compromise with exams was buffered with visualisation (p<0.04 – 0.008).
      • Visualisation group reported lower incidence of illness (p<0.001).
    • 11. Study 3: Chronic Herpes HSV-2 (genital herpes).
      • Does hypnosis training which benefits well being, health and immunity - also benefit chronic illness?
      • Fox, P.A., Henderson, P.C., Barton, S.E., Champion, A.J., Rollin, M.S.H., Catalan, J., McCormack, S.M.G. and Gruzelier, J. (1999) Immunological markers of frequently recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and their response to hynotherapy; a pilot study. International Journal of STD & AIDS , 10, 730-734. Gruzelier, J.H., Champion, A., Fox, P., Rollin, M., McCormack, S., Catalan, P., Barton, S., Henderson, D. (2002) Individual differences in personality, immunology and mood in patients undergoing self-hypnosis training for the successful treatment of a chronic viral illness, HSV-2. Contemporary Hypnosis , 19, (4), 149-166.
    • 12. Positive effects of Visualisation on both Health & Immune Function in a Chronic Viral Illness. Fox et al (1999) Int J STD & AIDS : Gruzelier, et al (2001) Contemporary Hypnosis
      • Six weeks of self-hypnosis almost halved the recurrence of herpes.
      • Clinical Responders showed up-regulation of specific functional NK cell activity (specific to the herpes virus) p<0.04).
      • Benefits were also found with nonspecific NK cells which increased only in responders p<0.03).
      • Does this imply a direct hypnosis-immune mediation, & not a secondary stress-immune mediation.
      • A withdrawn personality was associated with immune compromise.
      • A cognitively activated personality was associated with a positive immune outcome.
      • Anxiety and depression were reduced by self-hypnosis irrespective of clinical outcome.
    • 13. Achievements for the PNI field
      • Established link between immune up-regulation through training and benefits for health.
      • Health benefits included resilience in the face of flu epidemic, and a chronic, virulent, severe virus – HSV-2.
      • Established the specificity of the immune-visualisation symbolic scenario – it is not simply a by-product of deep relaxation.
      • Established the specificity at the level of a functional immune parameter – NKC activity on HSV-1.
      • Established that a tape-recorded hypnotic visualisation induction was highly effective.
    • 14. Invited reviews
      • Gruzelier, JH (2002) A review of the impact of hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery and individual differences on aspects of immunity and health. Stress . 5, 147-163.
      • Gruzelier, J.H. (2002) The role of psychological intervention in modulating aspects of immune function in relation to health and well being. Advances in NeuroBiology , 52, 383-417.
      •   Gruzelier, J. (2002) Self-hypnosis and immune function, health, wellbeing and personality. Hypnos , 29, 186-191.
    • 15. Studies 4,5 Potential of Animated & Virtual Reality Visualisation Training For Facilitating Beneficial Effects of Self-Hypnosis on Immune Function & Individual Differences
    • 16. Animated symbolic representation of viral cells, with a single killer cell More natural killer cells are introduced All viral cells have been destroyed leaving only natural killer cells
    • 17. Results currently under review
    • 19. Exam stress study: 2002 Johrei Self-hypnosis Relaxation
      • A Japanese method of spiritual healing.
      • Energy (metaphorically thought of as light) is directed towards the participant.
      • This is done via the cupped hand which is directed at the participant (non-touch).
      • In most practices there is reciprocity - both channeller and receiver may exchange roles.
    • 21. Johrei is most commonly done in the home with daily practice.
    • 22. Study format
      • Measurements were made at 3 time points :
      Time Point 1 Time Point 2 Time Point 3 Recruitment 1 month 1-2 months Examination Normal student life Normal student life Examination or or Practice Training
    • 23. Natural Killer Cells increased in number only following Johrei.
    • 24. Effect of exam stress on peripheral blood CD56+ Natural Killer cell percentages. Reduction with stress was counteracted by Johrei in every student. Johrei Hypnosis Relaxation
    • 25. Johrei Reports
      • Laidlaw, T.M., Naito, A., Dwivedi, P., Enzor, N., Brincat, C.E., Gruzelier, J.H. (2003) Mood changes after self-hypnosis and Johrei prior to exams. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20, (1), 25-40.
      • Naito, A., Laidlaw, T.M., Henderson, D.C., Farahani, L., Dwivedi, P., Gruzelier, J.H. (2003) The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte sub-population at exam time: a controlled study. Brain Research Bulletin, 62, 241-253.
      • Laidlaw, T.M., Kerstein, R., Bennett, B.M., Naito, A., Henderson, D.C., Dwivedi, P., Gruzelier, J.H (2004) Hypnotisability and immunological response to psychological intervention in HIV. Contemporary Hypnosis, 21, 126-135.
      • Laidlaw, T., Bennett, B.M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A., Gruzelier, J. (2005) Quality of life and mood changes in metatstatic breast cancer after training in self-hypnosis or Johrei: a short report. Contemporary Hypnosis, 22, 84-93.
      • Bennett, B.M., Laidlaw, T.M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A. Gruzelier, J.H. (2006) A qualitative study of the experience of self-hypnosis or Johrei in metastatic breast cancer using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23, 127 – 140.
      • HIV immune results currently under review.
    • 26. Research into the Clinical, Psychological and Biological Effects of Reiki Healing
        • Goldsmiths, University of London
        • Deborah Bowden BSc, MRes, Reiki Master
        • Primary supervisor: Professor John Gruzelier
        • Secondary supervisor: Dr Lorna Goddard
    • 27.  
    • 28. PhD results of Deborah Bowden, Goldsmiths to be written for publication. Reiki reduced illness symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale total score and Anxiety subscale compared with mock Reiki controls
    • 30. The EEG neurofeedback loop
    • 31. Spectral Components of the EEG
    • 32.  
    • 33.  
    • 34. Clinical Applications
          • Seizures in epileptics have been reduced
          • (Sterman et al., 1974; Chernigowskaya, 1984; Seifert & Lubar, 1975; Rochstroh et al, 1993).
          • Attention and behaviour enhanced in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
          • (Cartozzo et al., 1995; Nash & Shakelford, 1995; Linden 1996).
          • Communication established in paralysed patients with locked-in syndromes
          • (Birbaumer 1999).
          • Young men with stimulant drug misuse have lost the habit, as have alcoholic patients who in the case of war veterans have lost their PTSD
          • (Penniston & Kulkosky, 1989; Scott et al, 2005).
      • Relaxed attentional focus.
      • Relaxed mental attitude.
      • RCM instrumentalists reported beneficial – “let’s my mind breathe”.
      • Eye surgeons more modulated performance.
      • Expands working memory.
      • Greater sustained attention.
      • Fewer impulsive errors in speeded performance.
    • 36.
      • Results submitted for publication
      • Optimising Microsurgical Skills with EEG neurofeedback
      • Tomas Ros, Philip Bloom, Larry Benjamin, Merrick Moseley, Lesley Parkinson, John Gruzelier
    • 37.  
      • Egner, T. & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 18, 411-415. Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., Gruzelier, J. (2003) The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-86. Egner, T. Gruzelier, J.H. (2004) EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 131-139.. Egner, T., Zech, T.F., Gruzelier, J.H. (2004) The effects of neurofeedback training on the spectral topography of the healthy electroencephalogram, Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 2452-2460. Gruzelier, J.H., Egner, T., Vernon, D. (2006) Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. In C. Neuper , W. Klimesch, Event-related dynamics of brain oscillations. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 421-431.